Chapter 4 - Physiological Needs

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Summarize the chapter. What was the most interesting thing you learned in this chapter? Were their concepts or ideas you are unclear on right now? How does physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation? What differentiates physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms (from chapter 3)? 

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Chapter 4 was about basic physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex. The chapter starts off by describing what exactly a need is and then goes on to describe seven fundamental processes of regulation. These are: physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, and extraorganismic mechanisms. Next, the concept of thirst was described on a physiological basis as being a motivational state that is characterized by a water deficit. The environmental influences of thirst were also discussed. Hunger was next in the chapter and two different models were focused on. The first one was the short-term appetite model and the second one was the long-term energy balance model. Like with thirst, the environmental influences on hunger were talked about. Sex was also discussed in chapter 4 and the way men and women experience sexual desire was hit on. The concept of facial metrics, sexual scripts, and sexual orientation were then talked about. Lastly, a small section was dedicated to discuss why people fail to self-regulate their physiological needs.

The most interesting thing I learned in this chapter was probably that when our water volume falls by 2% we feel thirsty and that we are dehydrated when our water volume falls by 3%. This was very shocking to me especially when you consider our bodies are 2/3 water. It’s hard to imagine a such a small decrease in water volume would cause someone to be dehydrated!


Something I was a little confused on was the idea of set points. I have heard of this theory before in previous classes and it had confused me then as well. I just don’t understand the concept of how our bodies have a biologically determined weight. If this were the case, then why is it that so many people can lose weight and keep it off for the rest of their life just by dieting and exercising? I understand that a lot of people who try to lose weight can’t and this theory describes their situations perfectly. However, when people successfully lose weight and keep it off, set-point theory doesn’t do a good job of providing an explanation.


Physiology relates to motivation in that when our physiological needs are not being met, we are motivated to meet them in order to survive. We are motivated to meet our physiological needs to “avoid tissue damage and to maintain bodily resources” (p. 77). For example, we are motivated to both eat and drink because without these behaviors, we would no longer live. Each of us goes through the process of experiencing a physiological need (low blood sugar), experiencing a psychological drive (appetite) and taking part in the behavioral action (find and consuming food).


Physiological mechanisms are made up of specific brain mechanisms. For example, the physiological need of hunger is further broken down into specific brain mechanisms such as the lateral hypothalamus, and ventromedial hypothalamus. The physiological need of thirst is further broken down into specific brain mechanisms such as the hypothalamus. Moreover, physiological mechanisms are more specific to the three needs of food, water, and sex. On the other hand, brain mechanisms play a part in not just in our physiological needs, but also our emotional needs.


Terms: physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, extraorganismic mechanisms, short-term appetite model, long-term energy balance model, facial metrics, sexual scripts, set-point theory, lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, hypothalamus

Overall, this chapter talks about need, fundamentals of regulation, thirst, hunger, and sex. Need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. If needs are satisfied then a person maintains their well-being. However, if a need is neglected, well-being can become damaged or lessened. Motivation provides for either of these to take place. Drive is a theoretical term used to show the psychological discomfort that comes from a persistent biological deficit. It is what energies someone into action and directs activity. The rise and fall of drive involves seven processes: First, need is a biological condition that can harm someone physically while drive is psychological and unconscious biological need as discussed before. Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a stable internal state. Negative feedback, however, is the stopping of homeostasis. The next category is intraorganismic and extraorganismic mechanisms. Intraorganismic includes all the biological regulatory systems that activate, maintain, and terminate the needs that underlie drive. Lastly, extraorganismic does all those same things only they come from the environmental influences.
Thirst, hunger, and sex were also 3 very important aspects of this chapter. Thirst is the consciously experienced motivational state that enables the body to be ready to perform certain behaviors. Thirst activation occurs when someone is deprived of water while negative feedback occurs when the body alerts the body to quit drinking. The same thing occurs with hunger and sex. Environmental influences affect all of these things as well.
The most interesting thing I learned from this chapter was about sex. I found the facial metrics section most interesting. I didn’t realize that physical attractiveness was the most potent external stimulus that affects sexual motivation. It makes sense, but I thought it would be more than that. Men want slim bodies for women in the western cultures generally, although these things vary. Facial metrics is the study of peoples’ judgments of the attractiveness of facial characteristics. Cultures show great convergence on the attractiveness of different facial features.
I’m still a little unclear on all of the various physiological aspects of motivation, just because there are so many different things to know. Physiological reactions are a huge part of motivation, especially when it comes to things such as thirst, hunger, and sex. When our physiological needs aren’t satisfied, these physiological reactions take place and motivate us internally. If motivation didn’t take place, we wouldn’t be able to survive, so physiology is a huge part of motivation. For example, thirst arises from intracellular and extracellular deficits, and furthermore we lose water through perspiration, urination, breathing, and other ways. Without replenishing the water (this is a physiological need), we would die. These same mechanisms apply to hunger and sex as well.
Physiological mechanisms involve specific brain mechanisms inside of them. Physiological mechanisms can include brain mechanisms such as hypothalamus, medial forebrain bundle, and neurotransmitters. Brain mechanisms can play a part in any aspect of motivation, but physiological mechanisms seem to be mostly concentrated in aspects of thirst, hunger, and sex, or physical aspects of life. Physiological needs can involve biological systems such as neural brain circuits, hormones, and bodily organs. These physiological mechanisms can stimulate motivational states. One example of this is hunger. Hunger can cause low blood sugar or shrunken fat cells, which are both physiological needs.

Terms: Need, drive, motivation, homeostasis, negative feedback, intraorganismic and extraorganismic mechanisms, biological regulatory systems, thirst, hunger, sex, facial metrics, physiological mechanisms, brain mechanisms, hypothalamus, medial forebrain bundle, neurotransmitters

Chapter 4 discusses physiological need that our bodies need to function on a daily basis. Along with the discussion and description of physiological and psychological needs, the chapter goes in depth on the concept of drive and drive theory, needs and their relation to well being, the process and importance of thirst, hunger, and sexual drives and how physiological and psychological needs play a key role in it all.
There were many things in this chapter that stood out to interesting to me. The one thing however that stood out the most was the needs structure. As mentioned in an earlier chapter, the discussion of needs automatically stood out to me and I wanted to learn more about what needs were. This chapter began to expand more on needs. The needs structure categorizes needs into three different types, physiological, psychological, and social needs. All of which encompass different types of needs that we experience. A physiological need is when there is a deficiency in biological conditions such as thirst or hunger. Psychological needs include things such as relatedness and competence. Social needs are the desire to have affiliation and intimacy with others or the need for power. I find this needs structure interesting in the fact that it helps put our drives and motivation to do something into perspective and begins to make sense of why we do what we do on a day to day basis. Although these things are what stands out to me the most, they are also the one thing that is a bit unclear to me. The interchanging of psychological needs and physiological needs is a bit confusing. Although I understand the basic concept of what each one means, being able to inter mix them together is somewhat hard to follow and throughout the reading, I really had to double think at parts trying to get all my thought and processing in a row.
Both physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation in the fact that motivation is the reasoning behind doing what we do. There are many different forms of motivation, physiology is just another one of them. Physiology is the needs that our bodies have in order to keep functioning. These needs must be met in order to survive. Although we may not notice physiological needs as motivating us to say get something to eat or drink because we are hungry or thirsty but without these needs there would be nothing to motivate us to a positive outcome of fulfilling the need to drink or eat which is something we all need to survive.
Although there are many similarities in physiological mechanisms an brain mechanisms, there are also something’s that make them stand apart. One of which is that we are often aware of physiological needs such as we know when we are hungry or when we are thirsty. But when it comes to brain mechanisms, we don’t necessarily notice when our brain is releasing hormones causing us to want to do something or causing a specific feeling inside of us.

Chapter 4 talks about three basic physiological needs – thirst, hunger and sex – and how they relate to the drive theory. According to the drive theory, if we are deprived of something that we need for a long enough period of time, we begin to crave it. The book states that a need is “any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being” (pg. 77). Our discomfort due to need deprivation motivates us to behave in ways that will allow us to find and obtain what we are lacking. The book discusses homeostasis, which is our body’s “tendency to maintain a stable internal state” or equilibrium (pg. 80). In regards to thirst, our homeostasis is disrupted throughout the day due to water loss from sneezing, sweating, urinating, etc. Our body responds to this loss of water by motivating us to drink fluids and replenish what we lost. When we do so, our homeostasis is restored, and our desire to drink goes away until our homeostasis is again disrupted.

In addition to our physiological need to drink, eat and have sex, there are also psychological and social factors that play into those needs. In regards to hunger, we may continue to eat even after our homeostasis is restored if there is a variety of food to choose from or others around us eating. The book discusses the differences between men and women when it comes to motivation and sexual behavior. Men tend to be physiologically driven to have sex, while women are motivated by the amount of intimacy that they have with their partner.

The most interesting thing that I learned in this chapter is that trying to consciously control our physiological needs often harms us more than it helps us. I always find myself eating more as winter approaches, and less as we get closer to summer. I have tried to monitor and limit my food intake during late fall and early winter in order to avoid gaining weight; however, after doing this for a few days, I end up caving in and eating more than I probably would have if I would have simply eaten the bit of extra food that I wanted, when I wanted it. I never understood why that happened, and I now know that it is because my physiological motives are powerful enough to break my efforts.

One of the sections that I did not understand as well as the others was the one about set points versus settling points. I understood the example that the book gave about the sea not having a set water level, and I understood that different psychological and social factors play into our motivation in addition to physiological factors (thus making our motivation a settling point). What I am unclear on is the argument saying that we have set points in regards to motivation, especially since the book seems to favor settling points. Who argues for set points, and what support do they offer for that theory?

Our physiology and physiological reactions alert us when our homeostasis is disrupted. When this happens, we become motivated to obtain what we need, such as food when we are hungry. We can fight these urges when our motivation is not very strong, but eventually end up becoming so preoccupied with the physiological drive that all that we can think about is how to regain our internal equilibrium. For example, if we are sitting in class and become thirsty, we can ignore the urge to find a drinking fountain until class is over. However, if we ignore the urge for hours, the drive can become so strong that we can no longer sit in class or work on homework if we know that the drinking fountain is just outside of our door; we will stop whatever we are doing in order to get to the drinking fountain to satisfy our need for water.

Brain mechanisms can all be considered physiological mechanisms, but not all physiological mechanisms are in the brain. Feelings of hunger, for instance, are the result of mechanisms throughout the body alerting the brain to make us consciously aware of an energy deprivation. The book tells us that our cells require glucose to produce energy, so if there is a shortage of glucose, then a physiological need occurs. Rather than being monitored by the brain, glucose levels are monitored by the liver. When the liver is alerted about the glucose shortage, it sends a signal to the lateral hypothalamus, which is responsible for creating our psychological feelings of hunger. In this case, the liver is a physiological mechanism that is not a brain mechanism; without the input from the liver, the lateral hypothalamus would not make us feel hungry due to low energy levels in our cells. Our appetite may also rise and fall due to other physiological mechanisms, such as the mouth, stomach distensions, and body temperature (pg. 89). The book says that the main nonbrain-based mechanism involved in hunger is the stomach, which alerts the brain when it is becoming empty. Though there is a difference between the bodily mechanisms and the brain mechanisms, they work together in ways to “create, maintain and terminate the psychological experience of drive” (pg. 83).

Terms: drive theory, needs, homeostasis, settling point, glucose, lateral hypothalamus

This chapter was, in my opinionm more interesting than Chapter 3. This chapter emphasized and supported Hull's Drive Theory of our motivational drive for bodily needs is physiological deprivations. Our need for hunger, thirst, sex, sleep is so essential that our bodies will force us to achieve getting them. The four main pillars of this chapter were drive, thirst, hunger and sex. This chapter broke each section down and talked about whether these were physiological needs or psychological drive, or both. I'll briefly touch on all 4 of the pillars. Above, I already explained most of the drive section. As for thirst, it talked about how our cells need water and how there is a difference between needing water and drinking water. The need is essential, whereas the drinking is based on the taste, availability, following the cultural role "drink 8 glasses a day", etc. As for hunger, it talks about the different between hunger and eating. Hunger is a bodily need whereas desired eating is based on smell, taste, availability, stress, presence of others, etc. Sexual motivation in males is based on physiological forces and psychologically felt desire. For women, sexual motivation and physiological desires relationship is low, which explains why females want to have less sex than males.

The most interesting thing I read about was the negative feedback. We have all ate so much to the point where we feel like our stomachs are going to blow. What I haven't really payed attention to is what stops us from eating like that all of the time? According to the book, negative feedback systems signal satiety before the physiological need is replenished. What happens with eating and drinking is that the body displays amptitude and estimates how much food and water is needed to fulfill the physiological need. During drinking, the body monitors the volume of fluid ingested on each swallow. This also explains why drinking pop fills us up so quickly. Pop is not needed and isn't moved from our stomach into our bloodstream so it just sits in our stomach and our body counts it towards fulfilling the physiological need. At this time, I found all the topics to be clear in the chapter and don't have any quetions or confusions.

Physiology and physiological reactions are main components for motivation. If we didn't have these certain needs/desires such as sleep, hunger, thirst, sex, etc. then there would be no need for motivation. We wouldn't have any motivation to make ourselves eat when we were hungry or to sleep when we were tired. Every physiological reaction that we have comes down to some sort of motivation movement or cause. You cannot have physiological needs without motivation, unless you are refusing to meet every bodily function, in which you would essentially be slowly dying.

Physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms are both related to motivation and deal with our bodily needs. They also both mention all of our internal drives for motivation. Physiological mechanisms seem to focus mostly on the drive theories of thirst, hunger & sex. Whereas the brain mechanisms cover all topics of needs. When we feel hungry or thirsty, there isn't a hormone or neurotransmitter that goes off in our brain. Instead, our stomach will send neurotransmitter signals to our brain, that then recognizes our bodily need to eat or drink. This is a physiological mechanism & something that we can feel. With brain mechanisms, we can't feel the neurotransmitters traveling through our body delivering signals.

Terms: Hulls drive theory, needs, motivational drive, physiological deprivations, hunger, thirst, sex, physiological need, psychological drive, sexual motivation, physiological forces, negative feedback, hormone, neurotransmitter, physiological mechanisms, brain mechanisms

This chapter consists of three major topics in which the body needs: thirst, hunger, and sex. A need is described as any condition within a person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. Our needs can be broken down into three sub categories which include: physiological, psychological, and social. This chapter goes into detail about these needs and what motivates us to obtain them. This chapter also discusses the drives involved with each of these needs and how our bodies adapt to maintain homeostasis.

An interesting topic covered in this chapter was thirst. It is much more complex than I realized. When our water volume falls by 2% we feel thirsty and dehydration occurs when a person loses 3% of water volume. Thirst arises because our bodies continually lose water through perspiration, urination, and breathing, bleeding, vomiting, and sneezing. Without re-hydrating ourselves we would die in roughly 48 hours. If you go long periods without water your body becomes motivated and driven to find and consume water. However, the negative feedback system is important because the body must not only replenish itself, but it must also restrain from drinking so much water that cellular dysfunction occurs. The hypothalamus and kidneys also play a role in thirst. It is the hypothalamus that generates the feeling of thirst and motivates us to get a drink. The kidneys have to ability to reserve and release water if a person is low.

