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Premack principle. 

Next search for another website about the premack principle and read more about it. Copy and paste that link at the bottom of your post.

Briefly discuss the Premack Principle and how you might be able to incorporate it into your behavioral change project.

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In the video above Mitra shows us that kids can learn in ways different from our traditional education. He finds children learn and self organize when they are given a question. My question is how can we take the information from this video (and possibly from what we are learning in class) and make changes within our existing educational system to prepare for the future?

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The Premack Principle is an effective way to modify behavior using a "First, then" model to encourage certain behaviors by utilizing already reinforcing behaviors. The example used on the Autism Mom Blog refers to getting her autistic child to eat their dinner by offering a reward of a cookie. They already like the cookie. So by saying, "First eat your supper then you can have a cookie" there is little room for negotiation and the target behavior can occur.
What is really important in this process is understanding what behaviors are already occurring that are good and useful (determining the consequence). This can come from watching them, asking them what they like, or stereotyping for the given age/gender group (this would be the antecedent). You do something you don't want to do in order to do something you want to do. This strategy can be extremely useful for populations of people who have a hard time learning behavior modification or are simply unable to learn it (young children, children with developmental disorders, those with dementia, etc.)
This method utilizes motivation which can be a powerful tool in behavior modification. It is powerful because it does not use punishment -- which is often used with children. Because of the structure of the Premack Principle, the parent (or whomever is guiding the target behavior) is in control and able to elicit the behavior, not the child. By not giving options you are enforcing that they emit the behavior, making you in charge. This tactic seems a lot like reinforcement (and it is). However, it is tweaked a little bit to target the behavior by using pleasant behaviors to get a wanted response. Basically you are using what they like (or you like) against them to get what you want.

This can apply to my behavioral change project easily. I am trying to increase the frequency in which I go to class. As of late I have had a hard time motivating myself to attend class and if it continues it could seriously hurt my grades. Using the Premack Principle, I could use "First go to class, then you can have a peppermint hot chocolate for the day." This is extremely motivating for me because I love peppermint hot chocolate and by getting this in the Union between classes I am less likely to go back to my room making my attendance higher.
Punishing myself for not going to class would not help. I would feel even worse about it and become more drawn in, less likely to go to class. I have tried a regular schedule of reinforcement where I reinforce once a week but it was not direct enough for me to see a drastic increase in my attendance. So a more frequent schedule or reinforcement is the key to attending class more frequently. As this continues to work I can lean out my schedule of reinforcement, not reinforcing every time I emit the target behavior. After all, buying a peppermint hot chocolate at Chats everyday will take a toll on my bank account. If I think in the morning, "I will get a peppermint hot chocolate today if I go to class" I will be more likely to get out of bed than if I think "I need to go to class." The ultimate goal is to go to class regularly without reinforcement needed. If needed in extreme cases you could reinforce every step of the process to get you there (aka shaping), however in my case I think that would be absurd.

Terms: Premack Principle, target behavior, behavior, antecedent, consequence, reinforcement, schedule of reinforcement, punishment, behavior modification, emit, elicit, lean, shaping

The premack principal is a concept that involves reinforcing an unwanted behavior with a wanted behavior by observing what the person does behavior wise voluntarily. For example, if your child really hates eating green beans but loves eating grapes you could reinforce them eating green beans with grapes. If they eat a green bean then they can have a grape, eventually you would get them to eat more green beans and reinforce with less grapes.
I could use the premack principal in my behavior modification project to modify my reinforcer. Right now I am reinforcing my behavior of biting my nails with repainting my nails. By using the premack principal instead of repainting my nails every time I catch myself biting them I could instead pick a behavior that I like doing to reinforce not biting my nails but instead doing the behavior I enjoy. In order to do this I would have to self monitor and figure out what behavior would pair well with decreasing my behavior of biting my nails.
Terms- premack principal, behaivor, reinforcing, reinforce, reinforcer, behavior modification, self monitor

The Premack principal is also called “grandma’s rule.” It is described by autism mom as “high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency activity.” High frequency activity being behaviors that the person does all the time, and low frequency activity being behaviors that aren’t emitted very often or minimally. The high frequency behavior that is elicited can be chosen by the person. They may choose to elicit the behavior of playing games or playing outside. The Premack principle works because it gets the person thinking about the activity that they enjoy doing and not the activity that they may not like to do. The person is thinking about the preferred reinforcer, notice they use reinforcers and not punishment, because punishment wouldn’t be effective.
One of the variations that autism mom talks about is using smaller steps to reach a goal instead of larger steps. The example she used was reinforcing D after eating one noodle, giving him an M&M after, and working their way up to larger behaviors such as eating all the food on his plate. We talked about this similar concept when we were discussing our behavioral change projects. Sometimes changing behaviors are a lot more manageable when you take little steps at a time.
Another website that I looked at talks about how the Premack principle can be applied in the classroom. The Premack principle is used in the classroom by finding out what motivates us as students, and then using that to get us to elicit other behaviors as well. David Premack studied in the 1950’s internal motivation and how we intrinsically are motivated to elicit certain behaviors. Premack stated that any person could rank order the activities they would prefer to do if they were given a certain amount of free time. Premack also stated that even without knowing someone personally, just by watching what behaviors occur more, you could discover what behaviors they would prefer. Premack thought this would be useful because the behaviors people prefer more could be used as reinforcers. For example, if we notice an individual loves to get ice-cream at a local ice cream shop in their free time, we could use this activity as a reinforcer for an activity that they don’t prefer to do. You could tell the person, “I will take you to the ice cream shop if you pick up all the sticks in the yard.” A high frequency behavior then becomes a reinforcement for a low frequency behavior.
I definitely can see how someone could incorporate the Premack principal in their behavioral change project. I think it would work best for people who are trying to increase a particular target behavior. For example, if you want to increase the amount of time you exercise. According the principal, exercising would be your low frequency activity. The person would then have to pick a behavior they enjoy doing, a high frequency behavior, and use that as a reward in they emit their low frequency behavior of exercising.

Make a list of the terms and concepts you used in your post.
Reinforce, emit, behavior, elicit, punishment, behavioral change, goal, low frequency behavior, high frequency behavior, target behavior

Premack Principle is when a high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency behavior. This can also be known as grandma’s rule. This technique is used to observe what the individual chooses to do voluntarily. This can be described as a preferred behavior can be used to reinforce unpreferred behaviors. An example of this can be that if you want a child to eat vegetables, you use ice cream as a reinforcement. “You can have this ice cream once you eat some vegetables.”

This could help my behavior assignment by saying that if I run, I can eat a dessert. I was already using this type of reinforcement before we learned about this. I just didn’t know there was a concept for it. I believe that this can work better than other type of punishment or reinforcers because you are getting the child to emit a behavior they don’t like to get to the thing they actually want.

Terminology: reinforce, low frequency behavior, high frequency behavior, reinforcement, punishment

The Premack Principle involves having a positive reinforcement of the emission of an unconditioned responses and unconditioned stimulus. I have learned with my own behavior modification that negative reinforcement often elicits and negative connection between altering a target behavior at all and makes me more hesitant to commit to changing it. This principle is all about rewarding behaviors that occur reliably. It makes the unappealing activity seem like something worth doing, which can help increase the target behavior without requiring any changing your behavior. This principle is actually the basis of my reward system for my own behavior modification. If I achieved my goal, I would reward myself with an hour of procrastination before I started my homework. I was rewarding myself with a behavior that did not really require any change and was behaviors that I already did, I just turned them into a reward.

Terminology Used: Premack Principle, emission, unconditioned response, unconditioned stimulus, positive reinforcement, elicit, negative reinforcement, target behavior, behavior modification, reward

The Premack principal named after psychologist David Premack states that you can increase a target behavior by using positive reinforcement in a "First/then" order. In the case with children it might be eliciting a child to eat their peas by stating "First eat your peas, then you can play with your truck." The child is more likely to emit the pea eating behavior because they are focused on the positive reinforcement following the behavior, and soon a behavioral change will occur because a child will associate the reinforcement with the more aversive behavior.
In the case of my self directed behavioral change I have sort of been applying the Premack Principal the entire time I have been exercising. I decided to reward myself with a smoothie after each morning workout as a reward and a healthy breakfast. Throughout the entire workout I am usually thinking to myself "15 more minutes and I will have the sweet taste of blueberries to make it all worth it" or something along those lines. The focus on the positive reward of emmiting a aversive but necessary behavior helps elicit working out more.


Terminology: Premack Principal, emitting, Positive Reinfocment, elicit, target behavior, self directed behavior change

The premack principle is often also referred to as “grandma’s rule”. On the website that we were asked to look at, there was a complete definition provided for the premack principle. The principle states that a high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency behavior. Using this principle can increase the frequency of a target behavior. Access to the preferred activity is contingent on completing the low-frequency behavior. The high frequency behavior to use as a reinforcer can be determined by 1) asking students what they would like to do, 2) observing students during their free time, and 3) determining what might be expected behavior for a particular age group. The premack principle works because the person is thinking about the positive reinforcer they are going to get, not the non-preferred activity. The author of the website we were asked to look at gives an example of how she uses this principle on her son when he won’t eat his quesadilla. She might say to him “first eat the quesadilla, then you can have a cookie”. This makes the aversive activity (eating the quesadilla) something that the child wants to do in order to get the desirable positive reinforcement.
At first, I didn’t really understand this concept very well. Looking up the second website really helped me understand more about it. The second website said that first, you need to find a reinforcer for the person. This can be figured out by watching what the person chooses to do voluntarily. Then you can use this reinforcer to reinforce non-preferred behaviors. This makes sense, especially with children and adolescents. If you tell the child “first do (insert non-preferred behavior), then you can (insert preferred behavior)”, they are way more likely to emit that non-preferred behavior.
I could easily use this in my behavioral intervention. My behavioral intervention involves my target behavior of going to bed earlier to get a better night of sleep and eight hours per night. According to this principle, the target behavior of going to bed earlier would be a non-preferred or low frequency activity for me. I could pair this non-preferred activity with a preferred or high frequency activity. For me, this would be watching more Netflix. So, I could tell myself “First, go to bed earlier and get eight hours of sleep every night this week, then you can watch Netflix for a couple extra hours this weekend.” The reinforcer of Netflix would elicit the target behavior (non-preferred behavior) of going to bed earlier at night. The premack principle is actually a really effective way to modify behaviors.

Terms: premack principle, reinforce, positive reinforcer, positive reinforcement, aversive, desirable, reinforcer, behaviors, emit, target behavior, behavioral intervention, elicit


The Premack Principle is something you can use to make sure the reinforcer will work for the participant. Once technique is to observe what the individual chooses to do voluntarily. If you want your child to stop watching so much TV and spend more time outside you could tell them if they spend 30 minutes outside then they can come back inside and watch some more TV. Although as time goes on you'll have to extend the time the child has to stay outside or you won't be helping the amount of TV your child is watching. Therefore you should start telling your child that they now have to spend an hour outside before coming back inside to watch TV.

Using the Premack Principle could help the behavioral change project because you'll know what you should use for the reinforcer so that the project will be more successful because using a reinforcer that isn't seen as preferred by the individual will eventually no longer care whether or not they are emitting the behavior you wanted. It could also help your project because it is making sure that your reinforcement is something that the participant won't get bored of and they will be willing to continue with your project for as long as you keep reinforcing them until you've changed the behavior you wanted.

Terminology: reinforcer, emitting, premack principle, behavior, behavioral change, reinforcement, reinforcing.

The Premack Principle states that we can use a high frequency behavior (a behavior which will be emitted at a high frequency if the subject is given free will) to reinforce a low frequency/target behavior. The example given the video was ‘eat your vegetables and then you can eat ice-cream’. Establishing positive reinforcement is import; we want to create an ‘if-then’ situation in which if the subject engages in the target behavior they can engage in the desirable behavior as well. We see this in organizational psychology as well, displayed as: If you do your job outstandingly well you will get rewarded with a day off or get to choose the event for the staff outing.
All of this ties back into the notion of positive reinforcement. This differs from negative reinforcement in that it adds a desirable stimulus to increase the frequency of the target behavior. As long as the reward has valence then the low frequency behavior will be reinforced by the desire to emit the high frequency behavior – something all parents are likely familiar with.
This principle can be utilized to help my behavioral challenge of increasing the number of hours I spend working on my book. Under conditions of freedom, where I didn’t have other pressing matters such as school and work, I like to think that I would spend more time working on my book. That is to say: I engage in low frequency behaviors of doing homework and then reward myself with researching and writing to complete the book.
Likewise, I have other behavioral challenges which can be aided with this principle. For instance, I rarely emit the behavior of mowing the lawn in the summer. Seeing that the grass is starting to grow, I can elicit this operant behavior by tying in the reward of a frosty beer after I mow the lawn. Given this principle of behavior modification, I should increase the frequency of mowing the lawn because I want the desirable consequence of a delicious, ice-cold, beer.
Terms: Behavior, consequence, desirable, reward, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, emit, elicit, behavior modification, operant behavior, Organizational psych, stimulus, target behavior, valence,

The Premack Principle was kind of confusing for me at first, but after I read more about it I started to understand it. Basically a preferred behavior can be used to reinforce unpreferred behaviors. Meaning, reinforcing an unwanted behavior with a wanted behavior by observing what the other person does behavior wise. For example, If you have a hamster that always wants to escape from its cage, then you can reinforce the hamster for climbing onto your hand by offering your hand as a way to escape from the cage. The preferred behavior which is escaping is a reinforcer for the non-preferred behavior which is climbing onto the hand of a human. I really like this principle because it does not use punishment and punishment is used a lot in every day children activities.

This premack principle can apply to my behavioral project. I am trying to increase washing my face every night and day and sometimes I have a hard time doing so. Using the premack principle, I could basically first wash my face every night and morning than reward myself with ice cream. This is extremely motivating for me because I am lactose intolerant and lactose free ice cream is expensive therefore its hard to always buy but in this case I definitely will. If I were to punish myself for not washing my face every night and day that would not help me with increasing my behavior. As I continue to have ice cream after emitting my target behavior which is washing my face every night and morning, then I can not use my schedule of reinforcement anymore. This will help me save money and make me feel better by not using a reinforcer every time and knowing I can just do it on my own. My ultimate goal is wash my face every night and morning without using reinforcement.