One topic that was somewhat unclear to me was set points vs. settling points. The examples made with the ocean and stocks made sense, but I wasn’t able to make the connection as to how these terms applied to motivation. Also, I had trouble realizing which term makes the most sense in terms of governing our physiological need?

Physiological and psychological reactions are responsible for creating motivation. For instance, when our bodies are hungry we become motivated to find food. More specifically, when blood glucose levels drop there is a signal sent to our brain which inspires hunger and motivates us to satisfy our need. Without physiological and psychological reactions wouldn’t be motivated to satisfy our needs because we would have no real way of knowing what our body needs. We wouldn’t get water when we thirsty and we wouldn’t get food when we were hungry. These reactions motivate us to maintain our own well-being, without them it would be virtually impossible to maintain a healthy lifestyle and would more than likely result in death.

Both brain and physiological mechanisms play a significant role in motivation and often times they depend on each other. Psychological mechanisms seem to be confined to motivations in relation to thirst, hunger, and sex – whereas brain mechanisms can be involved in any sort of motivation. For instance, hunger can cause low glucose levels, which is a physiological need.

Terms: thirst, hunger, sex, needs, homeostasis, kidneys, hypothalamus, negative feedback system, cellular dysfunction, settling points, set points, motivation, glucose levels, physiological needs, psychological needs, and social needs.

Chapter 4 focuses on one of the three types of needs the human body experiences, physiological needs. There are two other types of needs the body experiences that will be discussed later and these include psychological needs and social needs. The three main physiological needs include thirst, hunger, and sex and this is what the chapter focuses on.
The first concept that needs to be understood is the drive theory. This theory states physiological deprivation creates a biological need which in turn produces psychological drive to satisfy the unsatisfied need. This drive is what motivates us to seek out the substance that is lacking in our bodies. After the body seeks out what it needs, a state of homeostasis is created which means there is an ample amount of water (or any other substance needed for survival) in the body. After this, negative feedback occurs and tells the body it is satiated and it no longer needs anymore of what was being consumed. Soon the body will need more water and the cycle will start over again. This is happening constantly in everyone’s body without us even realizing it.
Thirst was the first topic discussed in the chapter. The book states that after two days, most people will not be able to survive without water because it is so prominent in the body. Not only does it make up the bloodstream (extracellular fluid), but it also contributes to an additional 40% of the body’s weight inside of cells throughout the body (intracellular fluid). The actual feeling of thirst comes from the body’s intracellular fluid being deficient. I found this very interesting and did not know that thirst comes from cells in the body being dehydrated. After some thought, it does make sense, however. There are sites throughout the body that alert the brain that the body has consumed enough water. The negative feedback system is vital so toxic amounts of water are not consumed.
Hunger is not as straightforward as thirst is. According to the glucostatic hypothesis, people want to eat when glucose levels are low in the blood. Glucose is a source of energy and when it is low, the lateral hypothalamus alerts the body that it is hungry and needs to replenish its glucose. The ventromedial hypothalamus is the portion of the brain that tells the body it no longer needs food to replenish the body. This is the negative feedback system for hunger. Not only does the brain influence eating habits of an individual, but social and environmental cues also influence food consumption. When people are in large groups or they are provided with large portion sizes, they tend to eat more. Lack of variety in availability of food causes individuals to eat less.
The most interesting thing in the chapter was the portion about sex. I found the physiological aspect of sex very interesting. Men’s arousal can be measured physically because there is a direct correlation between desire and physical arousal. This is not the same for women because physical signs of arousal actually do not relate to actual desire. Women care much more about the emotional intimacy rather than the physical aspect. I found this interesting because it just confirms what I (and most likely a lot of other people) have observed in real life. Even more interesting is the information on page 103. This information states that men just want a young, attractive women while women desire a high-status, powerful male. I have learned about this before, but it always intrigues me because it makes a lot of sense to me from an evolutionary aspect.
I think I am clear on most concepts in the chapter although I would like to learn more about what exactly men and women as a whole find attractive in the opposite (or same) sex. Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation because these physical experiences detect a deficiency and drive us to satiate our needs. Drive is “the conscious manifestation of underlying unconscious biological needs.” Without knowing we need to satisfy a need, we would not survive so both parts of the system are very important.

Chapter Four was on physiological needs. This chapter covers the basic physiological needs; thirst, hunger, and sex. The most influential theory that the chapter covers is Hull’s drive theory. According to this theory, physiological deprivations and deficits give rise to bodily need states, which end up giving rise to a psychological drive, which motivates behavior that results in the reduction of the drive. Then, as time goes by, the physiological deprivations recur, and the process repeats itself. The chapter also introduced seven fundamental processes in the regulatory process for thirst, hunger and sex. These are physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs and outputs, intraorganismic influences, and extraorganismic influences. The concept of homeostasis has dominated motivational neuroscience and its study of physiological needs for the last 50 years. The last part of the chapter was on failure to regulate physiological needs. Trying to exert conscious mental control over our physiological needs often does more harm to us than good. An example would be that many people fail to self-regulate their hunger for three primary reasons; they underestimate how powerful biological urges can be when they are not in the state of experiencing them, they lack standards or have inconsistent standards, or they fail to monitor what they are doing.

The most interesting part of the chapter to me was the section on facial metrics. I have studied facial metrics in other classes, and I find it interesting how different cultures show convergences in terms of which facial characteristics are considered attractive and which are not. Faces vary a lot, yet there are three categories that explain which faces are judged as attractive: neonatal features, sexual maturity features, and expressive features. Neonatal features correspond to those associated with newborn infants, such as large eyes and small noses. These features are associated with attractive nonverbal messages of youth and agreeableness. Sexual maturity features correspond to those associated with post pubescent status, such as prominent cheekbones and for males, thick facial hair. These features are associated with attractive nonverbal messages of strength, status, and competency. Expressive features such as a wide smile or mouth and higher set eyebrows are expressive of positive emotions such as happiness and openness.

Something that I am still a little unsure about is the topic of set points and settling points. The argument for settling level over set point is based on the importance of extraorganismic influences on physiological appetites, influences that send both positive signals that stimulate and negative signals that restrain consummatory behavior. This section was a little confusing for me because there wasn’t a clear definition of set points and settling points.

Physiology relates to motivation because our bodies’ physiological components such as thirst, hunger, and sex motivate behaviors like drinking, eating, and sexual activity. These are things that humans need in order to survive, and our intraorganismic mechanisms engage in an ongoing process of error detection in which our internal conditions produce negative feedback and drive satiety or falling internal conditions produce physiological need, activated drive, and the behavior activation that is necessary to restore homeostatic mechanism.

Physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms, although different, are very connected. All physiological needs, thirst, hunger, and sex, go back to the brain. Although we are not always consciously aware of the motivational basis for our behavior, the brain is what generates cravings, appetites, needs, desires, pleasure, etc.

Terms: physiological needs, drive theory, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs and outputs, intraorganismic influences, extraorganismic influences, facial metrics, neonatal features, sexual maturity features, expressive features, set points, settling points

As I sat reading my chapter whilst eating an orange earlier today, I thought to myself ‘Claire, are you really hungry for this orange?”. I concluded that my body was in fact telling me that I was slightly hungry but I think my main motivations for eating the orange were that 1. I had it near me 2. It was going bad so needed to be eaten soon and 3. I was just kind of bored and oranges taste good. This chapter really caught my attention especially the section on hunger. I love when the book says that too often we try to cognitively control the physiological motivations of our body and how this doesn’t usually work. It’s so true! All too often people try to subdue the motivational messages that our body’s physiology creates. Why? If we can just become more aware of when our body is speaking to us we would learn to respond appropriately (e.g. eating when you are hungry and stopping when you are full instead of eating when it is “lunch time” and stopping when you have nothing left to eat).
The difference between short term appetite and long term balance also interested me. Our body receives and reacts to two sources of energy. In the short term, we rely on the absence of glucose to tell us when we are hungry and the excess (or “just right” amount) of it to tell us when we are full. This helps regulate our daily eating habits. In the long term, fat cells are monitored. If not enough fat is present, homeostasis is not reached. Because the body wants to achieve homeostasis, ghrelin is released to encourage us to eat and in turn promote weight gain. Likewise, if our fat levels are too high the body will signal the brain to motivate us to lose weight. Eliminating fat from our diets would pose a problem to our body’s health. We need fat and our body is well aware of this fact. Therefore, if a dieter attempts to eliminate fat from their diet, they are trying to cognitively alter their natural physiology. Their body will not enjoy this. Their body will try it’s hardest to signal the brain that it needs fat. When this happens the brain will then try its best to motivate us to seek out high fat foods and just foods in general. Our metabolism rate will also change. If we do not consume enough fat, our metabolism may slow down in order to retain whatever fat stores it has remaining in the body. We should stop trying so hard to alter and control our bodies’ natural tendencies (in certain situations at least).
The last thing I’d like to mention in regards to hunger is that I don’t think I was 100% aware that colder temperatures stimulate hunger…tricky! There are so many environmental (extraorganismic mechanisms) that influence our hunger. I think this is often where we get tripped up when it comes to thinking about whether or not we are hunger/whether or not we want to eat.
Physiological mechanisms trigger brain mechanisms which fuel us with energy and provide us with direction on how to satiate certain physiological needs. The way that the body works is just so fascinating. While I think it’s very important to be conscious and aware of our bodies’ needs and feelings, I think too often we try to control and override our natural physiology. It’s a tough thing to overcome but we should try our best to live in tune with our physiology in most situations at least.

Chapter four was the most appliable chapter in our first section. I enjoyed how it somewhat rounded all the information we have past learned into the bodies overall need. I especially understood it much more from the movie assignment. This chapter breaks down the bodies psysiological needs into three catigories;psysiological, psychological, and social needs.Psysiological needs break down to our biological need for three main things including:thirst, hungar, and sex. Psychological needs are more goal directed needs. Social needs include personal experience such as achievement, affiliation, and power. A human has a constant condition of need that is essential for life. I found it very interesting that it could break down into three catigoies unlike the previous chapters that included extensive lists. The chapter continues to disscuss the bodies abilty to have a stable state inwhich the body is maintained, homeostais. I currently am curious about the level and a more indepth knowlege about the level of homeostasis.I can imagine it varries for people based on personal experience or does it rely only on the body and its ablity to stay stable. Chapter four continues to explain how your brain communicates it's state of need. Intraorganismic mechanisms are interior to direct the bodies systems and organs for regulation.Enviromental influence plays a role in the bodies stablity as well. These influnces are extraorganismic mechanisms.I found this very interesting becuase of how much the enviroment varies. Everything you can imagine affects these mechanisms including enviroment, social state,and cultural roles. This area is something that I find the chapter could have extended on, I am intrigued.I can also relate this to my daily activity, and now find myself questioning my motives for excersie and eating.I would like to monitor my daily routine to see how much enviroment plays in my actions. Sex is an idea that is disscussed at the end of the chapter and explains ones overall preference for relationships. I am learning about relationships and attractiveness in another class and I find it very interesting to know exactly what attracts people and the fact that beauty infact is not in the eye of the beholder. The chapter ends with the causes of failure for self regulating need. This section was so appliable to the movie for class that I really felt a development for understanding. The most interesting aspect of this chapter and overall section is how much your body regulates things on its own. Each thing is driven by motivation and emotion. However, much seems to be subconsious. This chapter has taught me to not underestimate the biological force that our body maintains based on motivation. Chapter three being so informational on the brain activity was somewhat of an overload, but after reading and disscussion I feel I am starting to understand.

Terms: psysiological needs, psysiological,psychological,social need,biological,thirst,hungar,sex,homeostais,Intraorganismic mechansisms,extraorganismic mechanisms,

Chapter 4 was about all our basic physiological needs and drives. The chapter discussed the topics of thirst, hunger, and sex. The chapter starts by defining what a need is. A need is any condition within a person that is esscential for life, growth, and well being. When we do not satisfy our needs we then become motivated to do so. The text goes on to explain that we have different types of needs. These needs are physiological, psychological, and social. Chapter 4 though, focuses on psyiological needs, which like stated earlier are, thirst, hunger, and sex. The movie assignment especially helped me understand how we are motivated to satisfy our needs for water and food. One of the most important concepts to understand in the chapter is Hulls drive theory. Hulls theory says that physiological deprivations and deficits create biological needs. If the needs continue to be unmet then the biological deprivation occupys attention and creates a psychological drive. There is a clinical pattern that shows the rise and fall of psychological drive and it involves 7 processes. These processes are need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, and extraoranismic mechanisms.

The topic I found most interesting in this chapter was the topic of thirst. I had never realized before just how complex it is. I already knew that our bodies are about 2/3 water, but, I did not know that a loss of only 2 percent of our water results in the feeling of thirst. I also found it interesting that a drop of only one more percent of our bodies water results in dehydration. It doesn't seem like much because of the fact that our bodies are mostly water, but a small drop in the percentage of our water has major consequences. Our bodies continually lose water through think like sweating, breathing, urinating, and even bleeding. We we drink though we do not drink forever. This seems obvious, but there is a reason that this occurs. Our negative feedback system come into play here. We have to drink enough water to satisfy our need, but we can't drink too much or we run the risk of causing cellular dysfunction. I also found it interesting that drinking occurs for three reasons. These reasons are, water replenishment, sweet taste when something is added to the water, and addiction to a substance in the water. I don't feel there are any concepts I'm not understanding at this point in time. I think I am beginning to get used to the structure of this class and how to get the most out of the text.

Physiological mechanisms trigger brain mechanisms which in turn give us energy and provide us with direction on how to satisfy certain physiological needs. Physiolgical needs motivate us to satisfy them. We become motivated to do what it takes to satisfy our needs at the time. These can be simple things like taking a drink of water, or eating a meal. There are many different processes that our bodies go through to regulate how we satisfy these needs and when to stop once they are satisfied.

Terms: physiological needs,thirst, hunger, and sex, need, physiological, psychological, and social needs, Hulls theory, need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, and extraoranismic mechanisms.