Terms: reinforcement, reinforcer, punishment, emitting, target behavior, goal, premack principle, behavior, schedule of reinforcement, reinforcing

The Premack Principle is stating that in order to increase the frequency of a behavior, you must use a more pleasurable, high-frequency behavior to reinforce the low-frequency behavior. The author of the first article did a great job of explaining how to utilize this principle with children by finding a high-frequency behavior that they actually enjoy, varying the schedule of reinforcement (aka, if you start with continuous reinforcement then you must eventually switch to another schedule of reinforcement) and she even discussed creating visual depictions of “first, then” scenarios so the child fully understands that the reinforcement is associated with a certain behavior. The author also emphasized using certain statements so it is clear to the child that they must first emit the low-frequency behavior before they will receive the reinforcement. For example, if a child does not want to eat their vegetables, but really enjoys animal crackers you can say, “First eat your vegetables, then you can eat animal crackers.” That statement is acts as an antecedent for the child because then he/she knows that if they emit vegetable-eating behavior, the consequence will be animal crackers. This Premack Principle also works in a way to make the low-frequency behavior more enjoyable if it is continually paired with a high-frequency behavior. Eventually the child may begin to associate the low-frequency behavior with desirable things, or at the very least, not dread emitting the low-frequency behavior.

This can be helpful in my own behavior modification project as I continually strive to be a weekday vegetarian, thus lessening my ecological footprint and eating slightly healthier. In a sense, I am already using the Premack Principle in that first I must not eat meat Monday through Friday, then Saturday and Sunday I can eat all of the meat that I want. This is reinforcing to know that I can eventually eat the certain foods that I want to eat, I just have to wait a certain amount of time to get there. I have also found myself treating myself to other sorts of foods if I do not eat meat, for instance, if I am tempted to eat meat I will tell myself that I should eat some fruits or vegetables instead and then I can have a dessert. By treating myself to dessert for eating fruits and vegetables instead of meat, I am reinforcing myself to not eat meat during the week. Now that I have read about the Premack Principle, I will be more aware of this process and try to consciously reinforce myself with high-frequency behaviors.


Terms: Premack Principle, behavior, reinforce, schedule of reinforcement, continuous reinforcement, emit, antecedent, consequence

The Premack principle is named after the psychologist David Premack. The main point of the principle is to trying to use preferred behaviors as a reinforcement for unpreferred behaviors. Another way to look at the principle is that high frequency behaviors, ones preformed under the condition of free choice, can be used to reinforce low frequency behaviors. So if you want little Timmy to rake the leaves, you'd tell him that first, emit the undesirable target behavior of raking the leaves and then you will have the consequence of being reinforced with some ice cream. This would be considered a "first, then" statement, which is more effective than an "if, then" statement. This is because with the later of the two, you right off are thinking about the aversive stimulus that has become a form of punishment, rather than thinking about a pleasurable stimulus that would be associated with a "first,then" statement. This "if,then" statement has a high probability of failing in your behavioral intervention because it is often associated with punishment and can force you to choose between the lesser of two evils.
This principle can easily be incorporated into many behavioral changes throughout your life. With my project, I could implement this principle by devising a schedule of reinforcements that would positively reinforce my target behavior only after I elicited the unpreferred behavior first. So, this would be like me going the who weekend with barely drinking any beer and after I made it through the weekend without drinking much beer, I then would get my pleasurable reinforcement that would help condition me to further increase of the frequency of the target behavior. This helps because it gives me the view that if i can just complete this small unpreferred behavior then i will be reinforced with something that is very pleasurable. This is very effective when you look at some of the other ways that you could go about trying to modify one's behavior. Again, if you are giving the option of emitting the unpreferred behavior or facing a punishment for not emitting the target behavior, then you are more likely to be focused on the aversiveness of the situation and will probably give up before you even get off the ground, which is often the cause of many failures when it comes to behavioral interventions.

Terms:Punishment, reinforcement, pleasurable, aversive, target behavior, undesirable, emit, stimulus, behavioral intervention, Premack principle, schedule of reinforcements, consequence, frequency of behavior, conditioned, elicit,

Extra source:

The Premack Principle is stating that in order to increase the frequency of a behavior, you must use a more pleasurable, high-frequency behavior to reinforce the low-frequency behavior. The author of the first article did a great job of explaining how to utilize this principle with children by finding a high-frequency behavior that they actually enjoy, varying the schedule of reinforcement (aka, if you start with continuous reinforcement then you must eventually switch to another schedule of reinforcement) and she even discussed creating visual depictions of “first, then” scenarios so the child fully understands that the reinforcement is associated with a certain behavior. The author also emphasized using certain statements so it is clear to the child that they must first emit the low-frequency behavior before they will receive the reinforcement. For example, if a child does not want to eat their vegetables, but really enjoys animal crackers you can say, “First eat your vegetables, then you can eat animal crackers.” That statement is acts as an antecedent for the child because then he/she knows that if they emit vegetable-eating behavior, the consequence will be animal crackers. This Premack Principle also works in a way to make the low-frequency behavior more enjoyable if it is continually paired with a high-frequency behavior. Eventually the child may begin to associate the low-frequency behavior with desirable things, or at the very least, not dread emitting the low-frequency behavior.

This can be helpful in my own behavior modification project as I continually strive to be a weekday vegetarian, thus lessening my ecological footprint and eating slightly healthier. In a sense, I am already using the Premack Principle in that first I must not eat meat Monday through Friday, then Saturday and Sunday I can eat all of the meat that I want. This is reinforcing to know that I can eventually eat the certain foods that I want to eat, I just have to wait a certain amount of time to get there. I have also found myself treating myself to other sorts of foods if I do not eat meat, for instance, if I am tempted to eat meat I will tell myself that I should eat some fruits or vegetables instead and then I can have a dessert. By treating myself to dessert for eating fruits and vegetables instead of meat, I am reinforcing myself to not eat meat during the week. Now that I have read about the Premack Principle, I will be more aware of this process and try to consciously reinforce myself with high-frequency behaviors.


Terms: Premack Principle, behavior, reinforce, schedule of reinforcement, continuous reinforcement, emit, antecedent, consequence

The Premack Principle is very effective. I talked about the importance of positive reinforcement compared to negative reinforcement or even punishment a few blog posts ago. I also stressed the importance of positive reinforcement for children just like the video and both of my webpages did. It is also very important to focus on the positive when it comes to our behavioral intervention project. I am essentially using the exact same technique in the video on the website that was provided for us. I am using something I see positive, sweets, that can be a high frequency behavior in order to increase a low frequency behavior, eating vegetables. The way I set up my behavioral intervention is a little different then just hitting a target number of vegetables a day however. I am trying to increase the frequency of my eating vegetables by trying to eat three a day. If I eat three servings a vegetables a day (my target behavior) then I get my sweets (I actually increased it to hitting the target behavior twice, ie. eating 3 veggies 2 separate days). That is not what the premack principle states instead of if… then… I should be saying frist I eat 3 vegetables a day, then I get a sweet. Even going back and looking at my older blog posts and glancing over other people’s blog posts, pretty much everyone is using if… then… If more people thought about it from the premack principle, then maybe we could increase our desirable behaviors more. A lot of people may be more positive about the negative things they want to do if they are thinking about the reward a little more. Most of us are increasing something that we don’t want to do but it is good for us. Example: I would much rather each French fries or potato chips before MOST vegetables, but I know they are better for me. This week is a little different because we are in our return to baseline so I will not be getting those sweets when I eat me desired vegetable amounts, and guess what I am not nearly as successful as last week. It is important to have something to focus on to help with our intervention and the premack principle gives more guidance with not only our project, but with the rest of our life.

Premack Principle, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, behavioral intervention, target behavior, baseline, reinforce

The basics of the Premack Principle is this: You get to do something that you enjoy doing (ex. Going out on the weekend) IF you do something that you wouldn’t want to normally do (ex. Doing your homework). This technique us used quite often with children in order for them to do their chores, “If you do your chores you can go out back and play”. The reason this works is because it’s basically a motivator, or reinforcer to get you to do something you wouldn’t normally do. Most children wont go about their day being excited to do their chores, but if you incorporate an activity that they like to do which isn’t readily available to them, such as cookies or sweets, then they will be more likely to emit the behavior.

This could help my behavior project by encouraging me to save money in order to make a bigger purchase. For example, if I can save enough money (or not spend as much), then I can be financially stable enough to buy a new television. The new television will give me motivation to stop spending money on this I don’t need and continue to emit my saving behavior.

Terms: Behavior, emit, positive reinforcement, reinforcer.

It seems that the premack principle is a very effective way to modify behavior. The "first, then" model is a great way to ensure that there isn't going to be argument or room for any other options. The first website discussed how a child wouldn't eat their quesadilla and the parents said that first they must eat their quesadilla then they will get a cookie. Having a reinforcement is much more pleasing to a person than a punishment. The premack principle is also known as “grandma’s rule,” and the website defines the principle as a high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency behavior. Access to the preferred activity is contingent on completing the low-frequency behavior. The high frequency behavior to use as a reinforcer can be determined by: asking students they would like to do; observing students during their free time; or determining what might be expected behavior for a particular age group.
The second website I looked at defined what the premack principle was and also gave a lot of great examples. They define it quite simply as you get to do something you want to do, when you do something you don't want to do. They also describe it as using an activity you like to help you do an activity you find unpleasant and that pleasant activity is used as motivation to do something that you would rather not do. One example this website used was homework. They used the example that if you do homework and get it done, then you will be able to go to the gym. Going to the gym would be the person's reinforcement for getting their homework done. Another example they used was a parent compensating a child's time of doing chores for allowance to catch some tv. Being able to watch tv after the chores are done would be the child's reinforcer and it would be positive reinforcement.
This principle could help me with my project because if I picked something I would really want after I meet my goal of not swearing so much then it would allow me to want to continue with changing my behavior. For example, if I don't swear throughout the day I would be able to watch a couple hours of television before I go to bed and only before I go to bed.
Terms: behavior, reinforcement, reinforcer.

The Premack Principle is where you use a pleasurable behavior to reinforce an aversive behavior. This was created by David Premack in 1965. This principle is also known as the "First, Then" principle, rather than the "If, Then" because for example, if you tell a child, "If you eat your vegetables, then you can have a cookie," this gives them room to choose to emit the behavior. Instead, you should say, "First, eat your vegetables, then you can have a cookie." This way does not really give them the option to do anything else. The use of the pleasurable behavior (cookie) is to elicit the aversive behavior. Something also mentioned in the article was that negative reinforcement does not work when you are using a non-preferred behavior. For example, "You either eat your vegetables or go to your room." Both behaviors are not pleasurable, so they will just choose the one that is the least awful sounding to them at the time. Always use something that they are wanting to do rather than aversive to them.

One way that I am using the Premack principle in my project is that I am telling myself, "First you can only drink 3 cups of coffee a week. Then you can have a Scratch cupcake." This way I am not allowing any room for questions and I am focusing on the reinforcer rather than the non-preferred behavior of cutting out coffee.


Terms: Premack principle, behavior, pleasurable, reinforce, aversive, emit, elicit, negative reinforcement, reinforcer

The premack principle is the concept of reinforcing an unwanted behavior with a wanted behavior. An example from explained trying to get their child to emit the behavior of eating a single noodle with the consequence being able to eat an M&M. In this situation reinforcing the eating of one noodle, according to the premack principle eating one noodle will reinforce the behavior of eating more noodles.
For my behavioral change project I am attempting to reduce the frequency in which I go out to eat for health reasons. In order to make this change I used the money that I would have spent going out to eat and saved it for something bigger at the end of the month. If I were to use the premack principle for my project I would use the money saved at the end of the month and use that to buy a expensive meal at my favorite resturaunt. The wanted behavior in this situation is having an expensive meal at my favorite resturaunt and the unwanted behavior is going out to eat.

Terms: premack principle, reinforce, behavior, emit, consequence, frequency,

The premack principle is to reinforce an undesirable behavior with a desirable one. From both the website autism and the website I found it gave the example of children and eating vegetables or other disliked foods by reinforcing it with a treat of their liking. So the undesirable behavior would be to eat vegetables. But you would say if you eat them you get to have chocolate. Chocolate is a reinforcer, and they learn that if they eat the vegetables they will be reinforced with something they like. Or another example could be used in behaviors. Like doing homework. You tell a child to do their homework first (undesirable behavior) and then they can play video games or watch their favorite show (desirable behavior). By doing these things you can increase the frequency of the desirable target behavior to be emitted.
For my behavioral change project I've been trying to increase the amount of time I spend studying and doing homework for each of my classes everyday. To reinforce myself, I've given myself a day off (usually Fridays) to hang out with friends or do something fun, not related to class work. While I'm doing home work however I find myself using the Premack principle often. I will sometimes tell myself, first read this/do this assignment and you can take a break and watch a couple episodes of the Office. It increases my productivity by taking breaks and increases the amount of time I spend doing homework and studying. By giving my self reinforcements that are scheduled reinforcements every Friday, as well as small/less frequent ones during the day, I have developed better studying and homework habits.

Terms: premack principle, undesirable/desirable behavior, elicit, target behavior, reinforce, frequency, self reinforcement, scheduled reinforcement.


Please go to the following web site and read about the Premack principle.

Next search for another website about the premack principle and read more about it. Copy and paste that link at the bottom of your post.

Briefly discuss the Premack Principle and how you might be able to incorporate it into your behavioral change project.
Make a list of the terms and concepts you used in your post.

David Premack developed the concept of the Premack Principle. This is where the name “Premack Principle” came from. The Premack Principle is a way to modify a behavior by using a "First, then" model. This encourages certain behaviors by using already reinforcing behaviors. The Premack Principle is often referred to as “grandma’s rule”. This rule states that a high frequency behavior/activity can be used to reinforce a low frequency behavior/activity. An example that was used from the Autism Mom website was getting her child who has autism to eat their quesadilla by offering a reward of a cookie. The child enjoys having cookies, this way the mom can use it as a reinforcer. By the mom saying, "First eat your supper, then you can have a cookie" there is small room for options and/or negotiation to occur. This also allows the target behavior to occur. When it comes to using the Premack Principle, it is important to understand what behaviors that are already occurring are useful and good. In order to determine what the high frequency behavior to use as a reinforcer we can ask what the individual likes to do, observe what the individual enjoys doing, or determine what type of behavior that is expected for a certain age group. The Premack Principle strategy can be very useful for people have a hard time learning behavior modification or do not understand what it is. This would include individuals with dementia, children, or children with developmental disorders such as autism.
The Premack Principle works well because it allows the individual that it is being applied to, to think about the positive reinforcement instead of the activity/behavior that they do not want to partake in. It makes the aversive activity/behavior seem more appealing. Negative reinforcement often fails when trying to get the individual to participate in the non-preferred activity/behavior. It fails because it often causes the individual to think about the non-preferred activity, rather than the preferred behavior. The Premack Principle is so influential because it does not use punishment. Punishment is often very common when it comes to children. Through using the First, then model it allows the individual to believe they get some say in what they choose to do. Due to the structure of the Premack Principle, it allows the individual who is in charge of guiding the target behavior, be in control and elicit the behavior wanted. Because of the structure of the Premack Principle, the parent (or whomever is guiding the target behavior) is in control and able to elicit the behavior, not the individual it is being applied to.
The Premack Principle will be very useful in my behavioral change project. I am trying to increase the frequency in which I workout. At the beginning of the semester I was doing well at going to the gym everyday. However, towards the middle of the semester it has gotten more difficult to make it to the gym everyday. It can be difficult to keep myself motivated to go to the gym. By using the Premack Principle, I could use "First go to the gym, then you can have a scoop of ice cream." Since ice cream, is one of my favorite foods to eat, it will be motivating for me to continue hitting the gym everyday without using a reinforcer. This will allow me to continue using my current schedule of reinforcement. If I were to punish myself by not going to the gym, it will make me feel worse about myself not going, and actually probably increase the behavior of not going to the gym occur more. My ultimate goal is to get in the habit of going to the gym daily.


Terms- Premack Principle, behavior, reinforcing, reward, target behavior, reinforcer, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, aversive, punishment, elicit, schedule of reinforcement

Premack Principle

For this week’s out of class assignment, we were to look into what is known as the Premack principle. The Premack principle is a type of behavior modification, usually used with young children. When using this principle, the parent or caregiver will use statements that go “If, Then” or “First, Then”. For example, if you have a child that is a picky eater, you will say, “First you will eat your broccoli, and then you can play a video game.” This will positively reinforce the child to eat their vegetables. We are told that reinforcement works best when modifying one’s behavior. But now we know, from the material we have been given, that positive reinforcement is better than negative.
It was said that negative reinforcement can be damaging and ineffective because the child is worrying about two things. For example, if we way “If you don’t eat your broccoli, then you will get sent to bed early.” Then the child must sit and wonder which would truly be worse. Is the broccoli even worth a later bedtime? Basically, the Premack principle if positive reinforcement verbally expressed to the child. It makes the target behavior very clear and it makes the consequence of the target behavior very clear.
The Premack principle was created by a man named David Premack and it states that ‘a high probability behavior can be used to reinforce a low probability behavior’. The high probability behavior in my previous example would be the child playing video games. This has a high probability of happening. The child likes to play video games and there (most likely) will not be any argument when we try to elicit the video game playing behavior from them. The low probability behavior would be the broccoli eating behavior. The child may not like broccoli, so there is a low probability that we will see this behavior occur, even if we try to elicit it. So we can use the high probability behavior (playing a video game) to reinforce the low probability behavior (eating broccoli).
When people discuss the Premack principle, they are usually just talking about children and how to reinforce and increase their target behaviors. But I believe this principle can also be used with adults and modifying and adult’s behavior. It is thought that the Premack principle can be a great way to “cure” procrastination if we do it right. According to my research, we can use the ideas that come with the Premack principle to better manage our times and get entire lists of things done.
We have all had those days were it seems we have several things to all get done at once. I am guilty of making an entire list and then only accomplishing a couple of the things on it – only to be left to worry about the rest the next day. What we need to do is make a list of all of the things we need to do that day starting with the most pleasurable and ending with the most aversive. Once we get the list written out, we must start at the bottom and work our way up the list. If we start at the top, we will be beginning with the most pleasurable stimuli/behavior, and the further we go down the list, the more aversive the behaviors will be which will start to feel like punishment.
If we work out way up the list, rather than down, we will start with the most aversive behavior and end with the most pleasurable. This is the same format structure of the Premack principle. We are using the pleasurable behavior (the high probability behavior) as a reinforcement for the aversive behaviors (the low probability behaviors). This can be used when we are trying to make a “to do” list and it can be used in everyday life to stop or lessen procrastination.


TERMS: Premack Principle, “If, Then”, “First, Then”, Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Reinforcement, Punishment, Target Behavior, High Probability Behavior, Low Probability Behavior, Elicit, Pleasurable, Aversive

The Premack Principle, otherwise known as "Grandma's Rule", is a behavior modification procedure in which a high-frequency activity is used to reinforce low-frequency behavior. It is an effective tool, especially when negative reinforcement doesn't work. Negative reinforcement makes people choose between the lesser of two evils, thus making nothing in the situation desirable. However, when one applies the Premack Principle, there is a reinforcer, making a desired reinforcer present. This means that individuals can increase low-frequency behavior because they will be reinforced if they do it, rather than punished if they don't.

One way in which to find out what works as a reinforcer is to observe what behaviors occur often by themselves. These would be high-frequency behaviors. Through these observations one can find what might be effective to use when applying the Premack Principle. Whether people or know it or not, many people apply this principle to their lives every day. One of the most prevalent is people with children. For example, a parent might use some version of the principle to get their child to eat vegetables.

It would be relatively easy to apply the Premack Principle to my own behavioral project. I would just have to choose a high-frequency activity to reinforce my reading. This way I don't have to choose between the lesser of two evils: not reading or not getting the reinforcer. I think a good reinforcer would be to watch TV.

Terms: Premack Principle, behavior, reinforcer, positive reinforcement, positive punishment.

Cassidy Monaco
Week 14 Online Assignment

The Premack Principle is all about how high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency behavior. According to this principle, some behavior that happens reliably (or without interference by a researcher), can be used as a reinforcer for a behavior that occurs less reliably. This means that the individual gains access to the high frequency, or preferred activity, dependent on if they complete the low frequency behavior. The high frequency behavior to use as a reinforcer can be determined by asking the student what they want to do, observing what they like to do during their free time, or determining the expected behavior for the age group. The reason why this principle works is because the person is thinking of what will happen as a result of their action, or the consequence of their behavior, according to the ABCs of behaviors. Therefore, it not only gets them to emit the target behavior at the time, but also teaches the correct behavior so they emit it more frequently. When I read more about this, I learned that the Premack Principle is named after psychologist David Premack who proposed this rule. The Premack Principle can be used in an example like the following: “First eat the quesadilla, then you can have a cookie,” which makes that unappealing activity something worth doing.
Just like the above example, I can apply the Premack Principle to my behavior change project. I used a high frequency activity (shopping or eating desserts) as a reinforcer for my low frequency activity (exercising). This means that when I emitted the target behavior of exercise, which was low frequency, I gained access to the activity of shopping or eating desserts that I already enjoyed, so it was a high frequency behavior. It is interesting to think about reinforcement this way because obviously, something is much more reinforcing if it is already a high frequency activity, which shows that the individual already enjoys this activity since they do it frequently. I also will use this in my childcare job because kids will respond much better to a request if they know they will gain access to something they like. For example, “take your nap and you will have ipad time when you wake up”. The website that I chose uses the example of rewarding a child with watching television, which they already are known to enjoy (high frequency), for washing the dishes, which is a behavior that they do not emit often because it is aversive. Overall, I thought this was a very interesting principle and it is very useful.

TERMS: Premack principle, reinforce, behavior, emit, reinforcer, consequence, ABCs of behavior, high frequency behavior, low frequency behavior, aversive

The Premack principle says that you can increase a target behavior by associating it with previously occurring behavior. So if behavior A is the target behavior, but behavior B is the behavior that is emitted frequently, the Premack principle states that you can increase behavior A by making behavior B contingent on behavior A. Simply, first you do behavior A, then you can do behavior B. This works by simple positive reinforcement. Behavior A is undesirable, but doing behavior A is reinforced by behavior B (which is a desirable behavior). It can be important, however, to say the desirable behavior first when speaking to someone. When you say, “if you do behavior B, then you can do behavior A,” they are primed with the undesirable behavior. That lingers in the mind and it is less likely to get the target behavior to occur. When you say “You can do behavior A, if you do behavior B first,” then they are primed with the reward. I think this incorporates very well into the behavioral change project. This is kind of how my reward is set up now. I have a behavior I want to decrease, so I just take the negative. This means that I say to myself, “I can do behavior B if I don’t do behavior A.” This principle is fairly straightforward and applies to many different situations. It seems to simply be a compromise between frequent behavior and a target behavior.

Terms: Premack principle, target behavior, emit, positive reinforcement, priming, reward.

The Premack principle essentially states that high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency activity. The best time to use this is in a classroom, when a child is acting out. For example, asking what the child would like to do when they make a big deal out of not doing something that is interesting to them. The child is then thinking about the preferred activity/reinforcer and not the non-preferred activity. As the article states, saying something like "If you don't eat your peas, you are going to bed!" makes them not want to really do either of those things, but by offering a reward at the end, it increases the target behavior, for example "If you eat your peas, you'll get a cookie!". So in this scenario, the child wants the cookie and doesn't want to go to bed, therefore the second example is more successful. This can be incorporated into my behavioral change project because I can reward myself after I do something that I don't want to do. My target behavior will then decrease as it is supposed to because I will be putting my attention elsewhere.

TERMS: Premack Principle, reinforcer, target behavior, reward

Premack Principle is when a high frequency behavior activity can be used to reinforce low frequency behavior activity. The best way this can be used is to reward someone with something wish and want after they do something they dislike. For example, most kids enjoy watching tv/ playing video games, but before they can do that they have to clean their room or do the dishes. This would make the child want to watch TV so they would do the dishes before they could be able watch TV. The way I could incorporate this into my project would be that I have to read a chapter before being able to go out with friends. This would make me read the chapter sooner and be able to hang out with my friends sooner. So my reinforcer for reading a chapter a day would be hanging with friends.

Terms: Reinforcer, Reward, Premack Principle, target beahavior

The Premack principle was another interesting spin on reinforcement. The premack principle works by emphasizing the reinforcement rather than the consequence or addition of an aversive stimuli, punishment. This makes it easier to do an unpleasant activity by putting a pleasant activity right after it. Also called the Grandmas rule, this principle probably would have helped me in my earlier years when I would refuse to eat my vegetables. It was very interesting reading about this because my parents would always use this on me, "eat your broccoli then you can have your dessert."

Applying this to my behavioral change project would most likely help me continue to emit my behavior. By letting myself eat my favorite snack after I emitted my behavior I will be much more likely to emit that behavior.

Behavior, emit, reinforcer, punisher, consequence, aversive, stimuli.

The Premack Principle states that a high frequency (desirable) behavior can be use to reinforce a lower frequency behavior. An example of this would be the following scenario. Perhaps we have a child that we want to get to emit the behavior or doing their homework. We know that the child usually plays video games after dinner, and so there we have our high frequency behavior. We also know that the child really enjoys video games, and so they will be a good reinforcer for our target behavior of doing their homework. We would then tell the child that they must do their homework before they can play video games. In this way we are incorporating the Premack Principle to reinforce the child to do their homework using the reinforcer of playing video games (something the child already enjoyed doing).

I think that I am already incorporating this in to my behavior change project. My reinforcer is playing a game that I used to let myself play all the time, but now I play it only as a reinforcer for my target behavior.

TERMS: behavior, reinforce, emit, reinforcer, target behavior

The premack’s principle involves using preferred behaviors to reinforce an unpreferred behaviors. Some professionals will also refer to this technique as First or Then, High probability or low probability and If or then. Anyone can implement the premack Principle to gain compliance, or to increase the likelihood of a particular behavior occurring. This principle s especially used in children when performing a task. For example, when trying to make them eat lots of fruits and vegetables. If they do, they get a reward like playing their games, watching tv, etc. This principle can be change according to our own needs. This principle can also be used as goals. Many parents or professionals get in the habit of giving demands, the child balks or resists, and then the parent or professional reminds the child what they will lose. For example, if children eat more fruits and vegetables they will eventually get use to it and this will bring them benefits to their own. This goals need to be always kept in mind, it needs to me constantly. This principle is also known or calls “grandma’s rule” because of its relation between preferred and un preferred behaviors. 

This principle is related to my project as stated int he video in the web page. I am trying to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetable, because i want to be more healthy. Therefore, sometimes if I eat healthy for 3 days and I work out, that allows me to eat an ice cream for lunch one day. The preferred activity like eating an ice cream, motivates the un preferred activity of eating more healthy. This as an example, I think that the premack principle could definitely help the behavioral change project. The reinforcement definitely is a good way to get the behavior change. As students this principle can be used to stop procrastinating, if we get our homework done on time, then we can go and watch netflix for the rest of the day or we can go tot workout or even hangout with friends. This examples will act as a reward and homework will become like our priority. It’s important to understand the Premack Principle in order to avoid setting yourself up for failure when you present a demand. If you don’t have it clear you may just fail the goal you are trying to achieve.

The Premack Principle is actually fairly simple and easy to understand. It states that a highly-frequency activity can be used to reinforce a low-frequency one. This basically means that you can do something that you want or like to do after you have first done something that you don’t like or don’t want to do.

This principle is very useful in behavior modification, especially when working with children. A good example of the premack principle at play would be telling your child that after they wash the dishes, they can watch TV. For a college student, the premack principle might be telling yourself that if you finish writing your paper, you can go out for a drink with your friends.

A reason that the premack principle works so well is that it allows the subject of the behavior modification to focus on a positive reinforcer rather than a negative. The website that professor Maclin linked us it did a very good job of explaining this. The author stated that when you are modifying behavior, the person in question will always be thinking about the result of their target behavior, and it is helpful if the thing they are thinking of is positive.

I think that I could definitely use the Premack Principle in my behavior modification project. In the beginning of my project I was really struggling. I owe this in part to the fact that I think I may have been trying to make too drastic of a change. I work very early in the morning which has always caused my sleep schedule to be very wonky. I usually sleep around 3.5 hours at night, and then another 3 or so when I get off work at 8 AM. My goal for this project was to change my sleep schedule so that I wasn’t napping so much and was instead sleeping a solid 6 hours at night like a normal person. My first goal was to cut my napping down from three hours to two.

The problem is, I didn’t really take into account how averse I find waking up and getting out of bed. In the mornings after work, I find the idea of getting out of bed to be incredibly unpleasant.
That’s why I think the Premack Principle might work for me. It would allow me to trade off something averse (getting out of bed) for something pleasant (perhaps taking a bubble bath, or making pancakes for breakfast.)

After reading about the Premack Principle, I think that it could really help me to reach my goals for this behavior modification project, and I will absolutely be giving it a try.

Terms: Premack Principle, reinforce, behavior modification, averse, negative, positive, target behavior, goal, low-frequency, high-frequency.

The Premack Principle is named after the behavioral psychologist who found it: David Premack. The principle states, “A high probability behavior can serve as reinforcement for a low probability behavior.” This means that you do a behavior that you like less and use a behavior that you want to do as reinforcement for completing the aversive behavior. First you have to do the dishes, and then you get to play video games. This makes you think about the positive reward and makes emitting the aversive behavior easier. After doing continuous reinforcement for a while, you can change the schedule of reinforcement to a fixed ratio of every other time you do the undesirable behavior, you get the reward (FR2).

The website I found talks about procrastinating and how the Premack Principal can help you get through “To do” lists. First email your boss, then you get to go to lunch. It also mentions some tips and tricks to apply the principal to like: working out, dieting, phone calls and space organizing. I think I can apply this principal to my workouts by telling myself, “First do your work out, then you can read Harry Potter.” I think this will make it easier to get through my work out because I will be thinking positive instead of being worried about not getting to watch TV with my friends at night if I don’t make it through the workout. That will probably make the behavior intervention smoother for me.