The chapter starts off by discussing need and how certain needs such as physiological, psychological, and social needs all provide motives that serve a person’s life, growth, and well-being. The psychological need includes things such as autonomy and competence. The physiological need demonstrates thirst, hunger and sex, and the social need relates to achievement and power within an individual. The chapter then goes into what drives and regulates each one of these such as negative feedback and homeostasis. Negative feedback can be demonstrated by the body as a feeling of full after a large meal. The body signals it can’t take in anymore food so your behavior of eating is aversive, and you stop. Homeostasis is achieved when the body is balanced. This means that enough water, oxygen, calcium, salt, etc, is in your system. It then goes specifically into thirst, hunger, and sex and looks at things such as influences (deprivation), attractiveness, and motivations behind them. Motivations can vary for certain people but popular ones include eating and drinking to stay alive and having sex to reproduce. The chapter finishes off with the idea that self-regulation and how it doesn’t always work for 3 primary reasons 1) we underestimate the power of hunger when we are not hungry, 2) people have unrealistic ideas on what their body should look like and eat way less than they should or more 3) people get distracted while self-regulating and don’t monitor themselves.
The most interesting thing that I learned from this chapter is that there are many problems in self-regulation. I always try to regulate my eating and how much I watch TV or play videogames, and I don’t really think about how much I fail. For example after I eat fast food and am full I say that I will avoid fast food for a month. I am full at the time and food is undesirable to me so it’s easy to make a decision like that. Biological factors become more powerful the hungrier I get and when I am driving through town and am hungry enough that I don’t want to spend the time to cook anything, I find myself eating fast food again. After reading this chapter I realize how much I fail at self-regulation.
I am unclear with the concept of set point or settling level. I’m not sure if I fully understand what it does within us and how it relates to our motivation.
Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation by providing us with reasons to be motivated to do something. This sounds confusing but in essence, if our body signals we are thirsty we drink, if it signals its hungry we eat. The stronger the signal the more motivated we are to do the behavior. The signals are sometimes so strong that you cannot regulate them.
Physiological mechanisms differentiate from brain organisms by the roles they provide. The brain looks at the body as a whole and sees what it needs to maintain a balance. If something is low such as blood sugar it sends a message that releases a physiological mechanism to eat sugary food. Brain mechanisms are in charge of what is needed in the body and physiological mechanisms motivate the body to do a behavior that will keep the body balanced.
Terms: self-regulation, motivation, behavior, aversive, undesirable, physiological mechanisms, brain mechanisms, negative feedback, homeostasis, set point, thirst, sex, hunger

Chapter 4 was primarily about the basic physiological needs. These are things such as hunger, thirst, and sex. The chapter starts off by defining what a need is. A need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. When needs are satisfied, a person upholds their well-being. On the other side, if need is ignored, this can become damaging to the individual. It then goes on to describe the seven fundamental steps of the regulation process. Need gets tied back into the physiological aspect by telling us that physiological needs are inherent within the workings of biological systems. These are: physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, and extraorganismic mechanisms. First off, need is biological and can harm a person, while drive is psychological and unconscious. Those describe the first two fundamental steps. Homeostasis is the ability to balance a stable internal state. Contradicting, negative feedback is stopping homeostasis. Intra/extraorganismic are the last two. Intra has all the biological regualatory systems that activate the needs of drive. Extra does the same thing as intra, but only they come from environmental influences.
As mentioned before, hunger, thirst, and sex were very important facets of this chapter. Each of these is a conscious experienced motivational state that activates our bodies to be ready to perform certain behaviors. For example: thirst activation happens when a person is in need of water. This is similar to what happens with hunger and sex. Something triggers you and you act upon your need.
The whole concept of facial metrics was very interesting to me. It was intriguing to see how much facial metrics and sex correlate. The physical attractiveness of a potential partner is perhaps the most potent external stimulus that affects sexual motivation. I can see why this statement is so true, but it was just interesting actually reading it in-text. I think facial metrics sounds pretty cool, since it describes the study of peoples’ judgments of the attractiveness of facial characteristics. This study just seems so unique and “out there” that it would be more enticing to learn about.
The whole idea of set points was not very clear for me. I had a hard time understanding this theory and reading about it made it confusing. The thought that our bodies have a biologically set weight seems a bit farfetched. I feel like there are many ways to show why this is considered false. One example is if someone loses weight and they keep it off, that argues the point of “set-point.”
Physiology relates to motivation because if our needs are not being met, then we start to get motivated to meet them in order to survive. It is clear that we must maintain our bodies and lifestyle; therefore, we have to have physiological needs. As I keep mentioning, it is clear when we must eat or drink because without these behaviors telling us to do so, we would not be living. We go through these processes on a daily basis.
Physiological mechanisms are involved with specific brain mechanisms inside of them. The hypothalamus, medial forebrain bundle, and neurotransmitters are physiological mechanisms that are included in the brain mechanisms. The physiological mechanisms mostly focus on aspects like thirst, appetite, sex, and many other physical aspects of life. In other words, the physiological mechanisms get further broken down into specific brain mechanisms. These physiological mechanisms can stimulate motivational states.
Terms: physiological need, physiological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, and extraorganismic mechanisms, facial metrics, stimulus, set points, physiological mechanisms, hypothalamus, medial forebrain bundle, neurotransmitters, brain mechanisms

Chapter 4 is about physiological needs. This chapter talked about need, fundamentals of regulation, thirst, hunger, and sex. It starts off explaining what a need is. A need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. Then it goes on to explain the fundamentals of regulation. The seven core processes depict the rise and fall of psychological drive. They are need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, and extraorganismic mechanisms.

Our body has a need for thirst. When our water volume falls by about 2%, we feel thirsty. When our bodies fall below the optimal homeostatic level our body creates the physiological need that underlies thirst. The second physiological need chapter 4 talked about was hunger. Hunger is more complex than thirst. Hunger and eating is affected by social, cognitive, and environmental factors. There are two different models to hunger. The first model is short-term appetite and the second model is the long-term energy balance. The chapter finished with a discussion about the third physiological need, sex. The chapter talked about facial metrics, sexual scripts, sexual orientation, and evolutionary basis of sexual motivation.

The most interesting thing in this chapter to me was the discussion on facial metrics. I find it so interesting that we can predict the level of attractiveness of people by looking at certain facial features. Not all cultures view thin body types as attractive but there seems to be a consensus on the attractiveness of facial features. About a year ago I read an article about “The Most Beautiful Woman in the World.” Scientists from around the world looked for women who had the “perfect” facial features. They found a woman who they say is the most beautiful woman in the world. They measured her face and say all her facial features are perfect distances from each other and the right size.
I am confused about set point or settling point. I don’t understand how motivations rise and fall. After reading this chapter about physiological needs I don’t understand how hunger or thirst needs could ever rise or fall.

Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation because when our body has hunger, thirst, or sexual needs we are motivated to fulfill them. Needs are essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. Referring to page 77, Damage can be to the body so motives arise from physiological needs to avoid tissue damage and to maintain bodily resources.

Both physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms play roles in motivation but we are aware of the physiological mechanisms. We know when we are hungry or thirsty so we feel motivated to fulfill that need. Brain mechanisms motivate us without us realizing it. We aren’t aware when our brain is sending out neurotransmitters or why we do some of the things we do but we know why we are motivated to fulfill the physiological needs.

Terms: need, thirst, sex, hunger, intraorganismic mechanisms, extraorganismic mechanisms, homeostasis.

Chapter four was completely centered on physiological needs. It discussed the fundamentals of regulation, which include physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, and negative feedback. The physiological need describes a deficient biological condition, such as water loss, and psychological drive describes a conscious manifestation of the biological need. Homeostasis is the body’s state of equilibrium and steadiness. Negative feedback is the “stop system” for homeostasis, which means that it inhibits behavior once it is satiated. The book goes on to discuss three basic physiological needs: thirst, hunger, and sex.

The section on thirst explained how water inside our bodies is in both intracellular and extracellular fluids, which means water inside the cells and water outside of the cells. Thirst can arise from deficits of both of these. Being thirsty comes mostly from the dehydrated cells. Obviously the body plays a large role in thirst, but the book also discussed that there are environmental influences as well, and the most important environmental influence is taste. If a drink tastes sweeter, it can be more attractive to a person, even if they are not thirsty.

The book then moved on to the section on hunger. It described the short-term appetite model, where immediately available energy is constantly monitored, and the long-term energy balance model, where stored energy is available and used as a resource to supplement glucose-monitored energy regulation. The comprehensive model of hunger regulation combines both of these models, thus showing that there are short-term as well as long-term influences on hunger. Aside from the body, there are environmental influences at play when it comes to hunger. Eating is often times a social occasion, which causes people to eat more when they are around others who are consuming food. It also went into discussion about how dieting can be another influence on eating behavior because of the fact that it gets harder to have control when you are around others that are eating. Often times this will cause dieters to break their diets and eat more than they normally would have. The section went on to further discuss how dieting is a difficult thing to do, and that one must shut out all of the physiological signs and symptoms of being hungry and activate their own cognitive thoughts about it to be successful. This is a hard regimen to stick to, and relapse is likely to occur because of how easy it is to give in to temptation in different situations.

The final section discussed sex. It told how sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen, play a role in influencing sexual behavior. It told how men and women experience and react to sexual desire in very different ways. It also talked about facial metrics, which are certain measurements of facial features that make someone desirable and physically attractive. Neonatal features, such as big eyes and a small nose, sexual maturity features, such as prominent cheekbones, and expressive features, such as a wide smile, are all associated with physical attractiveness. This section went further into discussing what are known as sexual scripts, which is one’s mental representation of the step-by-step sequence of events that happen during sex. It shared that females relate their arousal to intimacy and relationships, whereas males coordinate theirs with the stages of desire, arousal, and orgasm. After that, the section talked about the qualities that people find attractive in their mates, and for men, they desired physical attractiveness, and women desired status and resources.

The most interesting thing I learned from this chapter would definitely have to be about the difference in physiological regulation when it comes to sex between males and females. It discussed how men show a triphasic sexual response cycle that involves desire, arousal, and orgasm. Apparently that describes men’s sexual motivation. Females, on the other hand, did not have a strong correlation between physiological arousal and psychological desire. Instead, sexual desire for females is linked to relationship factors like emotional intimacy. I thought that the differences between males and females were rather cool to read about!

As of now, there are not really any concepts or ideas that I am unclear about. Everything seems to be making sense, and I am able to apply it to life situations to make it easier to comprehend.

Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation in a huge way. When our physiological needs are not met, then we have to take action and do something to be able to survive. We are motivated to eat and drink when we are hungry or thirsty because our body is telling us we need to do so in order to live. Our needs fuel our drives and motivate us to satiate whatever it is that we are deficient of.

What differentiates physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms is that our physiological mechanisms are a portion within brain mechanisms. Our body realizes the needs of hunger, thirst, and sex ultimately through brain mechanisms, because physiological mechanisms are a part of the brain. Parts of the brain, such as the lateral hypothalamus and the ventromedial hypothalamus play large roles in hunger. Hormones such as testosterone and estrogen are released during arousal and sex. It is obvious that brain mechanisms encompass physiological mechanisms, and both work together so that we are able to fulfill our needs.

Terms: physiological needs, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, thirst, hunger, sex, intracellular fluids, extracellular fluids, short-term appetite model, long-term energy balance model, comprehensive model of hunger regulation, hormones, testosterone, estrogen, facial metrics, sexual scripts, needs, lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus

This chapter first starts us out with a scenario experiment having to deal with food deprivation and the type of motivational states, physiological needs, biological systems, and behavior the human body has experienced after the experiment is over. The overall experiment was to show that all of these aspects I just described are able to adapt to different environments and different situations but there are consequences that go along with it, some very dangerous. Chapter 4 examines the human beings physiological needs of thirst, hunger, and sex and other concepts that relate to this. Throughout the chapter, the physiological needs are broken down to help us better understand the motives to how our bodies and mindset work and when put in a difficult situation in which we must adjust, usually trying to exert mental control over our physiological needs usually does more harm than good.

The most interesting thing I learned in this chapter would be that in the company of others, people tend to eat more and they eat for longer periods of time. The stats being 50% more which is surprising to me! This can tie in with environmental influence. Environmental influences affect eating behavior include time of day, stress, sight, smell, appearance, and taste of food. In this case, situational pressure to eat or to diet serves as another environmental influence on eating behavior. It is also very surprising to me that a persons chance of becoming obese increases over 50% if he or she has a friend who recently became obese. Obesity is a medical term that describes a state of increased body weight (adipose tissue) that is of sufficient magnitude to produce adverse health consequences, including an increased risk of heart disease, diabetes, respiratory problems, some cancers, and premature death. 65% of Americans today are overweight and I think this number is somewhat increasing slightly with all the fast food market available and because healthy food is more expensive than unhealthy food. Overall, this ties in with the theory that humans tends to eat more in the presence of others. This makes me wonder about girls who go on any kind of date with a guy. Usually the scenario is that the girl will order a salad or not eat as much around the men, but according to the book, that's unlikely because the more number of people presence the prediction of the food intake.

Concepts or ideas that I am unclear on right now would be the Homeostatic Mechanism theory.I'm not quite sure I understood it exactly. There's a lot that seems to be going on in the model that is shown on page 84 but I guess it would be nice for someone to just explain it. There's something about intraorganismic mechanisms engaging in an ongoing process of error detection in which rising internal conditions produce negative feedback and drive satiety or falling internal conditions producing physiological need, activated drives, and behavioral activation necessary to restore the homeostatic level of that internal state. Intraorganismic mechanisms include all biological regulatory systems within a person that act in concert to activate, maintain, and terminate the physiological needs that underlie drive. The three main categories of intraorganismic mechanism are brain structures, the endocrine system, and bodily organs.

Physiological needs and reactions relate to motivation because these are the things we need to survive and these are the things that keep us motivated and alive. Thirst, hunger, and sex are the drives that keep us going every day. We have certain needs that keep the body satisfied when met. A need is any condition within the person that essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. When needs are nurtured and satisfied, like I said before, well-being is maintained and enhanced which keep us happy. If not met, then our there can be biological or psychological damage. If there is damage to the body, then motives arise from physiological needs to avoid damage and to maintain bodily resources.

Brain mechanisms differ from physiological mechanisms because of their functioning. They are also different because physiological mechanisms focus on environmental factors and brain mechanisms look at the chemical structure of our brains and bodies. The brain mechanisms are also unconscious and controls intracellular activities like neurons and hormones. Physiological mechanisms are driven by our physical needs such as thirst, hunger, and sex all in which are mostly conscious.

Terms: Environmental influences, physiological needs, obesity, Intraorganismic mechanisms, hunger, thirst, sex, physiological mechanisms

Chapter four is about our physiological needs; thirst, hunger, and sex. Our needs are what kicks off our motivational state. Clark Hull came up with what is called the Drive Theory. Drive is what motivates us into action. The model of need-drive- behavior sequence is to explain the step by step process of a physiological behavior. The body has a great ability to maintain homeostasis - "the body's tendency to maintain a stable internal state", as the book describes. Our bodies are not the only ways to activate or gain a physiological need (intraorganismic mechanisms are what goes on inside our bodies), extraorganismic mechanisms are what controls our physiological needs outside of our own bodies. Thirst, hunger, and sex all are influenced by organisms inside of our bodies, and outside.