Terms: David Premack, Premack Principle, reinforcement, aversive, positive reward, emitting, continuous reinforcement, schedule of reinforcement, fixed ratio (FR2), behavior intervention.

Premack Principle (also known as “grandma’s rule”) is a concept developed by David Premack. It states that a high frequency activity can be used to reinforce a low frequency behavior. In other words, it simply means that you get to do something you want to do, when you do something you don’t want to. You are using an activity you like to help you or motivate you do an activity you find unpleasant. It is very similar to positive reinforcement. This concept works because the person who has this principle applied to them is thinking about the positive reinforcer instead of the non-preferred activity. This idea can be twisted and turned to suit your personal needs. You can use this to elicit a desirable behavior. For example, a parent compensates a child’s time spent doing chores for allowance of time to watch television. The parent allowed the child to watch television as a reinforcement for the child to do the chores.

I think that I have been using the Premack Principle in my behavior change project. I have been reinforcing myself with a chocolate truffle for every hour I run in a week. The chocolate truffle is something that I find pleasant or attractive, and it is used to motivate me to run at least an hour a week, which is something I find unpleasant. Therefore, I would say that I have been using chocolate truffles to emit my running behavior.

TERMS: Premack Principle, reinforce, positive reinforcement, elicit, behavior, reinforcement, emit.

I think that the Premack Principle is a great way to educate children. We have forgotten that no person can pay attention for 6 hours out of the day, especially grade school children. But if you are able, for example, say "if we get this math done you can go outside an extra 15 minutes." This is an establishing operation that has been proven to work and I can testify to it. I remember sitting in class and becoming more focused when I could start to think about the Positive reinforcement that is recess.
I have seen this all the time working in the restaurant business. There is always "side work" that has to be done and once the end of your shift is drawing near the boss sticks you with a "once you finish the dishes you can go." Now this first makes you want to emit a hitting response, you must ignore that, and instead focus on the idea that after I do this task I can go home. Most of the time hearing the words "you can go home" already gives you a burst of energy, the same feeling you get when you actually walk out the door after a long day of working.
I enjoyed reading about the Premack Principal and do believe that it is something worth looking at. Wiring children's brain's to understand that with sacrifice and doing something you don't want to do, comes reward. Which is true in life most the things you do not feel like doing are things that you must do to be the strongest version of yourself.

emit, positive reinforcement, behavior

The Premack principle can be applied in various forms and in many different types of situations. This principle outlines the idea that a highly probable behavior can serve as reinforcement for a behavior that has low probability. I find this interesting because you are using another behavior as reinforcement rather than a specific reinforcer. The autism mom blog points out that it can be used for simple target behaviors that may be difficult to control in child. By framing that a child will get to eat a certain thing or play a certain game after they eat or do something less desirable first, they will perform the desired behavior with the reinforcement in mind. This sheds a positive light on the aversive behavior for the child and works better than negative reinforcement (this would put a negative light on what they already don’t want to do). This procedure can also be used as self-reinforcement to help with procrastination. My initial thought with this is what many college students including myself do often which is say to ourselves I can watch an episode of blank if I do this specific reading or start my paper of this class. You can run into issues with this as often I just watch the episode regardless of homework completion. The process actually proposed is to rank the task you need to do from pleasurable to aversive and start with the ones you don’t like first instead of the other way around. This was you still get tasks done but you are progressively being reinforced for doing them in the process. Schedules of reinforcement become important in eliciting specific behaviors without having to reinforce every time it is done.
I could use this principle in my behavior modification by allowing myself to go to bed early if I properly groom my nails before bed. With the positive idea of hitting the hay early I would be more likely emit the behavior of clipping and filing my nails. I have found however, that my nail biting is partially a product of my perfectionism and increased inclination of boredom so I know now that I have to change my reinforcements often for any behavior I would want to modify because they lose their reinforcing capabilities due to satiation very quickly.

Terms and terminology: reinforcement, negative reinforcement, target behavior, reinforcer, desired, self-reinforcement, aversive, schedule of reinforcement, elicit, emit, satiation.

The Premack principle is a type of reinforcement where you use a more desirable situation or reward in order to elicit the behavior to be performed. Find out what a child likes and make sure they really like it. The premack principle does not work if the reinforcement that you choose is not worth it in their eyes. Then present the behavior that is seeking to be changed along with the reward. For example, if a parent wants their child to practice their spelling everyday and the child loves ice cream then the parent should say, you can have the ice cream if you practice spelling first. The reason that this works better is because it is worth going through the pain of spelling in order to get the ice cream.
Another reason why this is more successful than other measures is because it works with intrinsic motivation instead of extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation works with an individuals personal desires which makes it easier to control their behavior. Many times extrinsic motivation wears off quickly so using intrinsic motivation is more successful. When using the premack principle it is important to use intrinsic motivators and have the reinforcement highly desirable so that it is not as hard for the subject to go through the less desirable situation.
This can be applied to many different behavior change projects. I do not know if it would work for mine. The reason that I do not think that it would work for my project is because the behavior that I a trying to change in not necessarily because I do not like the behavior. Honestly, I do not mind wearing my retainers. I am trying to get over my laziness and motivate myself to actually take the time to clean them and wear them. Using the premack principle does not help my situation either because I am not using reinforcement enough. For me to use the premack principle on myself, I would need to reward myself every morning for wearing my retainers. My plan is to reward myself at the end of each week if I wore them a certain percentage of the time. Thinking in depth about it now, though, I believe that this principle would have a very high success rate and I would use this in order to get through an undesirable behavior change. In the future on different behavior projects I will keep this principle in mind and use it if it applies to the situation.
Terms: premack principle, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, reinforcement, elicit, desirable

Premack principle is the concept, developed by David Premack, that a more-preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity.
I find this principle very interesting, as it is a concept I had never thought of before. I believe I could incorporate this into my project by finding fun activities or workouts that I would enjoy versus a boring painful workout that I may not be as inclined to do. For example, there are a lot of exercise classes that UNI has that could be a lot of fun rather than dying in my apartment or on a treadmill. Another way to encourage myself to continue working out is to make sure I get a reward and that I don’t get something taken away.
Terms: Premack principle, activity, reinforce, reward.

The Premack Principle states, that more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors. The website given to us in the blog gives the example of children and vegetables. Children are most likely not going to want to eat their vegetables. Using the Premack Principle, many parents will use a reinforcer to get them to eat their vegetables. For example, the video from the website uses ice cream. Most children like ice cream a lot more than they like vegetables, therefore they are more likely to eat their vegetables if they are reinforced with ice cream. The website often uses a “first, then” approach instead of an “if, then” approach. This gives the child less of a choice in the matter. This makes it easier for the target behavior to be emitted.

The website that I chose was from It helps explain the different factors of motivation that can be used when eliciting behaviors. Most behaviors that we want to emit usually are formed from intrinsic motivation. Most behaviors that we don’t want to emit are usually formed from extrinsic motivation. This means that there is an environmental reinforce that is present. For example, many people don’t like going to work. But, they do it because there are extrinsic motivators present to reinforce them to work. For example, money is a big reinforce. Social status can also be a reinforcer as many don’t want to be considered a bum or lazy. The website explains practical ways to use the Premack Principle to help others emit target behaviors.

Ways that I can use the Premack Principle in my behavioral change project is by giving myself an extrinsic motivator to reinforce my target behavior. For example, my goal was to save more money and spend less. A way I can do this is to give myself a weekly goal of money to save. If I continuously hit my goal, I will reinforce myself with a behavior that is desirable. I can use the money that I saved to go to a movie or go out with my friends. These are examples of desired behaviors that can be elicited by the target behavior.

Terms: Premack Principle, behavior, emit, elicit, target behavior, reinforce, reinforce, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, motivator

The Premack Principle is a very interesting concept in psychology. There are many positives that come with applying the principle to real world experiences. The article that I read helped to expand on my knowledge of the Premack Principle. It works by changing the mind framework through which certain behaviors or tasks are viewed. By using words such as “first,” or “then” it prevents the organism from choosing one or the other. The way it works is by using behaviors or reinforcers that have a high positive valence.

The example that was given in the article that I read was about learning how to apply Premack’s Principle to prevent procrastination. The way that this is done is by making a list of things that the individual needs to get done. Then they must order the list by most pleasurable to the most unpleasant activity. As a consequence the subject is completing the tasks that are the most unpleasant therefore making the pleasant tasks more reinforcing. The great thing about the Premack Principle is that it works closely with the schedules of reinforcement. Schedules of reinforcement help to make the Premack Principle more effective. By using the schedules of reinforcement the individual that is manipulating the behavior helps to make the unpleasant tasks more tolerable.

There was also an example of how this could be used in both dieting and working out. In my behavior project I am trying to increase the amount of time that I spend working out so that I can maximize my weight loss activity. Therefore, when going to the gym I focus on cardio and muscle workouts in order to increase the amount of fat that I burn in the time that I spend in the gym. A way that this can be done is by doing the most unpleasant tasks in the beginning of the workout rather than at the end of the workout. For example, I enjoying doing the row machine, but I do the row machine before I run for 15 minutes on the treadmill. I do not like running therefore, I can use Premack’s Principle by emitting a running behavior on the treadmill first so that the rowing machine now becomes my reinforcer. Furthermore, because dieting is another key component to losing weight and getting fit, I can use Premack’s Principle to reward myself with a desert by using phrases such as: “I must eat my salad first and then I can have a small cup of ice cream.” This works because eating a salad no longer seems that bad because I have something to look forward to.

Terms: emitting, manipulating, schedules of reinforcement, subject, unpleasant, pleasant, positive valence, reinforcer, reinforcing, organism, behavior, Premack Principle

The Premack Principle is when you use a preferred behavior to reinforce a unwanted behavior. A person would do this by saying once you complete this task then you will be rewarded with this. After the person emits the behavior they will receive the reinforcement. It's important to use schedules of reinforcement during this. If it seems to become easier for the wanted behavior to occur lessen the amount of times they will be reinforced.
I could use this in my behavior change project by starting with something small. I am trying to stop my procrastination. Once I do one assignment that I have really been dreading I could reward myself with waiting for a while to do all my other work. When I wait I have to do one right after the other but if I did not wait I could have more time in between and it might not be so dreadful. I could always make myself do my homework first then allow myself to go hang out with a friend or watch TV.
Term: Premack Principle, Behavior, Reward, Emit, Schedules of reinforcement.

The Premack Principle is used to get a desired behavior to happen by bribing with reinforcements. This more than likely happened to everyone as a child, "eat your veggies and you get a sweet." This is also considered grandma's rule.
I think this is a great way to get the outcome you are wanting but it shouldn't happen every time you want the outcome to happen.
In my behavior modification project I used to use the Premack Principle by stating to myself that if I stayed in the library to work on stuff I needed to do, not only would I get it out of the way but I would also be awarded with Netflix. Sometimes you just need to award yourself after you accomplish something, it makes things you don't want to do just a little bit better.
If I don't use the Premack Principle sometimes I will set aside a larger chunk of time to do my homework and watch Netflix or TV while I finish my homework. It distracts me just the right amount but also puts me in an environment that isn't so miserable when I really don't want to do something, but I need to get it done.
I think reinforcements are a great thing in life, not only with behavior modification but just to get through life in general. Allowing yourself to be in positive atmosphere that makes you happy may not always get your work done faster but it is possible that the work is better quality since you, yourself are in a better mode.
Using the Premack Principle can also put you in a positive mood but may not set up for the better quality of work because you may want to just hurry through the work to get it done and be reinforced.

Terms: Premack, principle, reward, reinforcer, reinforcement, behavior modification, reinforced, positive

The Premack Principle states that a high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency behavior. This principle looks more into a preferred behavior being used to reinforce the unpreferred behavior. This changes the “If, Then” to a “First, Then”. This is more effective by not allowing one to have an option. They are going to view that non-desired behavior as tolerable for that positive reinforcer they receive after they emit that desired behavior. Parents sometimes use a variation of the Premack principle. If they want children to eat vegetables (sometimes a non-preferred behavior) they can make a rule that vegetables must be consumed before the children get to eat a dessert (usually a preferred behavior). Similarly, children may be asked to do their homework (sometimes a non-preferred behavior) before watching TV or playing video games (usually a preferred behavior). I could possible incorporate the Premack Principle into my behavioral change product by using it in terms of my active minutes. I am not necessarily an active person since my accident. So, watching Netflix is a preferred behavior that could be used to elicit my desired behavior. I could say FIRST I have to complete my active minutes , THEN I can watch Netflix.
Terms: Premack Principle, reinforce, behavior, positive reinforcer, emit, elicit.

The Premack Principle presents the idea that a high frequency desirable activity can be used as a positive reinforcement to elicit a child to emit a low frequency undesirable behavior. This principle is effective because it makes the learner focus more on the positive reinforcement than the target behavior that needs to be accomplished. For example, I know that broccoli has a negative valence for him, because he knows that there is a negative contingency between eating broccoli and experiencing a bad taste. (He experienced taste aversion when he was three). I also know that my nephew has an incredibly positive valence with taking my dog for a walk. According to the Premack Princliple, if I give my nephew the opportunity to walk my dog, he may be willing to eat his broccoli.
One key thing about this principle is that the phrasing “First…Then…” needs to be used so there is no room for flexibility. If I say, “If you eat the broccoli you can walk the dog,” then my nephew can respond with, “I’ll eat the broccoli after I walk the dog,” and I know this from experience! However, if I state, “First you must eat the broccoli, then you can walk the dog,” it leaves no room for negotiation and if I stand firm then I can control his behaviors.
A second key to the Premack principle is that the undesirable activity and the desirable activity need to match. For example, my nephew won’t eat his broccoli in exchange for one Skittle because he doesn’t like skittles that much, and if I offered him something incredibly extreme like a $100 shopping spree to Toys R Us, then he will expect a large prize every time he eats the broccoli.
The blog also continues to describe how schedules of reinforcement are essential to the Premack principle. If I reinforce the broccoli eating behavior with letting my nephew walk to the dog continuously, then he will not eat his vegetables if he knows that the dog isn’t around, or walking the dog may become satiated. It is essential to mix things up, so that the child learns effectively and that rewards to not get too used to.

Terms Used: Frequency, positive reinforcement, elicit, emit, target behavior, negative contingency, negative valence, taste aversion, positive valence, satiated, continuous schedule of reinforcement.

The Premack Principle is a concept in which an activity that is more desired can be used to reinforce a less desirable activity. It is also sometimes referred to as "Grandma's Rule". You are positively reinforced to emit a behavior in which you don't like so you are able to do something you actually do want to do. This is why the Premack Principle works for most people. They are focused on the positive reinforcer rather than the thing that they do not want to do. This also explains why negative reinforcement often does not work for some people. This makes people think about what is the lesser of two evils and often results in them choosing not to emit the desired behavior.

An example of the Premack Principle would be telling a child that if they finish their dinner they can have some chocolate. The example that I just used also shows one of the variations of the principle. Statements can be worded as "If, then" or another variation is "First, then". The second example is helpful, especially for children, because it doesn't allow for any negotiation or variation. Another variation would be to try saying the reinforcement before the target behavior. Wording this way puts the reinforcer in the forefront of the child's mind. All in all, the Premack Principle can be molded into whatever works for the specific person.

I think that I could definitely apply the idea of the Premack Principle to my behavioral change project. Knowing that I will reinforce myself after emitting a behavior that I don't necessarily want to keeps me motivated. I've actually been using the Premack Principle in my behavioral change project without even realizing it. I tell myself that If I go to sleep midnight, then I can watch an episode of Netflix the next day.

Premack Principle, reinforce, positively reinforced, emit, behaivor, positive reinforcer, negative reinforcement, target behavior, reinforcer

Premack principle, also known as “grandma’s rule” was composed by David Premack in applied behavioral analysis. This principle suggests that if an individual ought to perform a specific activity, the individual will perform a less desirable activity to get at the more desirable activity.

This principle is not only effective for humans but, it can also be applied to animals as a behavior modification. Let’s take dogs for example since most people keep dogs as pet than any other animal. High-probability behaviors are what the dog wants while, low-probability behaviors are what we want. To apply the Premack Principle in real life, we need to think of all the things in daily life that our dog wants. This could be as simple as its natural reinforcers. These high probability behaviors do not have to be the obvious things like getting his dinner or his walks. They can include eating rabbit droppings, chewing grass, investigating smells, paddling or swimming in ponds, having his tummy tickled, lying on your lap, going in the car, as well as, jumping up you on his hind legs. However, exclude activities you do not want to reinforce like stealing the cat’s tea, eating socks, chewing shoes, chasing sheep, and also, discount things you do not control, like having a squirrel at your disposal willing to be chased, because it is important that you can deliver what the dog wants. For any of these high-probability activities to be used as a reinforcer, it has to be something the dog wants at that particular moment. So, in effect, what he wants (the high probability behaviors) becomes dependent on him doing what you want (the low probability behaviors).

We can incorporate this principle into our training sessions by ensuring that your dog’s every enjoyable activity that we control, has a short training activity first, and every lengthy training session should incorporate several short training interludes. Because of these associations, our dog begins to enjoy the behaviors we want him to perform, as much as the things he wants to do. By this means, dog training, the trained behaviors and the places and situations where it occurs, become so enjoyable that they become self-reinforcing. To get our dogs to respond reliably to our requests, we use rewards, but the best possible rewards are what the dog most wants at that moment and in a training session what the dog wants is most likely to be the biggest distraction or even attraction. For instance, a smell on the floor, or an escaped piece of cheese. If we train our dog to understand the Premack Principle, ‘if you do what I want (yes, sit again), you can have what you want (that escaped piece of cheese). Then, once the dog grasps the connection, what was previously the distraction and was working against our training, can then be used as the motivator and reward to reinforce the wanted responses in training.

I can definitely incorporate the Premack principle in my behavioral intervention. My behavior change is to get to eight hours of sleep every night. My target behavior which is getting eight hours of sleep is a low-frequency activity for me. However, I can associate this behavior with a high frequency activity such as watching a movie once a week. I could easily apply the “if, then..” principle in my behavior intervention. If I get eight hours of sleep every night, then I can watch a movie over the weekend. In this case, my reinforcer is watching a movie. Since my reinforcer is something I enjoy doing and is pleasurable, I will be more likely to emit the target behavior.

Terms: Premack principle, emit, target behavior, behavior intervention, reinforcer, pleasurable, activity, high frequency, low frequency.

Named after David Premack, the Premack Principle brings parents a new way to encourage better behaviors out of their children. The principle states that allowing a child to partake in high frequency behaviors as a form of reinforcement to a low frequency behavior (target behavior) can lead to a rise in the targeted behavior. The video from the website used the example of eating all of your vegetables before you can eat any ice cream. I remember back when I was younger, my parents probably unknowingly applied this principle to me in the exact way the video did. You are not too thrilled to be eating the vegetables, but as long as ice cream is coming after, who wouldn’t stuff down some broccoli and cauliflower. In another website I took a peak at, they described the principle as doing something you find unpleasant in order to get something you find pleasant. If the same undesired behavior is emitted over time with reinforcement, one day the unpleasant could become pleasant, or tolerable if we are still talking about vegetables.

Premack Principle basically boils down to the use of positive reinforcement. You are using a desirable stimulus to increase the frequency of the target behavior. In our behavior modification project, the Premack Principle will be used in the way of making it to bed by midnight (undesirable) followed up with a blueberry muffin the next morning (very desirable).

Terms: Premack Principle, target behavior, positive reinforcement, reinforcement, emit

I think the Premack Principle is really great because with my younger brother I had always said if then (If you eat your vegetables you can play video games), instead of first then (First eat your vegetables then you can play video games). The second option sounds so much better, and makes an individual more likely to complete the undesired task. I did not realize how different the two options are, until this article. I thought it was comical that it was called Grandma’s Rule, because I am certain my grandma has used this principle on me before. I will have to remember this principle for the future in order to illicit the desired behavior from my brother or my own children in the future.
My article talked about using the Premack Principle to prevent procrastination. The article explained that in order to increase the likelihood of completing a low probability behavior a high probability behavior has to serve as reinforcement. The article talked about putting together a to do list in order to rank the things that need to be done, then after you complete an item on the to do list, you receive a reward according to how hard the task was to complete. It also talks about placing tasks that are less desirable ahead of more desirable tasks so that you complete the least desirable tasks first. They also use this method when referring to dieting, exercising, and organizing because you are able to get things considered least desirable finished early on in the project, instead of dreading them the entire time, or even quitting early and avoiding the undesirable tasks.
For my behavioral change project I may do something with exercise, and the Premack Principle would definitely apply to that. I would be able to easily incorporate the Premack Principle. First I exercise, and then I get a treat of some sort after I do the target behavior. If I exercise before getting a treat, the consequences of the treat are much lower than if I ate treats without doing the target behavior. If I get a treat after performing the target behavior then it will reinforce working out. I can also incorporate the article that I read into my behavior change project by doing things that I consider less desirable early on in my project, instead of putting them off.
Terms: Premack Principle, behavior, target behavior, consequence, reinforce, desired behavior, reinforcement, high probability behavior, low probability behavior

The Premack Principle states that a high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency behavior. This pretty much is saying that if a child loves eating ice cream and has a ice cream cone every day you could use that as the high frequency activity and reinforce. We can say cleaning there room is the low frequency behavior. So if you tell you kid if they clean their room they will get a ice cream cone. There is a high chance that they will clean there room for the ice cream without even thinking about doing the boring not fun cleaning. The premack principle will work all almost any child if they love eating or doing something more then they hate doing the preferred behavior. The premack principle only will work if you are positively reinforcing the person after they do the task.

The website I researched on for the premack priniciple was was describing the principle sorta as operant conditioning. I can see where that is and how they think that. Operant conditioning and premack principle pretty much follows all of the same rules.

I can definitely apply the premack principle to my behavioral change project. Now that I know this principle I might base my whole project around it. It seems really easy to understand and do, and to force upon a person without them even knowing it. I just don't know what my project s over yet.

terms: reinforce, reinforce, behavior, premack principle,

After taking reading and attending class discussions for the past 7 weeks it is clear that the Premack principle relies basically on the of the fundamental ideas of behavior modification, that being positive and negative reinforcement. This being that in order to get your child to emit a target behavior, one in which they do not want to do, the introduction of a positive stimulus can help elicit that behavior. As we learned about in class there are rules to which make this technique more effective. First you need to make sure the reinforcement is something that is desired by the subject. If not it will hold no weight, and therefor not manipulating them to elicit the behavior. The next rule is that of which we learned recently, scheduled reinforcement. This is important because if you start rewarding the behavior to often then it will become less effective. I found it interesting however, why this technique might be preferred over negative reinforcement with children. It makes to why it might be more effective but id never thought about it in that way.

Terms- target behavior, elicit, emit, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, reinforcement, stimulus, scheduled reinforcement, behavior modification, manipulating

The Premack Principle was identified in 1965 by David Premack. The Premack Principle states that a behavior that happens without interference can be used to reinforce a behavior that occurs less reliably. The website I used gave an example of a child wanting to watch T.V. but his parents wanted him to do the dishes first. They used the Premack Principle by reinforcing the child to wash their dishes and then they can watch T.V. For the Premack Principle to work the child must like the reinforcement. If they don’t like T.V then they won’t be reinforced by doing their dishes. Something else will need to become the reinforce to elicit the correct behavior from the child.

I use this principle on an everyday basis. If I have a lot of homework to do I will tell myself to get most of it done and then I can watch Netflix, take a nap, or whatever fun activity I feel like doing. The behavior that I want to do is a reinforcement for the undesirable behavior that I don’t want to do. This can also be for when I don’t want to do the dishes. I will do my dishes and then I can watch T.V. For my behavior project I can definitely use this principle to reinforce the behavior I am trying to change.

Terms: premack principle, reinforcement, behavior, elicit

I chose to look at Mr. Mustache Money and thought that this was very interesting because I am around the age that money saving should start. This blog is very easy to read and I wish I would have read it earlier because I could have started saving even earlier. I believe this article is very easy to relate to behavior modification because you can just look at the basic reinforcer and punishment type of method. We as individuals need to look at the money we save and will have for retirement as the reinforcer and that if we do not save money then we will be punished in the long run.
I could see it being very easy to go through an extinction burst though once you start the process of saving. The first couple weeks I would have to restrict myself and now, if I have a good night at work while I am waitressing then I usually go out with friends and buy drinks at the bar. However, I would no longer be reinforced for my hard work (serving) like I used to be so I would go through extinction. The target behavior would have to be very clear for my whole family and when I get married my husband and I would have to make sure we are on the same page. If we didn't have the same target behavior then my husband could not be saving the certain percentage we want to be saving per paycheck and blowing the money.

Terms: behavior modification, reinforcer, punishment, extinction burst, extinction, target behavior

(This is being written for in-class credit since class was canceled on 10/8/2015)

The link that I decided to explore was the TED Talk performed by Ian Dunbar, “Dog-friendly dog training.” I have always been an animal-lover and at one point considered working with animals for a living, so this subject was incredibly interesting to me. Dunbar begins by discussing how there are many issues in how dogs are trained by the general public. He explains that dogs have interests, just like humans, and modern-day dog training techniques used by the general public often ignore these interests, making training a much hard task to complete. Dunbar then goes to explain that if we (as humans) are constantly competing with these interests, we will never win. Dunbar used the example of being in a park with your dog, if the dog is currently smelling another dog’s rear-end, and we call them – we probably will not win the fight. This is for many reasons, A) The dog sees us all the time, B) This is a natural curiosity and interest for dogs, and our calling them away goes against their natural interests, C) Many people get frantic and begin yelling at the dog, making it much less appealing for the dog to come back to the person anyhow. The dog will remember this tone from previous experiences and would not willingly go towards trouble.

As the talk progresses, Dunbar features several examples that could be explained using behavior modification terms. He begins to discuss how we are cruel to puppies in that we punish them for growing. When puppies are little and unable to cause much harm or discomfort, we reward them for tasks that we would not reward a larger dog for. For example, when a little puppy comes and jumps up on us, we generally get excited and pet the puppy and praise the puppy, which reinforces this behavior. This is an example of positive reinforcement as we are giving the puppy attention for their actions. An example of negative reinforcement would be a reward by taking off the dogs collar or reducing a restriction they may have, i.e. an unwanted leash, being stuck in the kennel, etc. However, when the puppy grows in size and jumps on us, we yell at them and put them in their kennel or punish them in other ways. This would also be an example of extinction, as we eliminate the expectancy of reinforcement of a certain behavior that was once reinforced. When we reward a dog for a behavior that they are eliciting, then this behavior will be reinforced. However, when we punish a dog for a behavior there are emitting, then this behavior will be extinguished.

Dunbar also touches on the fact that punishment does not always have to have a super negative connotation. He says that the punishment should do its job (working towards extinguishing and unwanted behavior), however it doesn’t have to be something miserable. It doesn’t have to be someone yanking on a leash or yelling at the dog, it can be a simple trigger word that the dog knows and knows not to disobey. Dunbar also discusses the Premack principle, and how this is an effective way of training dogs. According to Dunbar, the Premack principle is a principle of reinforcement which states that an opportunity to engage in more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors. He used this example to explain that instead of yelling at the dog for doing something bad, get the dog to do something good instead. For example, if the dog is chewing on something they shouldn’t, redirect the dog to chew on something they can, or throw a ball, or let them outside, etc. Throughout the presentation, Dunbar puts a heavy emphasis and working on positive reinforcement and rewarding the dogs for good behavior, versus negative reinforcement or punishment.

Terms: reinforcement, extinction, punishment, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, emit, elicit, Premack principle, behavior

The Premack Principle is a method of using establishing operations. It increases the pleasure in the reinforcer. For example, you want your child to eat all their peas at dinner. So you tell them, “If you eat half of your peas, then you can have some ice cream.” This makes the child more willing to emit the targeted behavior because their focus is on the reward, ice cream! It’s a simple strategy that parents can forget but when it’s used the results are great. Sometimes the child will still reject the demand because they have a history of noncompliance. You would want to reword your statement as, “You can have some ice cream, if you eat half of your peas.” This makes the reinforcer first in their thoughts because it was said first. The child will mostly think about the reinforcer, making the target behavior not such an aversive behavior. This might sound like the miracle strategy that will always work but there’s a trick to it. The reinforcer has to equate the demand. If the child doesn’t really love ice cream, they won’t be as willing to eat their peas. Make sure the reinforcer is something that the child really loves to eat, play with, or do. After a few times, make the child do more to gain their reward. “You can have ice cream with sprinkles, if you eat all of your peas.” Notice how I added a little to the reinforcer while adding to the demand.

As of right now, I’m still unsure of what my behavioral change project topic will be. But the Premack Principle can be applied to anything for any age. I use it on myself when I have to get a lot of homework or chores done. “If I finish all my homework tonight, I can watch YouTube the rest of the night.” An example I used just a few days ago was this: My friends invited me over to watch the premiere of American Horror Story and I’ve never seen the show before. I hadn’t hung out with my friends in a while so I really wanted to go. But I had to research and turn in my topical blog for this class. So I told myself this, “If I finish and post this assignment before the show starts, then I can go to UNI and hang out with my friends.” Immediately after saying that, I worked really hard for an hour and I finished the whole assignment in time. Because I was reinforced, I felt really good about myself for doing the aversive behavior.