The most interesting part of this chapter was the information on the evolutionary basis of sexual motivation, and gender differences in mate preferences. It was interesting to me that evolutionary psychologists have found that, for some time now, men and women tend to look first for the same things in sexual partners, or mates. According to studies, men are more drawn towards young, attractive mates, while women look for more powerful, high-status mates. It is said that the more the person feels confident about their looks, they in turn look for a suitable mate (men-attractive, trophy-wife; women-strong, wealthy man). This is an idea that has been around for a very long time, and that is what is most interesting to me. Although, I have noticed, personally, that this has changed slightly since the earlier years. Women have had higher status jobs, and we see more and more men staying at home and taking care of the children ("women's work). This is different from earlier years, but the more traditional way of living is more popular, still.

I also noticed (another interesting point) in table 4.2, the gender differences in mate preferences, that males have greater preference for a mate of a different race. I wondered if this had to do with sexual scripts ("one's mental representation of the step-by-step sequence of events that occur during a typical sexual episode), because the book says that men have a stronger tie to sexual scripts due to an increased amount of masturbatory fantasies, when compared to females. Maybe sexual scripts influence the idea that men prefer, or are more attracted to different races (they fantasize about it more).

One thing that is unclear to me, still, is set point/settling points. I am under the impression that it is some sort of natural, or average point where we all are bound to, whether how far we get from it or not, we all go back to this point. Again, my explanation for this makes it clear that the concept is very confusing to me.

Physiology and physiological reactions are the end result of our motivation to reach a homeostatic point. For example, if we had to eat and had nothing telling us to go eat, we would starve ourselves to death. Our brain, and our intraorganismic mechanisms (our brain structures, the endocrine system, and bodily organs) help us "activate, maintain, and terminate our physiological needs that underlie drive". Our need to eat is driven by our insides telling us to do so.

Physiological mechanisms differentiate from brain mechanisms because we can actually feel physiological mechanisms when they are happening, or being used. We can feel when we are hungry, thirsty, or sexually aroused. Although, physiological mechanisms are part of the brain mechanisms, but much easier to pin point with our conscious mind.

Terms: physiological mechanisms, brain mechanisms, drive, need, intraorganismic mechanisms, extraorganismic mechanisms, physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, set point, settling points, sexual scripts

Chapter four consisted of information on peoples physiological needs. The three main areas of pyhsical needs are thirst, hunger and sex. Every human has a drive that makes them satisy these essential parts of life. The book explains that there are different kinds of needs such as psychological and social. Physiological needs usually dominate over the other two since it consists of life threatening events if these needs are not met. The chapter goes on to talk about how drive plays a part in physiological needs by using multiple inputs and outputs that can cause a person to feel for a need such as thirst or hunger. It can be ignited by more than one thing such as sweating and eating something that makes you thirsty. Thirst is very important since our bodies are made up of mostly water and needs to replenish the water that is used up by our bodies. The actual reason why people become thirsty is because their cells are dehydrated and need to be replenished. Once the cells are hydrated again the need for thirst is stopped. This would be an example of negative feedback. It is the physiological stop system of drive. Hunger is another important bodily need. It is influence more on social and enviromental needs than thirst. People can become hungry after being stressed,smell, or even just what time of day it is. The last physiological need tlaked about was sex. This need is mostly influenced by hormones in the body. Each gender has diferent horomones that make them react to the need for sex differently.

The most interesting thing that I learned in this chapter was that facial features such as large eyes, small nose and a small chin for women is considered more attractive. For men it is thick eyebrows and a prominent chin length. It is fascinating that our minds are thinking about a persons facial features in great detail when looking for a mate. It is not something that I thought I was doing, but I realized that most of the guys that society deems as attractive have those prominent brows and chin line and the many attractive female celebraties have larger eyes and prominent cheekebones like described on page 100 in our textbook. This is the kind of thing I find very interesting and may some day do research in this area.

Physiology and its reactions are related to motivation in the way that motivation kicks in to drive to keep a person physically stable and in well being. Without motivation we would not know when our bodies need water or food and then physically we would slowly lose strength to live. Hull's drive theory states that physiological deprivations create biological needs and this is when motivation takes over in the form of a drive and energizes use to act on that feeling of deprivation. The way that brain mechanisms differentiate from those mechanisms that are physiological are that brain mechanisms are triggered by the ones that are physiological. Places in the brain like the hypothalamus are triggered when cells shrink from being dehydrated and this thens sets off the physiological mechanisms of releasing hormones and using the kidney. So these two mechanisms work together to overall take care of our bodies.
After reading through this chapter, I feel like I have a better understanding of how our body can be motivated to take care of itself. I learned that motivation is not only all about the brain and that the body plays a big role in sending us into action.

Terms: multiple inputs/outputs, thirst, negative feedback, hunger, sex, Hull's drive theory, drive.

Chapter 4 discusses physiological needs such as thirst, hunger, and sex. Every day we are faced with satisfying our needs so we can maintain our lives. It is very important that we take care of our bodies so we are able to live longer. A need is any condition within a person that is necessary for life, growth, and overall well-being. If our needs are not met our bodies begin to suffer and thus become damaged. Before damage occurs motives arise from our physiological needs to avoid tissue damage. It is interesting that our bodies recognize that damage could occur; and then fix the problem through motivation or drive. According to drive theory physiological deprivations and deficits create biological needs; such as lacking water or food. As stated in the book there is a cyclical pattern depicting the rise and fall of psychological drive involves seven processes; need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/outputs, intraorganismic and extraorganismic mechanisms.

Physiological needs occur with tissue and bloodstream deficits and if neglected the body will be harmed. Psychological drive involves directing and energizing a behavior, it prepares an individual to engage in a goal directed behavior. Homeostasis is when the body attempt to keep it at a steady state. This becomes difficult when an individual is constantly changing environments. I find negative feedback to be very interesting because we are so focused on being motivated to do something yet negative feedback stops us from causing harm. For example drinking water, there is a certain amount that can cause harm to us, thus negative feedback tells us to stop drinking. I found these four out of the seven to be very interesting to examine because they all have a different way to get to the same goal.

I found the study about thirst in relation to negative feedback to be the most interesting topic in this chapter. The animals that drank water through their mouths but the water did not reach their stomach actually drank four times their normal amount. This expressed the idea that water passing though the mouth does provide one way of thirst inhibition. It is interesting to see how different aspects of our bodies are able to basically protect ourselves from making bad choices that can cause harm.

Our environment impacts several behaviors one being hunger or eating. It has been found that when there are more choices in even one type of food we are more likely to eat more. Also, food availability and large portion sizes lead people to overeat. For example during a holiday there are often large amounts of food that are readily available thus causing us to eat more than we would in a usual day. In our society it is difficult for individuals to lose weight because there is an abundance of resources. According to the book if an individual uses these three motivations they will be able to lose weight; self-regulation of food intake, mindfulness over one’s environmental influences, and exercise motivation. If an individual gains control and motivate themselves to do these three things their outcome will be beneficial.

A concept that I am unclear on is the set point idea. I find it slightly confusing because how can we know we are programed to be at a specific weight. It’s not like there is a formula that would be able to explain every single person. There are several different people and body types in the world as well as many environmental factors that influence weight as well. Physiological reactions relate to motivation because our bodies are recognizing that there is a problem and then it looks for a solution. The solution involves our body to become motivated so it can complete its goal to maintain homeostasis. Our body is constantly being motived to start a behavior, stop, or prevent a behavior. After looking at all of the concepts through this chapter it is apparent that there are numerous factors that influence motivation as well as the decisions we make. Physiological mechanisms differ from the brain because the brain deals with structures and how they are impacted by motivation and vice versa. Physiological mechanisms deal with needs such as thirst, hunger, and sex.

Terms: physiological needs, motive, thirst, hunger drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, set point.

Physiological needs, and how it drives our body. Starting with idea of Homeostasis we understand that our body is like a teeter totter we cannot have too much or too little, else we will fall either way. Psychological needs are coming in a future chapter, and they are more interesting, as I digress this chapter explores the essential needs merely to survive. The three the book pinpoints are big ones I think, they are hunger, thirst, and sex in no predominate order of course as they are all important and essential for a healthy and productive life. With an offset of one of these, lets say I am hungry the homeostasis will be skewed and trigger a intraorganismic mechanism. The body then activates the hypothalamus and endocrine system to trigger “hunger” sensation in the body and notifying it that it will need some food or a source of energy soon. Thirst essentially is the same thing but regulated in a different way. Thirst arises from two specific sources the intracellular fluid that consists inside the cells and extracellular fluid that consists on the outside of the cells. We begin to feel thirsty around the time the intracellular fluid needs replenishing which is called osometric thirst. Now sex is when we get into a little bit more of the gray area as it has elements from both physiological and psychological. As the chapter consists of physiological standpoint I will stay consistent as well. Androgens are known as the sex hormone and can influence but don’t determine sexual behavior.
The thing that interested me the most is the idea of psychological Drive, as it is the manifestation of an underlying unconscious biological need. This definition is incredible by being able to understand our underlying abilities, we have no control of this, but our body knows it is right for us. It distance itself from the mind itself by creating a separate and magnificent entity. Not only has it kept us alive, it also helps us strive through our goals and directs our purpose. Essentially our life is ran on an underline of an unconscious behavior. Which relates directly towards our motivation!
I feel that the main difference and most obvious difference is that the physiological mind is an unconscious self-defense trigger to protect the body of malnourishment. While brain mechanisms may be unconscious they are extensively controlled by the environment around us and how are body adjust and reacts towards it.


Terms: homeostasis, intraorganismic mechanism, osometric thirst, the intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, SEX, Drive

This chapter is all about how the brain’s psychological needs affect how our body achieves homeostasis. Homeostasis is how our body maintains normality, or a state of equilibrium. This chapter explains how the body uses our motivation to achieve this normalcy. It explains that when we are sleep deprived, our brain sends us a signal to motivate us to sleep so we can return back to our original state before we became sleep deprived. This is the same for hunger and thirst. If our body had no mechanisms to motivate us to achieve homeostasis, we would not have our basic motivation to eat multiple times a day, drink the essential amount of water, and keep our self well rested. When the water in our body drops by 2%, we feel thirsty; around 3% dehydration starts to kick in. This again relates back to homeostasis because when our body’s liquids drop, our brain sends a signal that resembles thirst. Even sex relates to our brain’s psychological needs. Since humans are focused on reproducing, the human body acts in a way that is to preserve the human race. Men and women have different characteristics that they look for in a mate though. Men look for women that have the biological qualities to bear children and the emotional capability to take care of children. Women look for qualities in a man that show he can provide for the family.

The concept of the intraorganismic mechanisms is unclear to me right now because I am having a difficult time remembering what all the different structures and chemicals do to promote behavior. I understand how extraorganismic mechanisms affect motivation and behavior. I hope that the book covers this more in later chapters.

The physiological regulation is what controls when our brain tells our body that we have achieved homeostasis. It’s what tells us that we are hungry and need to eat and when we are thirsty and need to drink. It also tells us when to stop. Without this function, we would continue to eat and drink forever. This is what shuts off the motivation to keep eating and drinking.

Physiological mechanisms are different than brain mechanisms on the idea that we can tell when our physiological mechanisms are being activated. We can tell when our brain is telling us that we are hungry or thirsty or any other scenario in which we need to achieve homeostasis. Biological mechanisms do not alert us that our brain is releasing chemicals.

After reading Chapter 4 I would say that it is about our bodies and the needs we endure. First off a need is a condition within a person that is essential and necessary for life, growth and well-being, physiological, psychological and social poses all of these needs and provide us with motives that give us individually growth, well-being and overall life. The chapter then completely focuses on physiological needs, which are thirst, hunger, and sex. When thinking of physiological needs think more of individual needs, these involve biological systems such as brain circuits, hormones and organs. I found one of the most important topics throughout the chapter, that helped me understand the concept of physiological needs, was Hulls theory. Basically what Hulls theory did was establish what I know of as the drive theory. Which is physiological deprivations and deficits (lack of water, food, sleep) create biological problems. Referring back to the term drive, that’s exactly what a deficit here does, it drives your biological needs to fulfill its discomfort. This process has 7 risings and fallings of physiological drives which include need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, and extraoranismic mechanisms.
The most interesting thing to me about the chapter would have been thirst, partially because I recall hearing some interesting facts about thirst and the effect it has on our entire body, mind and all, so I found reading more information on it to be interesting. Something already known to me was that most of our body, 2/3 to be exact, is made of water. What I didn’t know was when this volume throughout our body falls just by 2%, which at first didn’t seem like a lot but in further reading it made me realize it is, we automatically feel thirsty. However as soon as our body gets to 3% of our volume we feel dehydration. No surprise either is that our body is constantly losing water, through sweating, urinating, breathing, bleeding, we lose water and I found it interesting that we don’t realize all of these bodily functions take water out of our body, so that volume level is constantly dropping. Once the body gets to that 3% volume or lower it will do whatever means necessary to make you rehydrate it; unlike your stomach, if you’re hungry usually you can ignore the hunger or it takes a lot longer for the fatal effects to come along, but without fulfilling that thirst request you will within 2-3 days.
Physiological mechanisms differentiate from brain organisms by their providing roles; they both provide very different things for our bodies. They both however play a role in our motivations, but the difference is we as humans only realize the physiological mechanisms, where as I thought of it as the brain motivates our physiological mechanisms because we technically can’t see or pinpoint our brain providing us with motivation. The brain looks at the body as a whole and sees what it needs to maintain a balance; the brain is essentially control what the body needs to survive. If something is low such as blood sugar it sends a message that releases a physiological mechanism to eat sugary food. Brain mechanisms are in charge of what is needed in the body and physiological mechanisms motivate the body to do a behavior that will keep the body balanced.

Something that confused me was the weight section, and the chapter made a point that our body reacted to the lack and abundance of food because our body is custom to a set weight, perhaps I’m not getting the meaning behind this but if that was true wouldn’t everyone just stay the weight they are, if it’s so hard to gain and lose weight after a certain point because our body acts in the opposite way, wouldn’t there be very little obesity and anorexia.
Terms: need, thirst, sex, hulls theory, drive, mechanisms, thirst, homeostasis, introorganismic and extraoanismic mechanisms.

1) Since chapter three looked at our biological needs, chapter four transitions and talks about our physiological needs. Chapter four starts off with talking about needs, defining them, etc. Needs are conditions within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well being. When needs are ignored, it causes damage to our body. 4) This is where motivation plays in. Motivation arises to perform certain behaviors to satisfy these needs in order to prevent damage happening to our body. We have three different types of needs: physiological, psychological, and social. This chapter, as stated above, just focuses on the physiological needs: thirst, sex, and hunger. The chapter then leads into how to regulate these needs. We learn concepts like the model of need-drive-behavior sequence and the homeostatic mechanism. I talked about this in my blog for the movie, and I found it to be one of the most interesting things in the chapter, so I’ll elaborate.

2) As I just stated, the Homeostatic Mechanism was one of my favorite (most interesting) things I read in the chapter. The Homeostatic Mechanism is how we maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is when our body is at equilibrium, aka healthy and happy. We have certain neural, hormonal, and physiological intraorganismic mechanisms that monitor and regulate our homeostatic status. Obviously our environment is ever changing: sometimes we eat and sometimes we don’t, sometimes were hot and sometimes were cold, etc. These intraorganismic mechanisms wort with one another to make sure our body stays healthy and happy – homeostasis. Sometimes are internal conditions are too low, perhaps from neglect. Then our physiological need activates drive. It is telling our body “I need more of ___”. 4) This is where motivation plays in. This neglect brings drive which motivates us to perform certain behaviors in order to raise our internal state back up to homeostasis. On the other side, sometimes are internal conditions are too high, say from overuse (e.g. over eating). Then we have negative feedback that signals satiety; basically it tells our body, “Stop! We have had enough!”. 3. This negative feedback provides the motivation to either emit or stop certain behaviors in order to lower our internal state back down to homeostasis.

3) I understood pretty much all of the chapter, but if I had to pick one thing that was a little confusing I would pick the section on weight gain and obesity. In this paragraph, there is a sentence that states “Little or no research supports the claim that weight loss produces health benefits, as the cure for obesity, might very well be worse than the condition.” It goes on to say that obesity is “cured” through adapting a healthy lifestyle, as well as types of motivations. Certain types of motivations such as self-regulation (of food intake), mindfulness (of your environment), and exercise motivation can all help prevent/”cure” obesity. Yet in the earlier sentence that I quoted, the text stated that the cure may be worse than the condition. Do they mean that the cure is harder, as this motivation is sometimes hard for people to come by? I know I definitely struggle with self regulation of my food intake, as less than an hour ago (and its 10:30 pm now) I was eating a chocolate malt from Four Queens – YIPES! Anyway – this sentence and then all of the helpful information that follows is what really confused me about the chapter.

5) The difference between chapter four and chapter three is that chapter four was in some ways a sub chapter of chapter three. Chapter four fits in with chapter three because it is a section of it more specific. Physiological mechanisms are certain and specific brain mechanisms. In my Tuesday post one of the things I talked about was hunger and the motivation behind eating (e.g. the hormone grhelin). This is a physiological mechanism.

Terms:
Hormone, physiological mechanism, grhelin, self regulation, mindfulness, exercise motivation, satiety, needs, Model of the Need-Drive-Behavior Sequence, The Homeostatic Mechanism, homeostasis, intraorganismic mechanisms,

Chapter 4 deals with psychological needs that person has. Specifically the chapter talks about 3 main physiological needs which are thirst, hunger, and sex. First let’s describe what a need is. A need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth and well-being. When needs are nurtured and satisfied, well-being is maintained and enhanced. If neglected, the need’s thwarting will produce damage that disrupts biological or psychological well-being. This leads me to drive theory which states physiological deprivations and deficits create biological needs. If the need continues unsatisfied, the biological deprivation becomes potent enough to occupy attention and generate psychological drive. So basically when we are lacking the basic biological needs in our body, our mind sets out to fix this by any means necessary. Until our homeostasis is returned back to normal our motivation is to find ways to achieve balance and sometimes negative feedback. Negative feedback consists of when people, for example, eat and sleep until they are no longer hungry or tired. We also have multiple inputs/outputs that we can use to balance homeostasis. If we’re cold we can put on a coat, blanket, turn of the heat, eat something warm, etc. There are multiple ways of balancing our homoeostasis. There are also intraorganismic mechanisms and extraorganismic mechanisms in our body that help regulate systems within the person. Intraorganismic mechanisms include the biological regulatory systems within the person that act to maintain and terminate physiological needs. The endocrine system and hypothalamus are examples of this. Extraorganismic mechanisms are all the environmental influences that play a part in activating, maintaining, and terminating psychological drive. These can be activated by social and cultural influences.
Thirst is a physiological need that we must maintain in order to survive. Our bodies consist of 2/3’s of water and when that percent drops we notice. A two percent drop in body fluids makes us thirsty while a three percent drop makes up dehydrated. We continuing lose water through perspiration, urination, breathing, bleeding, vomiting and sneezing. Thirst is activated by the hypothalamus in which it monitors intracellular shrinkage of cells caused by low water levels. The brain releases a hormone into the blood plasma that sends a message to the kidneys to conserve water. We are also able to become thirsty by eating things that are sweet, sour, salty and bitter. Hunger involves two different styles, short term appetite and long term appetite. Short term appetite hunger cues the initiation of meals, the size of meals and the termination of meals. When glucose levels drop, people feel hungry and want to eat. Cells require glucose to produce energy. The liver is the organ that monitors blood glucose levels. When glucose is low the liver sends a message to the lateral hypothalamus to produce the sensation of hunger. Long term hungry depends on a person’s homeostatic balance. When the mass of fat drops below or above the homeostatic balance we are either want to eat more or eat less.
Sex is influenced but not determined by hormones. The sex hormones are released into the blood stream by the hypothalamus. These hormones contribute to the sexual motivation of males and females. Men and women react to sexual desire differently. Men have a high correlation between physiological and psychological arousal while in women the physiological and psychological arousal correlation is low.
My favorite part about this chapter was learning about was facial metrics. I find it very interesting that from culture to culture, facial attractiveness is different. Three categories explain which faces are judged attractive. Neonatal features correspond to those associated with the newborn infant such as larges eyes and a small nose. These features are associated with an attractive nonverbal message of youth and agreeableness. Sexual maturity features correspond to those associated with post pubescent status such as prominent check bones and for male’s thick facial and eyebrow hair. Expressive features such as a wide smile/mouth and higher set of eyebrows are means of express positive emotions such as happiness and openness.
Something that I didn’t understand was set points or settling points. How does our motivation determine when it wants to just settle and be fine with the way things are.
As discussed previously, our physiological responses relate to motivation in multiple ways. We need to constantly maintain a homeostasis in order to feel normal. When we don’t feel normal (thirsty, hunger) our motivation is tuned in onto fixing that problem.
Physiological mechanisms differ from brain mechanisms in a few ways. Are physiological mechanisms determine the levels in our hormones or chemicals in our body to make sure they are normal. When they aren’t normal we send signals to our brain. Our brain then tells us that we’re hungry, tired or thirsty.
Terms: homeostasis, thirst, hunger, sex neonatal, sexual maturity, expressive features, motivation, physiological mechanisms, psychological mechanisms, needs, negative feedback, multiple inputs and outputs, Intraorganismic mechanisms, Extraorganismic mechanisms.

Chapter four explains and expands on the topic of human physiological needs. A need is any condition within a person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. There are five needs that form the need structure. The three main needs are: psychological needs (autonomy, competence, etc.), social needs (achievement, intimacy, etc.), and physiological needs (thirst, hunger, etc.). Two other needs to satisfy the need structure are: deficiency needs (anxiety, pain, etc.), and growth needs (interest, vitality, etc.).

Fundamentals of regulation of humans are based on five aspects: (1) physiological need, (2) psychological drive, (3) homeostasis (body’s tendency to maintain and return to stable internal/basal state), (4) negative feedback (homeostasis’s physiological stop system), (5) multiple inputs/outputs (drive has multiple inputs and outputs), (6) intraorganismic mechanisms (all biological regulatory systems within a person that act in concert to activate, maintain, and terminate physiological needs that underlie drive), and (7) extraorganismic mechanisms (all environmental influences that play part in activating, maintaining, and terminating psychological drive). The fundamentals of regulation can also be described through the drive theory. The drive theory states that physiological deprivations and deficits create biological needs; if need continues unsatisfied, the biological deprivation becomes potent enough to occupy attention and generate psychological drive.

Focusing back on the chapter title, and as stated above, we define physiological needs as thirst, hunger, and sex. The physiological regulation of thirst is described by the “double-depletion model” that states: when intracellular fluid needs replenishment, osmometric thirst arises – cellular dehydration causes osmometric thirst, and cellular hydration stops thirst; when extracellular fluid needs replenishment, volumetric thirst arises – hypervolemia (reduction of plasma) causes volumetric thirst, and hypervolemia stops thirst. Physiological regulation of hunger is based on the lateral hypothalamus, the ventromedial hypothalamus, and the glucostatic hypothesis. The lateral hypothalamus is responsible for generating psychological experiences of hunger, whereas the ventromedial hypothalamus is responsible for the termination of meals. These processes are regulated by the glucostatic hypothesis that states: appetite rises and falls in response to changes in plasma glucose that, when low, stimulates lateral hypothalamus to increase hunger and that, when high, stimulates ventromedial hypothalamus to decrease hunger. The physiological regulation of sex is influenced by human sexual behavior, and not determined by hormones. Important contributions to sexual regulation are facial metrics, sexual scripts (representation of step-by-step sequence of events that occur during typical sexual episode), sexual orientation, and the evolutionary basis of sexual motivation. The evolutionary analysis described in chapter four is that men and women are hypothesized to have evolved distinct psychological mechanisms that underlie sexual motivations and mating strategies.

The most interesting thing I learned in chapter four was that of facial metrics. I have heard of facial metrics before and how one can be seen as more or less attractive based on the measurements of facial features. I found it interesting that facial metrics was divided into three main “attractive faces:” neonatal features, sexual maturity features, and expressive features. It was interesting to learn that youthfulness/agreeableness, strength/status, and happiness/openness are most attractive in terms of one’s facial metrics.

I did not have any particular concepts or ideas that were unclear to me. Something that I had never thought about before though, was the fact that there are particular failures of self-regulating physiological needs. Chapter four states that these failures are: (1) routine underestimating how powerful a motivation force biological urges can be when one is not currently experiencing them, (2) lacking standards, or having inconsistent, conflicting, unrealistic, or inappropriate standards, and (3) failing to monitor what one is doing as they become distracted, preoccupied, overwhelmed, or intoxicated. This is definitely food for thought for me and I am glad that our text laid out the reasons so clearly – making it a bit easier for me to understand.

Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation by serving as a sort of base for our reasoning. Everyone has physiological needs (and reactions) and thus everyone will be motivated to fulfill these needs in order to maintain homeostasis and ultimately survive. For example, with the physiological need of thirst, one is motivated to find and consume liquids in order to maintain the need and maintain homeostasis.

A main difference between physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms is that brain mechanisms occur unconsciously, whereas physiological mechanisms usually occur with some conscious thought (such as: “I am hungry/thirsty”). Another main point is that brain mechanisms are what activate, or motivate, our physiological mechanisms to take over.

Chapter 4 talks about needs. A need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth and well-being. The book broke down needs into 3 categories. Physiological needs which relate to thirst, hunger and sex. Psychological needs which deals with autonomy, competence and relatedness. The last of the three is social needs with achievement, affiliation, intimacy and power. The Book talked about how these relate to the drive theory. According to the drive theory, if we are deprived of something that we need for a long enough period of time, we begin to crave it even more.

Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation in that when our physiological needs are not met, we are motivated to meet them in order to survive. If we didn’t have these certain needs and wants such as sleep, thirst, hunger and sex there would be no need for motivation at all.

I was surprised that our bodies are 2/3rds water. When our water volume falls to 2% we feel thirsty and at 3% we become dehydrated. I didn’t realize how close those numbers were together. It is the loss of water below homeostatic level that creates the physiological need of thirst. I guess that’s why were told to drink water even when were not thirsty because at that point it’s almost too late.

I found it interesting that men and women experience and react to sexual desire very differently. With men, the correlation between physiological arousal and psychological desire is high. For women, the correlation between physiological arousal and psychological desire is low. Sexual desire for females is linked to relationship factors like emotional intimacy. I found this interesting because it confirms what many of us have observed and the stereotypes that go along with it.

I am confused about set point or settling point. I don’t understand how motivation rises and falls. I understand that sometimes I am more motivated than others but I still don’t fully understand why.

Physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms are different, but are also connected. Physiological needs such as thirst, hunger, and sex, connect back to the brain. Granted we are not always consciously aware of the motivational source of our behavior, the brain produces the cravings, desires, and needs we long for.

Terms used: motivation, drive, hunger, need, thirst, sex, physiological, psychological, and social needs

Chapter 4 is about physiological needs. A need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, well-being. Physiological needs specifically are inherent within the workings of biological systems such as neural brain circuits, hormones and bodily organs; for example, thirst, hunger, and sex. If these needs continue to be unsatisfied, the biological deprivation becomes potent enough to occupy attention and generate psychological drive, which is a term used to depict psychological discomfort stemming from the underlying and persistent biological deficit. The rise and fall of drive is depicted of a cyclical pattern involving sever core processes, need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, extraoganismic mechanisms. The first physiological need discussed is thirst which occurs when our body loses water through natural processes, creating a bodily need. The second physiological needs discussed is hunger. Hunger follows a "depletion-repletion" model, and is regulated by both short-term processes, and long-term processes. Cognitive/Social/Environmental models are also a contributing factor in hunger. The third physiological need discussed was sexual motivation and emotion. Human sexual behavior is influenced by hormones. Men and women experience and react to sexual desire very differently. Men's sexual desire can be predicted and explained in the context of their sexual arousal; whereas women's sexual desire is highly responsive to relationship factors, such as emotional intimacy. Control over our physiological needs often does more harm then good because of two main reasons: under appreciating the strength physiologically and biologically based motives, and losing control over one's attention and standards.
The most interesting thing I learned in this chapter were the studies about being thirsty/hungry and how the body reacts to these needs. It is interesting that, even when water/food is withheld or given in excess, the body works itself out to quickly get what it needs to be back to one's own "normal". I also find the differences in sexual desire between men and women to be very interesting because men and women are so similar in the needs for food and water, but when it comes to sexual desire, they are completely different. What I found to be the most confusing in this chapter was the comprehensive model that combines short-term and long-term influences on appetite and hunger regulation. The Lipostatic and Glucostaic Hypotheses are confusing to me, and the way that everything goes together just doesn't seem to make sense to me.
Physiology relates to motivation because we are motivated to meet our physiological needs (thirst, hunger and sex) when they are not being met by our body's requirements. Our physiological needs leads to psychological drive, which then further leads to goal-directed motivated behavior, which ultimately leads to consummatory behavior to satisfy our needs.
Physiological mechanisms stem from brain mechanisms. The main brain mechanism associated with physiological needs is the hypothalamus. This helps create, maintain, and terminate the psychological experience of drive. These brain mechanisms are what triggers the needs/drive that we cannot feel. They tell our body what it needs, and our body responds to the feelings they create.