Other Link:

Terms Used: Premack Principle, establishing operation, reinforcer, emit, target behavior, noncompliance, aversive, pleasure

The Premack Principle is when a person emits a preferred activity that is based on completing a low frequency behavior. This is sometimes referred to as Grandma’s Rule, because like my other source so eloquently put “those experts of children’s behaviors”, they stated that it is like when your grandmother would say if you finish all of your vegetables than you can have chocolate cake. This expresses this principle because it reflects that the undesired behavior which would be eating their vegetables is reinforced by eventually getting to eat the chocolate cake. Simply stating, the Premack Principle makes it easier to do an aversive activity by putting a pleasant activity right after it. The person who is having the Premack Principle applied to them is not thinking about the aversive behavior that they have to emit because they are focused on the positive reinforcer. This technique can also be referred to as the “First/Then”, “If/Then”, “High Probability/Low Probability”. Also the timing of the reinforcement can change the consequence as well as the order of how you talk about the reinforcement; if you say the reinforcement first then it will be in the foremost of the child’s thinking. I could incorporate this into my behavioral change project which was to drink more water every day. By saying that I can eat a 3 gummy worms after I drink a 16oz water bottle than I will be reinforced to drink more water each day.
Terminology: Premack Principle, emit, reinforced, aversive, positive reinforcer, behavior

I believe the Premack principle is a very creative, yet good way to get children/anyone to perform an unwanted task. Instead of giving the individual the option of performing the unwanted behavior you make it a demand. The way of doing this is by stating "first and then" which gives the person the thought that if they carry out the action then they will get the opportunity to receive their reinforcement. This will take their focus off of the bad and turn it into something positive. I remember when my mom performed this on me at the age of five. She said that if I ate all of my tomato soup, then I would get to go to the store and pick out my favorite design of blanket. This made me really want to finish my food so I could get what I wanted. That is the reason that a negative reinforcement or punishment often doesn't work with a negative activity, because it gives the person no reason to participate.
The premack principle can also be used in different variations such as: frequent reinforcemnt, which can help smaller steps occur towards a bigger goal. As time goes on though, make sure to increase the difficulty of the goal in order to enhance the child's abilities and to keep the goal interesting, or you can start off heavier with the positive reinforcements and lesser the value as the task becomes easier for the individual. It can always help to make sure that the reinforcement has value to the individual, so they really will have a desired behavior.

terms: Premack principle, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, reinforcement, punishment

The Premack principle is just a different way of using reinforcement to increase the likelihood of someone performing a desired target behavior. The desired behavior is not appealing to the subject, or is a non-preferred behavior. In order for the person to engage in that target behavior though, a preferred behavior is used as a reinforcer. If the subject thinks about the preferred behavior they can participate in after performing the target behavior, they are more likely to comply since they are thinking about the positives.
There are also different variations that you can use the premack principle, based on your specific situation. You can have a continuous reinforcement, which is good to start out with so that the subject is more likely to perform the target behavior. As time goes on however, you can increase the difficulty in getting to the reward in order to keep the person interested and because the original task becomes easier to them the more they do it. Just as long as the reinforcer still has value to the subject, they will continue to engage in the desired behavior.
One reason why this would help with the final behavioral change project is because it is using reinforcement instead of punishment. We have learned in class that reinforcement is more effective than punishment because the encouraging demeanor of the conditioning has a pleasurable influence on the subject instead of an aversive one. In order for the premack principle to work though, the preferred behavior has to be a good enough reinforcer for the non-preferred behavior so that it can motivate the person to emit the target behavior.

Terms: premack principle, reinforcement, target behavior, non- preferred behavior, preferred behavior, reinforcer, comply, punishment, pleasurable, aversive, emit, continuous reinforcement,

The Premack principle is just another way of reinforcing a targeted behavior. This is different from regular reinforcement, because it adds another behavior which the subject finds enjoyable, and pairs it with the target behavior that we wish to reinforce in order to increase the desired behavior. For example maybe you have a hobby, and you really like spending time doing whatever it is that is included with this hobby. You could use the promise of participating in this hobby as a well to encourage yourself to increase the targeted behavior. For instance let's say that I need to do homework, but I don't want to do it. I could reinforce myself to do my homework by saying that I can participate in doing my hobby after my homework is finished. Eventually, I would just do my homework right away so that I have more time to participate in my hobby.

Premack Principal
Targeted behavior
Desired behavior

The article I read was a counter to another article that was posted on the internet. The first article that was posted was title something similar to “If you have savings in your twenties you are doing it wrong” and the article I read was titled “If you’re not getting rich in your twenties you’re doing it wrong”. The first article talked about how you should embrace the party life and spend money on what you want. The second article discussed how you should enjoy life but you should also be building a foundation for when you come out of your thirties.
This relates very well to behavior modification because it is talking about the behaviors someone emits within their twenties. If you break it down into the ABC’s it is extremely interesting because the first article will have consequences immediately but the second article might not have consequences until later. For example in the first article the antecedent might be hanging out with all of your friends and them wanting to go clubbing, the behavior you choose to emit is going clubbing, and the consequence might be feeling worn out for the rest of the week because you went out. The second article antecedent can might also be hanging out with all of your friends and them wanting to go clubbing, the behavior might be that you choose to go out some nights but other nights you choose to stay in and work, and the consequence is going to be that you build your career by working extra but you are also making memories.
Terms: Behavior modification, emits, antecedent, behavior, consequence

The Premack principle is a very interesting one. It is basically eliciting a target behavior by creating a reinforcer out of a second behavior that the subject enjoys doing. The additional source I looked at used the additional term or intrinsic motivation when discussing this, and I think this is interesting. The very frequency with which we do activities of our free will shows how high we rank on intrinsic motivation for that behavior. I found it interesting that this is another behavioral principle which seems to come to a lot of parents naturally. If you want to do this, you have to do this first. While I'm not sure what I'm going to do for my final project yet, one idea I had was dealing with low attendance at classical music performances on campus. This is a behavior that is emitted by many with low frequency. People go to other performances like rock shows and other things that come to Gallagher with greater frequency. Perhaps you could offer a free ticket to a Gallagher show, after attending so many classical music performances. If they want to emit a behavior they do like, they have to first attend classical music showings.

Premack principle, emit, elicit, behavior, target behavior, intrinsic motivation,reinforcer.

My favorite thing about this class is putting names to the techniques that I have already been using. The Premack Principle is something that I have used, my mother has used, and my grandmother before her. The Premack Principle is giving positive reinforcement for doing an unpreferred behavior. In relation to my daughter, this would be letting her have her Halloween candy after she cleans her room. Another interesting part of this principle is that the positive reinforcement often outweighs the undesirable behavior or target behavior to be preformed. This is key because there needs to be some kind of leverage to get the behavior completed. The end thought needs to be the candy, whereas if we were to use negative reinforcement, the end thought could be timeout and would make the process less effective. When they are thinking of the end result negatively, it does not bode well for motivation unless it is an absolute extreme.
According to both websites that I viewed on the Premack Principle, the positive reinforcement can be something that is enjoyed by the specimen such as a frequented activity, food, or object that is coveted. The way that one can figure out just what will work to gain the optimal outcome would be through observation. This can pertain to free time used to play, or what is most commonly eaten by the subject. When reading about this I have come across a major thought that in regards to parenting my daughter, I do use this process. I also realized that I do not use it as often as I should. One said example is that at dinner time, my daughter hates to eat her vegetables. In order to get her to eat them, I also resort to negative reinforcement. This has helped me realize that positive reinforcement is much more effective, and I may possibly cut out the hour battle to get her to eat her carrots.

Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, stimulus, target behavior

For the make-up assignment I chose to write about Premack’s Principle. This is a behavioral principle that suggests that it is possible to use a more probable or enjoyable behavior to reinforce a less probable or a less enjoyable one. This is an example of an establishing operation because it makes the reinforcer more reinforcing. This would also be an example of positive reinforcement because of the fact that it involves adding a reinforcer in order to facilitate the performance of the target behavior.
As for incorporating Premack’s principle into my behavioral change project, I could use a behavior that I enjoy as reinforcement for me to drink more water. For my reinforcement behavior I decided not to use the behavior of renting a movie I had tried to reinforce myself with in the past because it didn’t really change my behavior from week one to week two. The new behavior I chose to use as my reinforcer is going to Sakura for sushi with my best friend. I feel like this behavior will be more reinforcing for me because it is something that I have been planning on doing and also because I don’t want to let my friend down by not being able to go. I feel like using the information that I learned from this assignment will assist me in my efforts to modify my behavior.
Terms: Premack’s Principle, reinforcement, establishing operation, positive reinforcement, target behavior

Premack Principle, “states that a high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency behavior.” This is when the desired activity is dependent on the completion of the low frequency behavior. A common example of this is children finishing their plate by being reinforced with a high frequency behavior. It’s important to start with small actions then eventually elicit the behavior. To determine what to reinforce people with is by observing what he or she voluntarily chooses. The child prefers to eat dessert over finishing his or her vegetables. The preferred behavior is eating the dessert where the unpreferred behavior is eating vegetables. The target behavior in this example is eating more vegetables. There are some stabling operations to get this principle in action. Making the child eat two more bites of vegetables before getting dessert is a good example of this principle. This is used day to day without even noticing it take place. The article I used had some extra examples that explained the Premack Principle more in detail. I like how the link that was provided gave three tips on how to perform this principle. First, it states to be cautious if the positive reinforcement matches the perceived negative reaction of the non-preferred activity. Second, say the reinforcement first. And lastly, make sure the reinforcement is something that the child will work for and that it’s better for the child.
As of right now I do not have an exact behavioral change project proposal in mind. I have poor habits on picking my split ends a lot and also biting my nails. I would love to decrease these behaviors and eventually emit them from my life. By knowing this principle, I could establish some reinforcements that I would work for to increase my target behavior, decreasing nail biting and hair picking. These behaviors don’t just bother me but others around me so I would like to see them gone. I would need someone to hold me accountable. I would be in need of a reinforcer that would be cheap and with or near me always. Once I found out what that reinforce would be I could then start small with certain tasks and eventually extend to my difficult goal to reach my positive target behavior, emitting the poor habits from my life.
Terms: Reinforcement, Reinforcer, Premack Principle, Emit, Elicit, Establishing Operations, Target Behavior, Positive Reinforcement, Frequency.

I watched the video on dog training. Ian Dubar stated in the video that owners of dogs do three things that don't really help the dog in training: 1. owners create rules that fit their point of view, not the dogs, 2. we keep the rules a secret from the dog, 3. we punish the dog if the dog doesn't follow our rules. He has a great example of this. When a puppy jumps up on you, you think its cute and say "Good boy" reinforcing the puppy. When the puppy grows and is a lot heavier and jumps up on you, you no longer like it and punish the dog. The dog gets confused by this change in behavior. Another thing he mentions is the language humans use. Dogs don't know English, Swahili, Spanish, French, etc. They don't understand our languages, so we use a different "language" easier for dogs, food. Through trial and error, the dog will eventually establish a relationship between the food and the word "sit." He also mentions the Premack Principle in the second stage of training which is teaching the dog to WANT to do what we want them to do. We follow a low frequency behavior (something the dog doesn't want to do) with a high frequency behavior (something the dog does want to do). Doing this makes the high frequency behavior become a reinforcer to the low frequency behavior. For example, throwing a tennis ball (high frequency behavior) after the dog sits (low frequency behavior). In essence, the dog feels like he is training you. "If all I do is sit, my owner will throw the tennis ball!" This makes it easy for the need for punishment to not come up. He mentions that raising your voice is like a punishment, so if you don't have to raise you voice, it shouldn't be done. Punishment shouldn't be scary or painful. The dog will less likely want to approach you if your voice is scary. A big thing that came across that really stuck, was when you think about punishing your dog or child, ask yourself, "Is it good, or is it a bad behavior?" If it was good, reinforce the behavior, if it is bad don't punish the behavior, but take time and see if the behavior changes due to a reinforcement.

Terms: reinforce, punish, behavior, Premack Principle, high frequency behavior, low frequency behavior

I chose to write my make up in class assignment on the Premack Principle. In this make up assignment I will discuss what it is, how I can incorporate it into my behavioral change project, and finally thoughts that arose when I read about it.

The Premack Principle is a theory of behaviorism that elicits a targeted behavior from a person that does not want to emit such a behavior. In most cases it revolves around a smaller child who does not want to eat a certain type of food, generally vegetables. In the examples, the child does not want to eat the vegetables, but the adult or supervisor wants them to eat and finish them. So they create a bribe like method to doing so. They state that the child must first do the desired behavior, in this case eating the vegetable, and after that is done the child will be reinforced with something they like, such as a toy or dessert. This works because it highlights the reinforcement instead of the thing the child is trying to avoid. It is from this shift of focus that this method works so well.

I can incorporate this into my behavioral change project because it allows the combination of knowledge from reinforcers and punishers, along with successful methods of applying them to real world scenarios to surface, allowing a more descript and plausible change to come about. With the more details I can apply to the project, the higher likely the success will be, and this shows a common practice that many people do even subconsciously.

During the reading it seems that this is just a method for tricking a person’s perception of what is going on. It sounds like what a lot of people do towards homework and doing another activity, if successful they can say first comes homework with the reinforcer of the desired activity afterwards.