Terms: need, physiological need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, extraoganismic mechanisms, thirst, hunger, hormones, Lipostatic and Glucostaic Hypotheses, hypothalamus

Chapter four was about needs. There are three types of needs: Physiological, Psychological, and Social. This chapter briefly touched on psychological and social, then focused more on physiological needs. The physiological needs discussed were thirst, hunger, and sex. The theory focused in this chapter was Hull's drive theory. The theory says that the physiological deprivations give rise to bodily needs, and then rises to psychological drive, then motivates the person to attend to those needs. There are seven fundamental processes: physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs and outputs, intraorganismic and extraorganismic influences. Thirst is activated when the body's water is depleted on the intracellular level and the extracellular level. Hunger occurs when fat cells begin to shrink. That is according to the lipostatic hypothesis. Eating behaviors is influenced by situational pressures. Sexual motivation rises and falls with a combination of numerous of factors (hormones, external stimulation, external cues, cognitive scripts, sexual schemas, and evolutionary presses).
There was nothing that I didn't find to hard to understand, but I thought the hunger aspect of settling point was very interesting. Extraorganismic influences is the base of the settling point. The theory was created by Bolles, who said that behaviors associated with drinking, eating, and mating arrive at a settling point regulated by cognitive, emotional, social, and cultural conditions.
Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation by giving us an answer for our behaviors when it comes to thirst, hunger and sex. In order to survive, one must fulfill our physiological needs first. If we cannot function without the biological needs of water and food (energy). When we reach a point where we are near death or bodily shut down, we will be motivated to get that physiological need.
I don't believe that physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms differ too much. I think that they work together. Our physiological mechanisms communicates to our brain mechanisms. With this communication, the brain can determine which hormones to release, or tell us what we need to do. For example, when the body's water level is low and we become dehydrated, our hypothalamus tells our kidneys not to dilute the urine with water in order to conserve the body's water level.

Chapter four begins by defining and discussing needs, which the book defines as 'any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life.' The book then breaks down our needs into three different needs with in the need structure; physiological, psychological, and social needs, to eventually focus on the physiological needs for this particular chapter. The book explains Clark Hull's drive theory, which essentially means that if we are deprived of needs, or bodies will eventually force us to meet and achieve those needs. Homeostasis is the body's consistency to maintain a stable internal environment and conditional properties. It is because of homeostasis that the body so diligently seeks to meet needs such as hunger and thirst, so that it can maintain levels of blood sugar, proteins, etc. The chapter focuses on three important needs in detail; thirst, hunger, and sex. Each of these physiological needs drive us to act in certain ways. We are driven by thirst to seek water we have lost, and we are eventually driven to stop drinking due to negative feedback, or homeostasis' 'stop' button.
To me, the most interesting thing I learned in the chapter is the conflict between physiological needs and self-regulation. Its fascinating to me that often times dieting can cause more harm than good, especially when it comes to fasting. When an individual neglect to eat, then often induce a subsequent binge afterwards, and becomes susceptible to what our textbook calls disinhibition, causing us to misunderstand when our need is bet and instead over eat.
It is very easy to see how physiological needs relate to motivation. When the human body lacks more than 2% of water it feels thirsty, and after 3% it becomes dehydrated. Because of drive theory, we are eventually driven and motivated to do whatever is necessary to meet those needs. An example used in class that fits well is the idea that at some point an individual, if trapped in their car, will become thirsty enough to drink the week old warm water, and if they were to go even longer and become even thirstier, they would be driven to drink the open soda from a month ago. The longer our physiological needs go without being met, the more insistent they become, motivating us to do (or rather drink) whatever is necessary in order to meet at least some of those needs.
Though both brain mechanisms and physiological needs are important motivators, however physiological needs are much more primal and basic. Without meeting physiological needs the body is literally unable to survive, whereas brain mechanisms are more sophisticated and effected by several factors (environment, brain structures, biochemicals, etc.)

Terms:Need, Need Structure, Drive Theory, Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, Disinhibition.

Chapter 4 is basically a discussion of the daily functions our bodies need due to physiological needs like thirst, hunger, and sex. A need is a necessary for life, growth, and well-being when it comes to a person. If a need is somehow neglected, the well-being of the person can be damaged or lessened. While a person becomes satisfied with their well-being. The drive theory plays an essential role with determining when we are faced with a situation that makes us be deprived of something for a longer period of time, we crave that something even more. This chapter also talks about homeostasis which is a tendency to maintain a stable internal state with our body. Negative feedback occurs after homeostasis, it tells our bodies that it no longer needs to consume anything else anymore, until the process that is continuously happening in our bodies starts the cycle over again.

I found the section about thirst, hunger, and sex to be the most interesting because it’s all essential to being a human being. I found out that thirst originates from cells that are being dehydrated while inside the body. I remember learning about how you would only survive two days without drinking water, since water makes up and contributes so much to our bodies on a day-to-day basis. Hunger is not as straightforward as being thirsty. I found out that when glucose levels are low in the blood stream, than that is when people tend to want to typically eat more. The brain plays many key roles in influencing how much we will consume in a sitting. It was interesting to find out that when people are situated in different situations they tend to eat more or less. An example of what I mean is the book says that when people are surrounded by peers and are given a choice to have a larger portion of meals, they tend to eat more, while they tend to eat less when give smaller portions of meals, because of less variety. Lastly, the sex talk. Throughout my years here at UNI I’ve learned a thing or two about the differences of men and women’s thoughts on sex. But it always still intrigues me to want to learn more, because you can never have enough information. Basically women are more caring toward the emotional aspect of intimacy, not so much the physical, like the men do.

The set point discussion in this chapter talking about weight was the most confusing for me. I just don’t understand how our body is a custom to having a set weight and remaining at that set weight after we all hit a certain limit. I just don’t understand how that is possible because I would believe we’d find more people out in this world of ours that are all in the average weight frame, we wouldn’t find as many people, if at all, who had to deal with being too skinny or way overweight.

Physiology is related to motivation by how our physiological needs are in need of being met, but aren’t, we are then motivated to have them be met in order for ourselves to survive. This is linked back to how we are motivated to drink when thirsty, and eat when hungry, because without either of these two behaviors, we wouldn’t be able to survive for very long. The difference between physiological mechanisms and the brain is that physiological deal with needs, while the brain deals with the structures of how they are and can get impacted by motivation.

Terms: Physiological, physiology, need, thirst, hunger, sex, drive theory, homeostasis, negative feedback, & mechanisms

Chapter 4 introduced our need structure. Physiological needs, are needs for survival, psychological needs, are needs healthy development and human nature needs, and social needs, and are like emotional and socializing needs. Although the chapter briefly discusses psychological and social needs chapter 4 emphasizes on physiological needs. Physiological needs are thirst, hunger and sex. Physiological needs are essential and necessary for life, growth and human well-being. Throughout the chapter there are sections of these physiological needs. Chapter 4 discusses in detail about our needs and how we use motivation to acquire them.
I think the most interesting part of the chapter was in the thirst chapter. The thirst section basically discusses the need for water and other drinks. There are sections like thirst satiety which is being full or reached the capacity where your body tells you, you no longer are thirsty. When I read this part of the thirsty section, I began to think of my friend. Right now he is trying to drink one gallon of water a day. Before reading this chapter, I thought that was a bad idea because I heard of a people dying for drinking too much water, but I was unsure if it was true or not. But according to the book, my friend should receive a negative feedback if he has had too much water. The thirst section also discusses environmental influences, why do we choose to satisfy our thirst with a specific drink. Some of those reasons are due to our environmental influences. It had some interesting facts like, when our water volume level reaches two percent, which is when we begin to feel thirsty.
The physiological reactions relate to motivation because if we are not meeting those needs, the thirst, hunger and sex needs, it sends a signal to our brain which then motivates us into satisfying those needs. For example when we go through a food deprivation, we generate a hormone that stimulates the hypothalamus, pleasurable feelings associated with feeding, drinking and mating, (physiological needs) and the stimulation creates the hunger which motivates us to get something to eat.
Terms: Physiological needs, Psychological needs, social needs, satiety, hypothalamus, thirst, hunger, sex, negative feedback

The first part of the chapter is actually an overview of different needs covered from Chapter 4 to 7. It describes the drive theory by Clark Hull as well as homeostasis in physiology. Then the chapter really begins to talk about physiological needs including thirst, hunger, and sex. Finally the chapter illustrates three reasons why people can fail to regulate these needs.

The interesting thing I learned in this chapter is that the author of the textbook really does not want to talk too much about sex. I mean, really? Are five sections all you need to describe this magical topic? I still remember my psychology of sexuality class, along with that incredible textbook written by professors at University of Wisconsin. The content of the book was seriously beyond your imagination. The pictures inside could give you nightmares, and there were so many terms of wild deeds. After taking that class, I really thought there are people just out of their minds. Anyway, this chapter demonstrates that religious Iowans are not susceptible to those crazy sexual practices. But you know, Wisconsin is not that far away...

There are two things unclear to me. The first is the sentence in the blog post, namely the one asking me "Were their concepts or ideas you are unclear on right now?" Let's see... There are two "be" verbs. One in past tense, and one in present tense. And it says "their concepts or ideas," so I must have met "them" somewhere in the chapter. But just exactly who are they? So is this sentence asking me what was unclear "before" I read it or what is unclear "after" I read it? Well, it says "were" and "right now" at the same time... Right now, I am so confused.

The second thing unclear to me is Figure 4.7 on Page 91. The plus and minus signs in the graph are somewhat hard to read. I am unable to tell what increases and what decreases simply by looking at this illustration. I can find out the relations by reading the text, but the graph itself remains difficult to read.

I think the physiological needs in this chapter really have limited influence on human motivation, unless you are living in a very poor condition and literally dying of food shortage. One sad and strange fact is that while some poor people in this country suffer from hunger, some other poor people are plagued by obesity. The discussion of this phenomenon will probably shift from psychology to economics and politics, so I won't go far from here. On the other hand, Robert Bolles really made a good point. I agree with him that environmental factors are far more influential to our intake behavior than the basic body functions. Therefore, we could say that motivation from external stimuli has great impact on our physiological reactions.

To me comparing physiology with the brain seems to be an odd thing to do. This is like comparing a greenhouse to local weather, or comparing pilot training with aircraft design, depending on your perspective. So what should I say? We know that the brain keeps the body running through nervous and endocrine systems, but we also know that the brain does lots of other things. By recalling from the biopsychology class, I know its functions include processing sensory information, controlling body movement, recognizing different sights and sounds, storing various signals, and putting these signals back together in meaningful ways. Its most valuable ability is probably abstract thinking. The physiological processes in the chapter are also facilitated by the brain, but they are only a selection of its various functions.

This chapter focuses heavily on drive-theory, which is when physiological deficits and deprivations create biological needs in our bodies. The “drive” is the psychological discomfort we get when we have that biological deficit. This chapter also spends a lot of time discussing the sequence that occurs from our need-drive-behavior. We start in a satiated state, and then physiological deprivation occurs, if there is prolonged physiological deprivation then that produces a bodily need, the need intensifies and gives us a psychological drive, we then develop a goal-directed motivated behavior, consummatory behavior begins, and then the drive is reduced. The easiest example to look at when observing this cycle is to simply use the example of being hungry, however, the first state would be content and not hungry yet. The chapter also discusses inputs and outputs. The input would be sources that cause the drive, and the output would be the behavior resulting from that source causing the drive. Homeostasis is another key term from this chapter, which is the body’s ability to maintain a stable internal state. Facial metrics (the study of attractiveness based on facial characteristics) and sexual scripts were focused on at the end of the chapter, which also covers the idea of one’s sexual orientation being based on genetics.
One of the most interesting things I learned in this chapter was that if our body was not able to shut off our drives, specifically hunger, we could eat ourselves to death. I know that I tend to mindlessly eat at parties or any time there is food being offered on a table. What I didn’t understand was our body’s abilities to regulate our needs and the different stages we go through when consuming food or thinking about consuming food or what we psychologically go through when we are hungry!
Our physiological needs involve thirst, hunger, and sex (mostly). When these needs are not being met, our brain and body take over and cause the motivation to occur for us to have these needs met. Thirst and hunger specifically, are something that our body needs for us to live. The motivation to consume water and food when we have a physiological deficit is so strong that we will spend most of our time thinking about those things and looking for ways to obtain them until have. The hypothalamus plays a key role. If one part of the hypothalamus is stimulated we feel hunger, and if another part is stimulated we feel satiated. All motivational and emotional states involve brain participation. P 49.
Physiological needs are something we can feel inside us. The need for thirst and hunger is so strong that it becomes quite uncomfortable to concentrate on anything besides those deficits in our bodies. Our brain mechanisms focus on those needs. The brain does not feel hunger first, but our stomach does and it sends a message to the hypothalamus saying “feed me!” the brain and the body works together sending messages and creating the drive for us to get those needs met.
I thought this chapter gave great definitions to the different terms and gave pretty good examples along with them. It is easy to think about the physiological need for food and what happens to get us focused on consuming a meal because most of us have probably been there at one point. Whether you’re stuck at work and forgot to eat lunch or you were completely broke last month and had to manage what little food you have left in your cupboard. I think the only thing I was confused on was set points and settling points so I am hoping they are discussed more in class.
Terms: drive-theory, hypothalamus, physiological need, homeostasis, inputs/outputs, drive, need-drive-behavior sequence, facial metrics

Summarize the chapter.

Chapter 4 is about the biological motivators of our body and how they signal essential needs to our body.

The two types of thirst was interesting to me, particularly volumetric thirst, the idea that potentially suffering a wound could induce thirst implies that the body made be able to produce blood at an accelerated rate so long as the constituent needs for blood production are met. However, this type of thirst doesn't seem particularly relevant as in the paragraph immediately after it's explanation it states that osmometric thirst is the primary activator of thirst. It seems that volumetric thrist indirectly triggers osmometric thirst by way of reducing the body's ability to transmiss fluid to all the cells. With reduced interstitial fluids there would be cells that begin to experience lessened hydration and thus trigger osmometric thirst in those cells.

Mate selection by the book is incredibly interesting. Particularly the references toward males finding young and attractive mates to be the most desirable. In my experience, this is only half true within homosexual communities but when it is true, it is more true than within heterosexual communities. There is a vanity in being young and attractive in gay communities. It is as if this tendency is exacerbated within the minds of young attractive homosexual males, doubly so on account of older homosexual males often having a preference for attractive young men. It's like it generates a loop that increases without a set terminal velocity. Since the primary selective mechanisms for males link to attractiveness rather than status, it explains the promiscuity that is somewhat legendary and in part true within populations of male homosexuals. That at least is a self perpetuating loop since it dictates the social environment of homosexual males.

Physiology and physiological reactions trigger motivational states that encourage behaviors necessary to maintenance of life and continuance of species. They do not cause actions, rather influence and suggest actions that must be taken. How that action is taken is impacted by the cultural and social norms of the individual and the preferences of the individual as determined by non-vital motivators such as preferences and desire for same/different in terms of food or drink.

Physiological mechanisms are located in more places than just the brain. Most negative feedback systems are located in non-brain parts of the body. They respond to commands put forth by the brain but also send the response to tell the brain when enough is enough.

Terms

Volumetric Thirst- Thirst generated by loss of extracellular fluids such as blood.

Thirst-consciously experienced motivational state that primes the body to intake fluids.

Interstitial fluids-the solution that surrounds cells in multicellular animals.

Osmometric Thirst-thirst generated by cellular dehydration. Thirst generation by differences in osmotic pressure between the cell and the interstitial fluid maybe.

Activation-the process that prepares or excites the next reaction.

Negative Feedback-In biology, the processes that inhibit hormones responsible for behaviors.

Chapter 4 discusses how “drive” is influenced by physiological needs. A physiological need is “any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being (pg 77).” Physiological needs help us avoid damaging our body through means such as food deprivation and even social deprivation. Maintenance of physiological, psychological, and social needs influence our well-being. The chapter also explains the three basic physiological needs: hunger, the complex physiological need to not only replenish what has been depleted, but also maintaining energy balance and incorporating the effect that our social setting has on our food consumption; thirst, the conscious drive to satisfy the unconscious biological need to replenish water; and sex, hormonally influenced sexual behavior with the evolutionary basis of reproduction of a species.

The most interesting thing I learned from this chapter, as well as the one that is not completely clear, is the “drive theory.” I did not realize the complexity of drive and all of its components. The chapter explains the “drive theory,” developed by Clark Hull. This theory states, “physiological deprivations and deficits create biological needs (pg 79).” Drive is essentially psychological discomfort caused by biological deficits. There is a rise and fall in psychological drive and it runs in a cyclical pattern. This pattern begins with need, the biological deficit. This need leads to psychological drive, the unconscious physiological need become conscious. Drive occurs because of the bodies desire for homeostasis. That is, the body wants to maintain a stable internal state (pg 80). When our body has a physiological need to satisfy, such as thirst, we are driven to drink, but without negative feedback, we would continue to drink to the point of destroying our body. Negative feedback is what makes us stop. It inhibits the drive, in this case, to keep drinking. Drive has multiple inputs and multiple outputs, meaning that drive “arises from a number of different sources and motivates a number of different goal-directed behaviors (pg 81).” There are mechanisms in the body as well as in the environment that are regulating the activation, maintenance, and termination of physiological needs. These mechanisms are intraorganismic (body) and extraorganismic (environment) mechanisms. All of these components mentioned above are needed to regulate drive and motivation to satisfy physiological needs.

Physiology and physiological reaction relate to motivation in that our unconscious physiological needs become conscious psychological drive that must be fulfilled. Our body must maintain a homeostatic level in order to function properly. We are motivated by the psychological drive to replenish and restore any biological need that has been depleted in order to return the body to a homeostatic state.

Physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms go hand-in-hand. In order to understand how physiological mechanisms, you must also understand the brain’s role in motivation. However, physiological mechanisms are those that regulate the biological needs of the body, such as thirst, hunger, and sex, while the brain mechanisms are the messengers and senders of information about the various needs of the body that need to be restored. Without the brain mechanism sending messages throughout the body, our physiological needs would go unmet because our brain plays such a key role in motivation.

Terms: physiological needs, psychological drive, hunger, thirst, sex, drive theory, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/outputs, intraorganismic mechanism, extraorganismic mechanism

In chapter four, it discusses our physiological needs as human beings. Physiological needs are what our bodies require to survive, to grow, and to gain an overall happiness. There are three basic physiological needs are bodies must have: hunger, thirst, and sex. Without these components, our body will not be able to maintain homeostasis, or our internal stable state.
Thirst is a need for our bodies because we are constantly losing fluids throughout the day. Perspiring, breathing, sneezing, going to the bathroom, and doing any activity that requires energy are ways our body loses water. Without water, our bodies cannot function properly and that is why we need to continually put water in our system. Hunger is an important need for us because we need to eat to regulate our blood-sugar levels (glucose), and our fat levels. Satisfying our hunger aids in creating energy for our bodies. Our need for hunger can also be stimulated by many environmental factors as well, such as: sight, taste, smell, socializing, and situational circumstances. Our physiological need for sex is influencing by the hormones are body secretes. For men, our sexual desire is based on arousal, while a female’s desire is based on relationships. Other than hormones, there are several other influences on sexual desire. Facial metrics for example, the study of attractive face characteristics, is one of the best motivators for sex drive.

The most interesting thing I learned in this chapter was the section on hunger and how it can be broken down into two categories: short term appetite model and the long-term energy model. The short term model is based on the glucostatic hypothesis. When our cells use up glucose to help the body function, it tells our brain that we need to eat to restore the glucose in our cells. That is how our body is able to remain functioning. The long-term energy balance is based on the lipostatic hypothesis, stating that when our cells shrink as a result from fat loss, ghrelin is secreted in to inform us it’s time to eat. Likewise, when the body has too much fat in its cells, leptin is secreted telling our bodies to stop eating. This hypothesis regulates food intake and the amount of energy we use up. A good balance between the two helps our bodies maintain homeostasis.

One aspect that confused me a little was the set point theory. This theory states that the size of a cell, if it has too much or too little fat, determines hunger. The person’s body weight is genetically pre-determined depending on the genetics of the cells. I don’t really understand exactly how they can determine someone’s body weight. I feel like environmental factors would be the strongest indicator of someone’s body weight (SES, access to food choices, activity, and friends).

Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation because they go hand in hand with each other. Without motivation, our physiological needs will not be met. If we need to eat and drink and we have no motivation to do so, then we are simply not going to eat or drink. Thirst and hunger are necessary physiological needs for our survival. If there is not motivation, then we cannot survive. At the same time, our body’s physiological needs can trigger motivation. Consider hunger, whenever our cells need more glucose to expend more energy, it signal to structures in our body that give us the motivation to meet the need.

Physiological mechanisms include brain mechanisms. For us to meet our physiological needs, biological systems like neural circuits, hormones, organs, and brain circuits must be involved. For example, when our fat in our cells get too low, ghrelin is released by tissues in our body that stimulate the hypothalamus in the brain. This gives us our motivation to eat and increase those fat levels in our body. Our biological mechanisms are more complex as they play a part in emotions, cognitions, behavior, and other everyday events we encounter. Physiological mechanism and biological mechanisms only interact when hunger, thirst, and sex needs to be satisfied.
Terms: Need, hunger thirst, sex, homeostasis, hypothalamus, ghrelin, leptin, facial metrics, short-term appetite model, long-term energy model, glucostatic hypothesis, lipostatic hypothesis, set point theory.

I found chapter 4 to be more interesting than the previous chapters. Maybe that is just because I find the topic of physiological needs easier to understand than the other chapter topics. In this chapter it discusses the three main physiological needs which are thirst, hunger, and sex. This chapter discusses those needs and also the things that motivate them. I enjoyed this chapter because everyone can relate to it because everyone has experienced one of these physiological needs. The only thing is that we don’t normally put much thought into it because it is something that we have always known. When your body needs something you are programmed to fulfill that need.

Something that I found pretty interesting was the table 4.2 about gender differences in mate preferences. There were a few different variables in this table, such as physical appearance, age, earning potential, and things like race and religion. The greater preferences for men were physical appearance, being younger than them by five years, and being of a different race. So in summary this is saying men prefer an attractive, younger woman who is of a different race. As for females, the greater preference were being older than them by five years, steady job, earns more than them, has more education then them, and has children. So in summary, women prefer an older man who is financially secure, who also has children. To me it sounds like men prefer the younger girl who they may be able to take care of. Whereas women prefer the older male who is able to take care of them and a family. Females appear to want the security. I just found this to be an interesting report of sexual motivation

Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation because physiological reactions are some of the biggest motivators that we encounter. Everyone experiences physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex. We all have those built in reactions. When you are hunger you eat something. When you are thirsty you drink something. When you have those needs you are programmed to automatically fulfill them. Your body is motivated to fulfill those needs because your body is rewarded by those bodily needs being met.

Physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms both deal with motivation and what drives us to fulfill our needs. Physiological mechanisms talk more about our bodily needs such as thirst, hunger, and sex. Our physiological mechanisms are the ways that we fill those needs. For example when we are hungry we eat. Whereas the brain mechanisms are more automatic and it discusses more of the neurotransmitters such as dopamine and how it affects your feelings. The brain mechanisms are more focused on neurotransmitters and chemicals that help to even your feelings, emotions, and reactions out.

Terms: Physiology, physiological relations, physiological needs (hunger, thirst, and sex), sexual motivation, needs, drive, physiological mechanisms, brain mechanisms

Psychological drive involves seven processes: need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs and outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms and extraorganismic mechanisms. Drive is what makes the subconscious desires or the desires of the body in to physical feelings to drive the behavior or motivate the behavior the body wants. This can be the feeling of hunger or thirst, something that energizes and directs behavior. Homeostasis describes the body’s ability to maintain a level of optimum efficiency. It has the ability to maintain constant levels of water, salt, sugar calcium, etc. in the blood and keep a constant internal environment despite what is happening in the environment externally. Intraorganismic and extraorganisimic outputs is a fancy way of saying that the body has multiple sources a drive can come from and this drive can be put to multiple uses to achieve the same end result. For instance, one can pee a lot or sweat or bleed and the result will be that the body is driven to drink. The book made an excellent example that if we are motivated to increase our body temperature because we are cold we can turn the heat on, get a blanket or shiver. These outputs are easily organized by external or extra- (mechanisms that include environmental factors) and inner or intra- (mechanisms that include biological factors).
As a modern society, we take a lot of things for granted that we don’t have to worry about. The needs of ourselves: physiological needs, psychological needs and social needs that we have become accustomed to doing easy daily maintenance on. Because it has become so routine, we sometimes forget the importance of these needs and that by ignoring these needs for long periods it can produce biological and psychological harm to ourselves. “What am I going to eat?” is more of a question of how lazy do I feel and what do I WANT to eat. “What am I going to drink?” is more of a question of what do I WANT to drink and if I can’t find something that interests me I can always have water. Things like taste are environmental influences and certainly because base survival in our culture is of little importance due to our modernized way of living, we can worry about what we want to eat or drink based on what tastes good and what we feel like eating. Our psychological needs are easily met as well as social, despite our sometimes unhappiness with the drudgery of our day. Even our social needs are easily met if we WANT them to be. However, when a person is thrown on to a deserted island, the importance of these needs become apparent very quickly. Thirst and hunger (our physiological needs) come first to the forefront. Since our bodies are two-thirds water, if we lose 2% of our water volume we start to feel thirsty, if we lose 3% we become dehydrated. What causes the sensation of thirst is thirst activation from osmometric thirst; meaning his thirst comes from his own dehydrated cells. Without water replenishment, we would not live for more than 2 days. Just like we monitor and control the need for water, we also monitor our intake and assure that we don’t drink too much. Thirst satiety steps in and stops people from over drinking. If you drink too much then cellular dysfunction can occur and you can die. In other words, a person should stay away from the extremes of thirst (too little and too much) and find a happy medium, something that thanks to osmometric thirst and thirst satiety, our bodies tell us automatically.
The hunger that people feel is due to glucose levels in our body. Glucose produces energy, and when levels are low we start feeling a lack of energy. The stomach, on average, empties itself at 210 calories per hour. No hunger is felt with a full stomach (obviously) but with 60% empty people feel hunger and at 90% empty people report maximum hunger (obviously). Hunger regulation involves short term and long term influences. Short term influences include glucose levels, long term influences involve fat. We can use fat cells to produce energy. We store fat cells like a squirrel stores nuts away; to be used when we are in need of energy. It’s like our energy reserves.
Sex is also a need we have. In lower animals this occurs only when the female is ready to mate biologically. For the male, testosterone levels are raised when they are ready to mate. In humans this drive is influenced by hormones. In men, physiological arousal correlates with the psychological desire; when he is erect he is ready to roll. In women, this correlation is low. What does correlate with women is emotional intimacy with their psychological desire. Research suggests that sexual orientation is not a choice or figured out after soul searching but something that happens during adolescence.

Needs: psychological, social, physiological; thirst; hunger; negative feedback system; thirst activation; osmoemtric thirst; thirst satiety; cellular dysfunction; glucose; environmental influences; drive; homeostasis; multiple inputs and outputs; intraorganismic mechanisms; extraorganismic mechanisms; hormones; sexual orientation

I found chapter 4 to be more interesting than the previous chapters. Maybe that is just because I find the topic of physiological needs easier to understand than the other chapter topics. In this chapter it discusses the three main physiological needs which are thirst, hunger, and sex. This chapter discusses those needs and also the things that motivate them. I enjoyed this chapter because everyone can relate to it because everyone has experienced one of these physiological needs. The only thing is that we don’t normally put much thought into it because it is something that we have always known. When your body needs something you are programmed to fulfill that need.

Something that I found pretty interesting was the table 4.2 about gender differences in mate preferences. There were a few different variables in this table, such as physical appearance, age, earning potential, and things like race and religion. The greater preferences for men were physical appearance, being younger than them by five years, and being of a different race. So in summary this is saying men prefer an attractive, younger woman who is of a different race. As for females, the greater preference were being older than them by five years, steady job, earns more than them, has more education then them, and has children. So in summary, women prefer an older man who is financially secure, who also has children. To me it sounds like men prefer the younger girl who they may be able to take care of. Whereas women prefer the older male who is able to take care of them and a family. Females appear to want the security. I just found this to be an interesting report of sexual motivation

Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation because physiological reactions are some of the biggest motivators that we encounter. Everyone experiences physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex. We all have those built in reactions. When you are hunger you eat something. When you are thirsty you drink something. When you have those needs you are programmed to automatically fulfill them. Your body is motivated to fulfill those needs because your body is rewarded by those bodily needs being met.

Physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms both deal with motivation and what drives us to fulfill our needs. Physiological mechanisms talk more about our bodily needs such as thirst, hunger, and sex. Our physiological mechanisms are the ways that we fill those needs. For example when we are hungry we eat. Whereas the brain mechanisms are more automatic and it discusses more of the neurotransmitters such as dopamine and how it affects your feelings. The brain mechanisms are more focused on neurotransmitters and chemicals that help to even your feelings, emotions, and reactions out.

Terms: Physiology, physiological relations, physiological needs (hunger, thirst, and sex), sexual motivation, needs, drive, physiological mechanisms, brain mechanisms

Chapter four is about physiological needs. The definition of a need is anything that is necessary for life and personal well being. A physiological need arises via biological structures, the three examples of which are hunger, thirst, and sex. These needs, if not satisfied when they occur, can cause problems for the body and its biological as well as psychological functions. The chapter goes on to describe and discuss the cyclical pattern of drive theory. Drive theory states that when a need occurs due to some deficit, that motivates a drive. This drive is the discomfort and feeling we get that motivates us to seek out the satisfaction for the need we are deficient in. This cycle includes seven characteristics: need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, and extraorganismic mechanisms. I've already described the first two terms, need and drive, and homeostasis is next. The body always wants to remain at a specific constant state. When something is missing or too plentiful, the body will do its best to get back to its previous state by motivation. Negative feedback is the way homeostasis can do some of that work. While a drive is an action motivating behavior, negative feedback is the opposite. Negative feedback exists to motivate us to stop doing things that are causing our needs to arise. Multitple inputs and outputs is a simple concept that explains there are many ways in which a drive state can occur as well as many ways it can be satisfied. We feel hungry for many different reasons and can choose to satisfy that hunger in many different ways. A drive the thing that links our inputs and outputs, and for any given drive there are any combination of inputs and outputs possible. Intraorganismic mechanisms are the internal biological components the begin, continue, and end the physiological needs. Extraorganismic mechanisms are the external environmental influences that add to the beginning, continuation, and stopping of the needs. These mechanisms work together, not seperatly, to motivate us.