Terms used: Premack Principle, behaviorism, elicits, emit, behavior, reinforced, reinforcement, punishers, reinforcers, targeted behaviors

I am choosing to write about Mr.Mustache money. I thought this was really important and of real relevance to my life right now. At this age in college I hear a lot about how i should start a savings account for myself so when i get out of college I'm not completely broke. I also heard this going into college as well. I was told that i should start working the summer before school starts and that i should start a small savings account. I chose not to do that and i was broke my freshman year and had to get a job immediately. You can relate this article to behavior modification in the way that you can use reinforcements to help with saving money and putting money in your savings account. So for example you get a pay check of $300 a week. And of that $300 you put $150 in your savings account. So the reinforcer that you can put on yourself is that with the extra 150 that you got you can go get a pair of shoes or go shopping with it. Every week you can reinforce yourself. With this behavioral change plan i feel like i will be able to accomplish my goal every week to put money in my savings account. I could also use this for when i get older and have to create an account for when i retirement. Only problem that i have with my plan right now is that i don't have a specific dollar amount of savings that i want to achieve.
terms: reinforcer, target behavior, behavior, behavior modifcation

For this make up assignment I chose the video on dog training. I always find this subject interesting being the owner of two Australian shepherds who are now aging around 11 years old so they are getting pretty old for their breeds. The video starts out discussing how we reinforce dogs when they are just puppies and then when they grow older we punish them for doing the behaviors that we reinforced when they were puppies. Of course this is going to confuse the animal, they think that they can emit these certain behaviors because they had for the beginnings of their lives and then all of a sudden they cannot do them anymore because they are adults then. I thought one very interesting point he made in the video was that there are three types of species that are so abused in life are humans, dogs, and horses. He said that we always go back to apologize for being punished/beaten and when you consider this it is really a sad truth. How many women stay with abusive men and feel that it is their fault for getting beat or how many times have you seen someone swat at their dog and the dog come back to lick them to imply that they are sorry and want their attention. I have never heard of someone telling people to train their dogs using ESL (English as a second language) because the dog does not speak English and cannot respond to the command that a person is asking of them. Instead of punishing the dog for jumping on you when you enter the home instead teach them to emit a behavior and reinforce them for sitting and waiting instead of jumping and barking. The goes on to discuss the second stage of training “getting the dog to want to do what you want him to do”. He said to use the Premack Principle for this we follow the low frequency behavior with a high frequency behavior, something the dog does not want to do with something the dog does want to do. To teach him to sit you tell him to sit and then reinforce him with something he does want to do like a tummy rub or throwing a tennis ball. The third stage of training is some things the dog must absolutely not do, he said was must enforce without using force. With the example he gave with the very aggressive dog he said the woman did not need to raise her voice she just calmly said to go back to his mat, I think a large problem when people are training their dogs is they think that they need to become aggressive with them to show dominance. However, he made a very clear point that you do not need to become aggressive to punish. He makes the point that the dogs know the tone of their owner’s voice so if they yell at them the dog is not going to come it knows that if it comes to that tone some kind of punishment will proceed. Another interesting thing that he said in his Ted Talk was that when we find a life partner it seems that everything is wonderful for the first years but then what we has humans do is take good for granted and moan and groan at the bad. He ended his talk saying that how we interact with others in our lives are much more important and should be taught rather than focusing on skills that are not as valuable as humans.

Terms: Dog training, reinforce, punish, emit, Premack principle, low frequency behavior, high frequency behavior

In this video, Mitra makes a very valid point that our education is well rounded in general, but extremely outdated. He mentions how in the future, many of the jobs wont require someone to be able to solve complex mathematical equations or have a need to write neatly because we have calculators and keyboards. Dr. Maclin poses the question “How can we take the information from this video (and possibly what we have learned in class) and make changes within our existing educational system to prepare for the future?

Unfortunately there are many possible flaws in trying to “better” the education for a future that we can’t see yet. We know how much technology is taking over, but people need to know basic information like how to multiply and how the body is formed. I think the basic grades (kindergarten to approx. 8th grade) includes a lot of crucial information. I feel like our high school system could be changed quite a bit though. In my day to day activities I notice that there is a lot of things I don’t know how to do because it was never taught to me. I don’t know how to file my taxes, how loans and credit cards work, or how to simply change the oil in my vehicle. Those are important things to know yet was never brought up once. Yet, I know exactly how to solve something like “The blue train is heading west going 40 miles per hour and the green train is going east at 75 miles per hour…” question that will never be presented to me.

Aside from people not being taught how to live in a real world, everything is basically only preparing us for college. Being 17 years old, I had to basically make the decision on what I wanted to do for the next 50 years of my life. I had a pretty “well rounded” idea of each subject…I knew I sucked at chemistry and math, so no science degree. I liked to talk to people, knew nothing about computers, and did pretty well in my psychology 101 class so I took off with that. Luckily I had a good idea about what I was good at because if I didn’t have those math and chemistry courses I wouldn’t have known, yet if we started focusing on one subject earlier in life (having to decide what we wanted to study at age 12) and not waste time on other subjects, imagine how much more knowledge that individual would have by the time they reached graduation at 21.

Another side note is how all classes are on a grading scale. I think it’s interesting to remember that typically, students should be “average”. When graphing information there is suppose to be a bell curve and so on, yet A’s and B’s are pushed on us so harshly. When we receive a C we don’t normally get rewarded or reinforced. We are normally pushed to “do better”. When we receive an A or B we are often told “good, that is what you should be doing.” Those that are average are being punished and essentially feeling like they aren’t good enough when that’s exactly where they should be. How can we change the system to accurately show us what we are capable of? How to we encourage students to push themselves without feeling like they’re always failing?

The problem with changing the education system is that some will have unfair advantages. We need to know things like how to write neatly and how to do simple formulas because by the time everyone graduates high school, everyone will have (hopefully) enough knowledge to take them to whatever path they choose. I would say the most important things would be to 1) add more classes to general education that is more than tests and reading from a textbook. Take kids outside and show them how to change a tire. Teach the steps they need to take if someone is having a seizure. 2) I think once they reach college they should prioritize just the classes that will help with their major. For example, being a psych major I am still required to take two history classes. Why? When, in my next 50 years, while I am with someone contemplating suicide and I am suppose to talk them through it, going to bring up how King whoever killed a bunch of his wives because they couldn’t have boys. Leave that to the history scholars.
I think in a very round about way, this can be compared to our Behavior Modification class because we are leaning the reasons why people do certain behaviors, how to change them, how you can apply those lessons to raising children and keeping yourself away from bad habits. It is hard to take a chemistry class and relate it to everyday life unless you are a chemist.

For this assignment I went to the Finance and Behavior website and went to the article on how a millionaire is made ten bucks at a time. The gist of the article was to change someone’s mindset and to start making little changes in emitted behaviors instead of going for gold right away. The article can be compared to our behavior modification mini projects and also the class on many levels.
One example of how this article is related to our behavioral change projects is because it wants someone to take baby steps when changing a behavior.

In our projects, generally we are advised to not quit something cold turkey and to ween ourselves off of it. This makes it easier to reinforce as there is wiggle room, something that the article also mentions, and because self-reinforcement and self-directed behavior is much harder to do than other-directed behavior and others reinforcing our behaviors. The article says that in order to retire one should look at little instances of the times we spend ten dollars instead of the overall goal of 750K dollars. In doing so, it makes things manageable, gives them wiggle room, and also allows for slip ups to happen in the changing of behaviors.

One example of how this is related to our class is that this is a walking example of operant conditioning. A person is punished or reinforced based on how they spend their ten dollars one situation at a time. If a person saves ten dollars instead of eating a Sub City sandwich, they are positively reinforced by adding the money to a retirement saving. If they however buy that sandwich, it is a case of them negatively punishing themselves, this is because they are removing potential retirement savings, and for most people this is an aversive stimulus, so they will instead do what they can to save in the future, thusly reinforcing themselves. Although this is not a clear cut and simple example, the article is definitely working to modify spending behaviors without eliminating the extravagance that can be present.

Terms used: emitted, behaviors, behavior modification, self-directed behavior, other-directed behavior, reinforcement, reinforcing, operant conditioning, reinforced, punished, positive reinforcement, negative punishment, aversive, stimulus

The topic I chose for the makeup assignment for class tomorrow is Premack Principle. This is described when a more probable behavior can be used to reinforce a less probable behavior. The premack principle is used in motivation psychology. In the video I watched about this I also find out that this is also called the grandmas law. If you think about it that is very cleaver, because grandmas to this to their grandchildren all that time, you just didn’t realize what it was called. The Premack principle helps teaching the client to do things that they don’t want to do. This acts as a reward for the client because they have to do that behavior and then they will be able to get some that is enjoyable or also known as the reinforcement. An example of this would be your mom telling you that you can have your favorite ice-cream tonight, but first, in order to get that you have to eat every vegetable on your plate. See how the more probable behavior (the ice-cream) is used as reinforcement for the less probable behavior (eating vegetables). In this video that I watched, it showed how he could train his dog to do anything he wanted with practice of the premacks principle. For example, when he threw out a dog treat, the dog would go after it and then the owner will call its name to come back then it will be able to go and get the treat. See how it has to do a lower probable behavior before it can do a more probable behavior or the reinforcement. This is also called an intrinsic rewarded by using this principle. You are doing something to get something for yourself, which is a lot easier than an external reward where you do it for something from the outside or you yourself is not the one reinforcing yourself. This is because others control it and determine if you get that reinforcement. An example of this would be when you get an assignment done you get a reward of a grade, but depending on how well you do the assignment you teacher controls how much of a reinforcement you get back from doing this assignment.
How I will put the Premack principle in my behavioral change project will be a little more difficult to figure out. This first thing that comes to mind would be in order for me to watch my annual day of my Netflix serious, I have to call my sister and see if she’s available to talk for a bit or not. If I do this then I am able to watch my show. This is not only a reinforcement, but it will also help me not to watch my show so much that it is taking over my life. This is because I will only be calling my sister a couple times during the week instead of everyday, like I usually do with watch my Netflix show.

I am choosing to discuss about finances and how your behavior can affect your finances. I read this blog that discusses an article called "If You're Not Getting Rich in your 20's, You're Doing it Wrong" by Lauren Martin. Mr. Money Mustache discusses how working hard in your 20's will pay off in the end. He mentions that the 20's is when you are the most motivated, where the most doors are opened, when you'll learn the most and potentially earn money that can last you a lifetime. The blog relates to the ABC's of behavior, reinforcement, punishment, goals, consequences, and self-directed behavior, which is what I am going to deliberate about.

While reading this blog, I really felt I should include the ABC's of behavior. One example I found interesting was how having kids while trying to become financially independent will make your life "suck." I would put the antecedent at having children, the behavior as trying to balance kids and your financial stability, and the consequence as being overly stressed resulting in your life to "suck." I also thought I should include reinforcement and punishment. In the blog, he mentions that working hard in your 20's results in more financial stability, strong career, increase skills, and more income. I believe this would be a type of reinforcement: getting more money, increasing your skills, and having a strong career for the hard work you are doing in your early years. If you do not work hard and focus in your 20's, then you will be punished in that you won't have the luxury of what you could have if you would have worked harder. I feel this blogged touched a lot on goals and goal setting. It states "You will never feel more motivated and less cynical than you do now." With this, he is saying that you will never feel more motivated to reach your goals of making money and working hard, than you will in your 20's. I would relate self-directed behavior to this blog because in order to make money on our own, we have to rely on ourselves to manage the behavior and sometimes administer the consequences. This would go with spending too much money instead of saving that money or investing it.

Terms: goals, reinforcement, punishment, self-directed behavior, behavior, motivation, goal setting, consequences


I chose to go to the Mr. Money Mustache (MM) website, and found an interesting article called "Are You Cleaning Out Your Own Wallet?". Mr. MM talks about how people are spending way too much money per year on a level of cleanliness that is almost excessive. He argues that people are buying products like Febreeze or Sanitizing Wipes, which are just not needed. The behavior of being a clean-freak makes sense for someone that has something that requires a sterile environment. Growing up, my brother had severe asthma and was allergic to just about everything you could think of. We couldn't even have dust in our house. But for a majority of us, it is probably okay to not sanitize the door knobs every time someone leaves the room.

To help make sense of why being obsessively clean can be bad, we can look at the ABC's of behavior. There was a part in this article where he talked about people who embrace germs instead of running from them, are less likely to get sick because their immune system is strengthened through exposure. So, the antecedent in this would be being a germaphobe. The behavior would be obsessively cleaning, and the consequence would be getting sick more often from a weakened immune system. I want to think that getting sick more often would work as a negative reinforcer, because people wouldn't want to get sick. But I think that getting sick may reinforce the obsessive cleaning instead.

Another way that we can look at this is through rule governed behavior. Why are people obsessive about making sure their houses are spotless at all times? It could be argued that people are clean freaks because there is some sort of societal rule that if your house isn't spotless, then you're a slob. Growing up, I hated putting my laundry away. My room wasn't dirty; it was just cluttered by the clothes everywhere. My mom would get so embarrassed, and demanded that it was cleaned up before people could come over. Plus, with all of the cleaning commercials you see on TV all the time, it would make sense that people are going to buy more products to make their house as clean as possible.

Terms: rule governed behavior, negative reinforcer, reinforce, antecedent, behavior, consequence. ABC's of behavior

I decided to discus extinction and extinction burt when trying to cut back on money and getting the overall reinforcer of being wealthy. The website talks a lot about how amazing it is to be wealthy and how anyone can do it if you just set your mind to it. He also talks about short term reinforcers that other families may try that end up a complete fail. However, he doesn't really focus on the specific behaviors that need to change. He needs to imply what the antecedent, behavior and consequence is. We could say that the antecedent of saving money is putting up reminders around the door when you leave the house. This may help remind you not to stop and grab a soda from the gas station on the way to work or drive through Starbucks to get a cup of coffee. The behavior will be saving money and not spending it and the consequence will be having more money. However, extinction is occurring for the children now if say when they get good grades you used to buy them a candy bar. This will now intervene with your target behavior and you can no longer do this. The child may go through an extinction burst and many parents would give in during this time to try and reinforce the child.
The parents may also go through an extinction burst when trying to save money because of the reinforcers they are used to getting. This blog should try and list things that can be substituted for those material things that we have to buy. Maybe instead of reinforcing the child with a candy bar you should reinforce him or her with no chores for a few days. Or staying up a little later than his normal bedtime. Extinctions can be resolved as long as we think of different things that can replace the previous reinforcer. Many of the behaviors we emit to save money are short term because the new reinforcers we choose to have be the replacers are not very good. Money spending is an easy behavior to record and the motivation should be high to do this because the goal and consequence is rewarding. There should be punishments implemented for the whole family as well to create even more of a reason why they should save and cut back on spending.

Terms: extinction, extinction burst, reinforcer, antecedent, behavior, consequence,emit, goal, motivation


I found an article on the finance and behavior link that painted out the poor consequences of indulging in luxury. The writer uses examples of luxury in society, and explains how these luxuries such as technology, nice cars, fast food, and all comforts that we allow ourselves are in a way crippling us.
Like drugs, our seeking out of luxury as a society has made us weaker. We find it extremely difficult not to indulge in all our wants and needs. That includes spending excessive amounts of money on things that we don't even need. We live in houses that are too big for us, and drive cars that far exceed our needs. How is buying all these luxuries any different from an alcoholic reaching for a bottle, or a drug addict getting their fix.
We can look back on history, and observe how royalty became so dependent and accustomed their luxurious lives, and care from servants. Some kings and queens would even execute their servants if they did provide accurate services.
This relates to behavior modification, because a dependency on luxury is a problem. How do we correct our expensive habits?
We have an antecedent of living luxuriously. The behavior that we must correct is providing ourselves with the luxuries that we don't. We have many adverse consequences that are caused by the luxurious behavior. In a way luxury is a drug. We have become dependent on making our lives as easy as possible. However, providing ourselves with so many unnecessary comforts, and expenses we are making ourselves poorer and weaker. When remain in comfort and don't engage in necessary life related activities we loose out on important skills. For example if we stay inside and eat food all day. We will get flabby, and our muscles will begin to atrophy and weaken. We spend our money on getting these comforts that we don't need and then we don't have enough money to maintain our lifestyles.
We must reinforce ourselves to use moderation, or to not engage in these luxurious activities at all.
"Luxury is best appreciated as a strong and interesting contrast to, rather than the fabric of, your daily life."