Thirst is one of the biggest needs we face. Since we're made up of a majority of water we need a lot of it to survive. Thirst has two main sources, intracellular and extracellular. They are as they seem. The intracellular is the water inside the cells and it seems to be the more important of the two as far as thirst activation goes. Extracellular fluids are outside cells and deplete from things like bleeding and vomiting. Water is passed through the extracellular fluids into the cells and each area the water passes through gives some negative feedback, more intense as it goes through the body, to cease drinking. Drinking water is a common occurance but many times people will overdrink things that have a pleasing taste past the level of thirst satisfaction. This is also regulated by environmental and social cues.

Hunger is even more complex than thirst. There are multiple internal functions that motivate hunger. There is the short term glucose (blood sugar) need, when the body is low it feels the need to replenish its energy source. The body itself stimulates the feeling of hunger through hormones and such but it also uses other influences from the mouth, stomach, and body temperature. There is a long term concept for hunger, as well. Like glucose, fat is used by the body for energy. When fat stores drop, the body seeks to regain them using ghrelin to induce hunger. The opposite is also true when fat stores are too high, leptin is released to reduce hunger. Even better, there is a model combining the short and long term hunger influences. Hunger is also influenced quite a bit by environment. The variety of food available, size, taste, social cues, dieting, and bingeing are some examples of things that influence hunger and food consumption. Dieting is not quite as great as some people think as it can lead to bingeing. Those who try to stay away from food end up eating the most of it due to their bodily drive. Obesity is therefore a difficult condition as dieting may not be a helpful thing for them. It is much easier to prevent obesity than to reverse it.

The idea of sex being an actual physiological need is a bit controversial in my opinion. In most animals, sex follows their hormones. Ovulation, pheromones, and testosterone all together give rise to mating behavior. In humans, sex is influenced by hormones but it is not entirely motivated by them. We have some cognitive control over mating behaviors. Men and women are differnet in how they are sexually aroused, as are those of different ages by how often. Physical attractiveness is an important trait and can be calculated in some ways such as waist to hip ratio and facial metrics. The smaller waist with bigger hips, a .7 WHR is the most attractive in women as judged by both sexes. Faces with symmetry are typically seen as more widely attractive. Facial and bodily cues that we find attractive have an evolutionary basis in meaning more youthful and thus better genetically. Men are more interested in these physical things while women are typically more interested in the man's status and resources.

The most interesting thing from this chapter was all the different animal studies on thirst and hunger. They were all so interesting, like the one using different levels of food and body weight returning to normal after time. There wasn't really anything that seemed unclear to me in this chapter. Physiological motivation is a huge part of life. Our bodily needs motivate us to continue living. If we did not have the internal workings that motivated us to eat, we might just forget to do so. Feeling that hunger when we skip a meal keeps us doing our body good and providing it with energy. Physiological mechanisms are made up by specific brain mechanisms. Without those brain structures, we wouldn't be able to survive and there would definitely not be any physiological motivation. The first is necessary for the second's existence.

Terms: need, physiological need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/outputs, thirst, intracellular, extracellular, hunger, glucose, waist to hip ratio, facial metrics

Terms: physiology, physiological, motivation, response, biological systems, alternative sex response cycle, sex drive, sex hormones, traditional sex response cycle, facial metrics, and etraoganismic mechanisms, Intraorganismic mechanisms, and when physiological needs.

Chapter 4
Chapter four was about people’s needs and the different kinds of needs. This chapter talked about physiological needs, psychological needs, and social needs. This chapter talked about Clark Hulls biological based theory of motivation called drive theory. This chapter talked about Intraorganismic mechanisms and etraoganismic mechanisms. This chapter talked about thirst and hunger and how if it is not kept at a functional level in the body the body will trigger so many parts of the body until it is replenished. This chapter talked about sex and how hormones influence a person’s sex drive but androgens contribute to a man’s sex drive and estrogens contribute to a woman’s sex drive. The chapter talked about the different stimuli that arise in a person when seeking out a partner. The chapter ended with talking about what happens to the body when physiological needs are met.
Other then learning about the different types of needs in the body the most interesting thing I about the chapter I feel was when it talked about how the body needs sex and the different things that draw a person to a sexual partner. I think it was really interesting that a person’s sex drive starts to decline in the mid twenties. I thought this was interesting because most people are finding their life partner about this time and starting a family so I would think that most people’s sex hormones would be elevated. It’s crazy to think that a person’s sex hormones and sexual desires are about half of what they are 40 then when they were 20 years old. My favorite part in the chapter was when it talked about the traditional sex response cycle and alternative sex response cycle. This was my favorite because it described so well how a woman needs emotional intimacy to spark sexual desire. I read this to my friend because he never understood why woman don’t want to have sex all the time like men. He seemed to think that a woman at the bars are there for sex but when he would make a move he would get shut down and now he understand why woman want to cuddle after sex. A woman’s sex response cycle is a continuum and even after orgasm, a woman’s arousal emotionally is still high, where as a man, it declines after orgasm. I think it was also interesting to read about facial metrics. I never thought that woman found thick facial hair and thick eyebrows to be associated with strength, status, and competency. The only part of the chapter that I thought was confusing was the facial diagram in the facial metrics section.
Physiology and physiological reactions relate to motivation because they affect the body’s mood and emotions that in turn affect motivation. In the book it talked about how if certain needs are not me, like food for example, it will cause a person to feel moody and crabby and have low energy which in return might cause a person to have low motivation. For example, someone who always runs might not have motivation to on a day that they have not ate anything or be deficient in water. The body tells that person that food and water are a higher priority, more motivation, then running. Physiological reactions exist within ever human. This affects motivation because people are naturally motivated about similar things. Physiological reactions involve many emotions and motivation to help generate positive emotion or negative emotion. We seek out challenges and try to improve interpersonal relationships with are all driven by some level of motivation.
Some differences between physiological mechanism and the brains mechanism is that the physiological mechanisms are based on food, water, and sex. When the body becomes deficient in food, water, or sex they will trigger the unconscious mind that the brains mechanisms works to send a response to our conscious mind. The two work hand in hand. Physiological mechanisms involve biological systems such as the brain.

Chapter four is all about our physiological needs. Our body always wants to stay at homeostasis, or a stable internal state. However, environmental conditions and our own consummatory behaviors are constantly throwing us off homeostasis. To return to this desired state, the body generates motivational states. When our physiological needs are deprived, biological needs arise. If the need continues to be unsatisfied, the biological deprivation becomes strong enough to generate a psychological drive. This drive is what energizes and directs our behavior.

This concept can relate to three basic physiological needs: thirst, hunger, and sex. Thirst is the consciously experienced motivational state that readies the body to perform behaviors necessary to replenish a water deficit. Food deprivation activates hunger and eating, but it a bit more complicated than thirst. Hunger involves both short-term daily processes operating under homeostatic regulation and long-term processes operating under metabolic regulation and store energy. Hunger is also affected by cognitive, social, and environmental influences. Men and women experience and react to sexual desire very differently. In men, their physiological arousal is very connected to their psychological desire. Women’s sexual desire is more related to relationship factors such as emotional intimacy.

I found the section on facial metrics most interesting. I had no idea that judgment of someone’s attractiveness could be broken down to science. I found it interesting that the reason we think big eyes and a small nose is attractive is because it’s associated with youth and agreeableness – since babies have large eyes and small noses. This seems to be very innate for us, because I never look at someone with big, round eyes and think, “Wow – their eyes are so attractive because they remind me of a baby’s eyes!” It’s also weird how we associate prominent cheekbones and think eyebrows with strength and status. I guess it makes sense that those with the “postpubescent” status would have these features, but it’s also hard to believe that big eyebrows correlate with someone being successful.

I found the section on set points and settling points to be a little confusing. I understand the sea and stock market analogies and how natural forces such as evaporation and supply and demand bring them to a “settling level.” I also get that extraorganismic influences (such as social and psychological) affect our consumatory behaviors. What I do not understand is the argument between set and settling points in general. Earlier in the chapter it made it sound like we have something that is kind of both… a point where our bodies tell us to stop. I assumed that psychological and social influences just tell us to ignore our bodies. So in my opinion, we do have a set point. But when we do not obey it, we make it into a settling point.

Physiology and physiological reactions are a very fundamental way of looking at motivation. Our bodies need food and water to survive. This seems to be why motivation exists in the first place. It is our body’s clever way of getting the resources it needs. When our physiological needs and biological needs are not met, they develop a psychological drive which directs our energy and direction. This drive is the motivation to find and consume water and food – so that our bodies can simply survive and function.

Physiological mechanisms use brain mechanisms to motive us when they are depleted. For example, hunger is a physiological need that uses the hypothalamus (in our brain) cue the sensation and motivation of hunger. Without our brain, physiological needs would not be able to produce motivation. In contrast, brain mechanisms relate to our emotional needs, whereas physiological mechanisms are more biological.

Terms: physiological needs, homeostasis, facial metrics, postpubescent, set points, settling points, extraorganismic influences, consumatory behaviors, drive, hypothalamus

Chapter four is by far my favorite chapter so far. It simply is about needs. But I found out that basic needs are not so simple. A need is something the body needs for life, growth and well being. This chapter focused on physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex. These are the basics and yet very much dictate a person life. The chapter looks closely at each of the basics thirst, hunger, and sex. A living body for both animals and people needs water. A body can only live about two days without water. When a person loses over 2% of the water in their body that is when they are thirsty and are getting close to dehydration. Next need was food. A body needs food to use as energy. The book talked about how hunger dictates when we are hungrier and how much we will eat. Earlier in the chapter it talked about dieting and why it is so hard for people to do. If is person is told they have to gain weight they will have trouble and the body is not going to want food/ If they are trying to lose weight the person is going to always feel hungry. This is because of homeostasis or equilibrium. The body finds a set point that is it happy at and will try to keep it there. The last physiological need talked about in the book is sex. Men and women are very different when it comes to sex. Men show their sexual desire with desire arousal and then orgasm. Women on the other hand, for women the sexual desire is more based on intimacy with their sexual partner. Humans are attracted to each other by a lot of different factors. Appearance is a reason, but also a person smell, taste, and sound of their voice can attract a mate. All three of the different needs have a few things in common. A person has a drive to get them. Drive is a persistent feeling that won’t stop until the need is fulfilled. It can lead a person to do a certain behavior. What is happening in a person’s life has a lot to do with the needs. Their environment, emotions, etc will play into how much a person will want the need. Example is a person is stressed they might feel hungrier and eat more. Different environmental influences are their always affecting the needs.

In this chapter what I thought was most interesting was the idea of set points and homeostasis. I find it interesting that the body finds a place it is comfortable and stays there, The Chapter once again talked about dieting and how hard it is. Suddenly when a person goes on a diet, food suddenly to looks better, smells better, and taste better making a person want to eat more. The body is trying to get you to eat more and get back to your equilibrium. Yet the experiment in the book they over feed some hamsters and under feed so but after a few months of getting the normal amount of food they all weighted the same again. I found that very interesting that they body will change but it will fight you as trying to lose or gain weight.

What I’m confused about/ what questions I still have relate back to the movie Cast Away. In the movie the main character was meeting the basic needs, He had food, he had water, and he had someone to interact with. Yet, it was not enough he still tried to commit suicide. When is the basic needs not enough? I know motivation plays a role but how much?

I understand that motivation is greatly tied into the needs, people are motivated to survive and basis their lives around the basic needs, eating, drinking, etc. People are motivated to live and survival, it is what many would call survival skills. If dropped in the wilderness most of us would not just give up and die we would try to find food and water.

Chapter three and four are different but go hand in hand. Physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms are different both are needed to help us survive. Physiological mechanisms are more complex, it go through many more different part of the brain. With physiological mechanism we see/ feel the result. We feel hungry, or thirsty. With brain mechanisms the brain sends us messages and releases chemicals. We do not always notice the action taking place. We may not notice a certain feeling or realize why we are doing a certain behavior.

Terms: Hunger, thirst, sex, need, drive, physiological needs, homeostasis or equilibrium, set points, motivation, Physiological mechanisms and brain mechanisms

I liked this chapter better than 3. This song talks mostly about physiological needs, and more specifically thirst, sex, and hunger. It also talked about Hull’s biologically based drive theory, and how the longer you deprive yourself of these physiological needs, their becomes psychological motivation and when we consume enough to get to that satiated state, our desire decreases. This is called the Need-Drive-Behavior Sequence. The chapter talked more in-depth about each of the four main points in this article, drive, thirst, hunger, and sex. Drive I already explained, but thirst happens because we deplete our water in two ways, through intracellular (inside) thirst and extracellular (outside) thirst. We are influenced by our environment to drink more water, with addictions to caffeine in pop and coffee, or alcohol. Hunger involves both glucostatic hypothesis (short-term) and lipostatic hypothesis (long-term) regulation. The sexual motivation of an individual depends on a number of factors, and a woman’s motivations for sex are much more complex than a male’s, because often times, a woman is more likely to have her needs revolve around emotional intimacy needs.
The most interesting thing I read about in this chapter was about sexual motivation, and all the factors that go into someone feeling sexual or not, I suppose because I never really thought of it in that much depth. For instance, the chemical, tactile, auditory and visual stimulations, as well as the androgens and estrogen (hormones) that both sexes have, and how they all play a role in whether or not someone is sexually aroused. I also thought it was extremely interesting that guys don’t need the same kind of intimacy level that a woman needs in order to have sex, or get off. I wonder how this explains single women who masturbate? I liked that they included the waist-t0-hip ratio, as that was something that I had heard about in a previous class. I liked the more up-to-date research on the facial symmetry and how people base attractiveness off of that. I also thought it was interesting the idea of a sexual script (a person’s mental idea of a step-by-step process of events that occur during sex), and how important that is to males while females, who tend to have a harder time ‘getting off’ don’t really have one.
Physiological reactions on physiology are vital for motivation. Without needs and desires such as sex, hunger, thirst, etc then we wouldn’t have any need for motivation, nor would we probably be functioning at the level we are. In fact, we would probably be dead without these needs and the physiological pressure to satiate these needs.
The brain and our physiological are related to our needs and motivation. They also both deal with our internal drives for motivation, with the use of the hypothalamus. Physiological needs are mostly things that all animals need; thirst to keep their fluids in their bodies, hunger to stave off dying and for energy, and sex for reproduction. The brain, however, deals with all needs and our motivations for them. Neurotransmitters go off and send signals both to our brain, as well as from it, letting the brain know what is going on with everything; including hunger and thirst.
Terms: Hull’s Biologically Based Drive Theory, needs, Need-Drive-Behavior Sequence, drive, thirst, sex, hunger, intracellular thirst, extracellular thirst, glucostatic hypothesis, lipostatic hypothesis, androgens, estrogen, waist-to-hip ratio, facial symmetry, sexual script, hypothalamus, neurotransmitters

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