Terms: Consequences, indulgence, maintain, adverse, antecedent, behavior, dependency, addiction.

I decided to write about Ian Dubar's dog training video. I chose this because I have a lab at home and my family has always raised rescue dogs. Dubar says that when you train a dog, you should take in account the dog's point of view. He talked about three ways humans usually train dogs. The first step was making up rules, human rules without dogs in consideration. People think that the way we train humans or our children is the same way we can train dogs. The second way is keeping these rules a secret from the dogs and the third is now we can punish dogs for breaking the rules. He brought up a good point about how when the dog is young, we think it is so cute when they jump on the couch and we say "aw you're so cute" and things of that nature. Then,when they get bigger and they jump on the couch, we punish them. This becomes very confusing for the dogs. He also made a great point that when you look into a dog training manual, all the ways of punishing your dog are physical abusive ways. He talks about three steps you should use when training your dog. The first step is to teach dogs ESL: English as a second language and that's why we use food as a second language and as a reinforcer. The second step is to teach the dog to want to do what we want them to do. We do that by using the Premack Principle, which is using a low frequency behavior the dog doesn't want to do by a high frequency behavior using something the dog does want to do. THat will then become a reward. The third step is to enforce without force with punishment. He talked about how he was training a big dog that was hurting family members. He proved that training the dog in a calm voice without yelling or abusing the dog worked better than their current method. He says to take the time to see if the behavior changes due to reinforcement. This video was very interesting because I never noticed how dogs usually are punished with abuse. It definitely gave me some tips for training my own dog.
Terms: Premack Principle, behavior, reinforcer, reinforced, punisher, punishment

My video I chose was over dog training, a video from one of the Ted talk videos. In the video it was talked about the types of abuse that dogs get. When they are young we allow them to jump up on our legs. We do this because that this point they’re cute and cuddly. Once they grow and get older we get mad that they do this, so in turn people do things as a form of abuse. In the video the guy talks about a variety of things we can do instead to reward them.
His idea is to learn ESL. English as a second language. In this, we use the word sit and then also on top of that we give them a treat to help them understand what we are wanting from them. The second stage of his training is getting dogs to want to do what we want to do. This is where the Premack Principal is incorporated. It is during this time that dogs believe we are just letting them do whatever they want. In stage three, things that you must not do must be incorporated. Here you punish, but not in a painful way. Instead you find a way to reinforce positively. An example of this is teaching them to do something that we want, in a civil manor. Overall, I found this video to be very interesting. It further enlightens information about modifying behaviors. I find it specifically interesting that an organism other than a human is able to have a modified behavior with the help of a few special skills.

Terms used: premark principal,positive reinforcement, punishment, behavior, and reinforced.

Dog Training
Ian Dundar is explaining to the audience that the way we approach training our dogs tends to be wrong and this is how we end up with disobedient dogs (or children, or even spouses). How people deal with training or confrontation is by only thinking of what they want the other person or animal to do and not about what the other person/animal is thinking at the moment. And Dundar explains the issue is that we reinforce behaviors the dog emitted as a puppy (using the dog example for simplicity). When the puppy grow to a bigger size and emitted the same behaviors, they were then punished harshly. This action can result in confusion and anxiety and possibly neuroticism. Flash back to Pavlov’s dogs showing neuroticism as they either got very angry or would shut down and be confused/dazed because the circle and oval shapes looked far too similar. Training must start at the beginning and the rules need to remain the same throughout the whole relationship so that there is no confusion and unnecessary punishment.

Dundar says that we should use English as a second language because it’s crazy to think that English is a dog’s primary language. It’s difficult for them to know what we expect if we just continuously say the word sit and point at their rear. The “trick” is to use food every time we say sit and they sit down. It may take a couple times, but overtime the dog will know what the word sit means. Dogs have their own interests, just as we do, and these interests would be fabulous reinforcers for desired behaviors. By using the Premack Principle, we can couple the behavior we want them to do with something they want to do. This will make the dog more interested to do what we want them to do. An example is to tell them to sit, they sit down, and then you throw a tennis ball for them. This makes training a more pleasurable experience because both parties get what they want and there was no need for punishment.

As we have learned in this class and other psychology courses, punishment does not mean something mean or hurtful. A punishment is a stimulus that is either added or taken away from the situation to decrease the undesired behavior. If the punishment doesn’t need to be aversive, it hardly needs to be, then why make it that way?

The key is to stay calm and understand the other dog, or person for that matter, has their own sense of self and interests. I can’t think of a time where having a fight with another person and yelling at them ever resulted in a positive ending. Consideration and feedback helps build relationships between animals and people. Compliment the behavior that is desired because it is a very powerful but under used technique.

Ian Dundar’s point definitely focused on dog and how people can better train them and have better relationships with their dog. It’s his whole career. But the overall point he’s making is that training your child or even your spouse does not need to be aversive, in fact that makes things worse. Using a more behaviorist approach and applying reinforcements and punishments will make relationships stronger and will bond you and your dog, child, and spouse closer.

- Reinforce, behaviors, emitted, punished, neuroticism, Pavlov, punishment, reinforcer, Premack Principle, pleasurable, aversive

I decided to read about and learn more about the Premack Principle The Premack Principle of reinforcement discusses the concept of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Behaviors we complete due to external motivation, such as going to work for money, generally come from a desire to receive a reward for that behavior. We probably would not compete these behaviors if we did not receive the expected reward. Intrinsic motivation explains those behaviors that we do simply because we enjoy them on our own. For example, if a person loves to watch Netflix, and they simply love to do it because they enjoy doing it, this is considered an internal reward.

We are more likely to complete behaviors that come from intrinsic motivation, especially if the reward from extrinsic motivated behaviors is not guaranteed. Therefore, the probability of these behaviors being completed is generally higher. This is the Premack Principle, the probability of a certain behavior occurring depends on where the reinforcement is coming from. External motivation or reward can get people to complete behaviors, however if the reward becomes less pleasing or not present, we are not likely to complete those behaviors. However, if the intrinsic motivation to complete a certain behavior is present, we will have that reward regardless of external reward or not. Since I am working on my behavioral change project (completely quitting the act of drinking pop) I am going to relate the Premack Principle to my project.

In order to incorporate the Premack Principle into my behavioral change project, I will have to determine a way to incorporate an intrinsic motivation to not drink pop. This way, there can be a higher probability of me NOT drinking pop, increasing this behavior. One example of this could be physical benefits of not drinking pop. Whenever I drink pop, I generally don’t feel well for the next few hours. I have a very sensitive stomach, therefore I would generally prefer to drink something else. Another example could be choosing something I like better to drink that doesn’t make me sick, such as flavored sparkling water, or some type of juice. These are both examples of how I could use intrinsic motivators in order to increase my probability of choosing NOT to drink pop.

Each of us has things that we like to do, and each of us has things that we do not like to do. If we like to do something, this is referred to as a preferred behavior. If we don't like to do something this is referred to as an unpreferred behavior. By using the preferred behavior to reinforce someone to emit an unpreferred behavior is known as the premack principle.

I had already decided to put the premack principle into my behavior project (in a way) without even realizing it. I had decided that my reinforcement for not drinking pop would be a certain amount of time allotted to myself to play a video game that I enjoy playing. This is using my preferred behavior of playing the video game to reinforce my unpreferred behavior of refraining from drinking pop, specifically Pepsi.

I chose to watch Ian Dunbar's video about dog training. He says that we can and need to improve our relationships with our dogs. He starts of with talking about how people normally train their dogs. He says the first thing is that the owners train by making rules, however they keep the rules a secret from the dog so that only they know them. And lastly the dog punished when they break a rule. He gave an excellent example of how when a dog is a puppy we think it's cute when they jump up to greet us but once they're bigger if they do it they get punished. I see this with my dog, when he was younger we let him jump up when we got home and now he does it to almost every one that walks in the door. This is the way he says that people usually go about training. He says that there is a much better way to train dogs. His first idea is to teach them ESL, which is English as a second language. Dogs don't understand English, but we as owners expect them to understand our commands right away. First we need to condition the dog what the English word means in order for them to understand. The best way to condition them is to pair the command with things they're interested in like treats, play time or being pet. We need to realize what the dog is interested in and likes so that we can train them easier and better. The other idea he has is that we should teach the dogs to want to do what we want them to do. If the animal doesn't want the do what we're asking of them, chances are they won't do it. Here he says we can use the Premack Principle, which is following a low frequency behavior, a behavior they don't want to do, with a high frequency one, something that to enjoy. This way when they emit the desired behavior they think that they're getting what they want, even though they're following our direction. His last idea was my favorite, enforce without force. I agree with him, it's possible to train animals without raising our voices or punishing them. We shouldn't have to do that. Punishment is not the way to teach and or maintain a behavior, the best is to use reinforcement.

Terms: Premack principle, emit, punishment, reinforce,condition

The article I decided to write on this week is called “The True Cost of Commuting”. In this article, the author talks about meeting a new couple at a street party. The couple talked about how much they loved the neighborhood and that they would like to move there, but their plan was bad. The author went on to say that the couple’s plan was the reason why many people in America and Canada are broke. They says that a 30-60 minute commute to work is no big deal when in reality it is. The numbers end up equalling around $20 per day, and $125,000 per year. Along with that, it would be about 1.3 years of time. The main point the author was trying to drive home was that you are wasting so much time and money by making your commute longer than it should be. The smart thing to do is to live in the same city you work in and make sure the commute time is still low and cost efficient.
From a behavior modification perspective, the author talks about how they changed how they drive for their self. Using the ABCs of Behavior. A would be cost and time of the commute is too high. B would be they are reinforced with a more efficient car and getting a new job in a city they liked. C then, would be more money and time to spend how they like. The author successfully changed their old behavior to a more efficient way of going about the drive to work. I enjoyed this article. One part that really stuck with me was an example used. I five hour shift with a 10 mile drive meant you were working for only $5 an hour when you work in car and gas costs. Before reading it, I would say that a 30-40 minute commute is worth it to live outside of a big city. Doing the math on it, the shear numbers make me think otherwise.
Behavior Modification, ABCs of Behavior, reinforced, behaviors,

I decided to watch the dog training video for this assignment. In the video Dunbar starts of by expressing his opinion on how he things dog training is being done wrong and how alarming it can be. he does this by describing how dogs as puppy’s are reinforced when engaging in target behaviors such as jumping one you or sitting on you. such behaviors are reinforced but then as the dog gets older they are no longer reinforced and we punish the dog for emitting this behavior. He then goes on the discuss how to train a dog. You must first establish a language with the dog. Make him understand what sit means, and then you need to make him want to sit. The next thing he talked about I found to be very interesting, he discussed making the dog thing that he is training you, that by doing one thing the dog could get you to do something that he wanted. For example if I sit I can get my owner to rub my belly or throw the ball. I think this Is a very unique and interesting way to view animal training. At the end of the video he starts to relate this idea of dog training into how to raise children or modify behaviors of spouses or children, which I thought, was interesting also.

Dog training, punish, reinforce, target behavior, modify, engaging, emitting

This time around I decided to watch the TED talk video on dog training. The reason I chose this one is because I had a dog when I was little, and we took her to puppy school to get her professionally trained instead of trying to do it on our own. However, after watching this video, and taking into consideration the behavior modification tricks and rules we have learned about in class, I would not train a dog in the same way again.
What we have learned in class is that reinforcement works better than punishment. And the way that we had trained our dog was through a sort of punishment per se. We used a shock collar to train our dog, and looking back it was probably a bad idea, especially considering that me and my siblings were pretty young and didn’t understand the effects of the shock collar. But while we used a shock collar, where this video talks about how using food and pleasant things is the best. Where we would shock our dog if she didn’t listen to the command, instead we should be giving her food or rewarding her for behaviors that we wanted.
While this guy talked a lot about training dogs and how an owner shouldn’t be yelling at the dog when the dog doesn’t understand english or why they are being punished, these things also relate to life in other ways. He talks about children and how rewarding good habits and letting them know how you appreciate the good things helps them not only learn behaviors you would like them to, but also lets them know how much you love them. Where yelling at a child for them doing something they didn’t know was wrong, or just yelling for no reason will confuse them and make them feel bad, just like if you yell at a dog.
I found this TED talk pretty interesting not only because it dealt with dogs, but because it helps you see a new perspective when looking at training. Dogs don’t understand English, so we can’t just expect them to know what words mean. But shaping them and conditioning them to learn behaviors we would like is the best way to communicate with them. It’s exactly what we have been learning about in class, and this video was a great way of applying the ideas we have learned into real life.

I decided to surf the web further on The Premack Principle for this particular assignment.

1. Next search for another website about the premack principle and read more about it. Copy and paste that link at the bottom of your post.

2. Briefly discuss the Premack Principle and how you might be able to incorporate it into your behavioral change project.

The Premack Principle is when the preferred behaviors can be used to reinforce less preferred behaviors. In order to figure out what reinforcer will work you observe and take note on what you do voluntarily. Another way of saying it is how it's defined online, "is a principle of reinforcement which states that an opportunity to engage in more probable behaviors (or activities) will reinforce less probable behaviors (or activities.)"
I am going to apply this to my behavior change project by placing the less preferred behavior before I can do my preferred one. For my behavior change project I am going to stop eating at work all together. I work at a restaurant and it's a bad habit to eat everything in sight that is offered to you. In order for me to stop this and get reinforced at the end of my shift I will eat when I get home. My less preferred behavior in this example is waiting to eat at home. During this process I will save money and not gain more weight by placing that preferred behavior, eating at work. I will bring a snack from home! That way when I am done with my shift I will eventually eat a full meal at home. This will actually work. I feel as though the Premack Principle is a wise tool that is effective and will be beneficial to my behavior change project.

I chose to do my extra assignment over the topic presented in the dog training video. I would like to think I know more than the average person about dog training considering I was a junior handler for show dogs when I was younger and have successfully trained my own dogs at home. I appreciated and could relate to many of the points that the speaker made, one of the first being that dog training is not all about dominance. Many popular dog trainers in TV and literature overemphasize dominance in order to have their animals behave how they like. This is essentially training by punishment; ‘do this or you will get a thump on the nose’ or ‘don’t do this or you will be put in your kennel’. It is not necessary to make your dog fear you in order to get it to do what you want it to, unless you are a lazy and inept handler in which case you should reevaluate owning an animal in the first place.
Another of the speaker’s points which I identified with as a successful method of training was the pairing of audio and visual stimuli. He showed through example that he could instruct his dog to sit with both the spoken command and a hand motion more effectively than someone trying to do the same with just one or the other. This goes along with his point of teaching the dog ‘ESL’ or English as a second language, which is something that I have found useful also. The speaker mentioned an example of this being he can instruct his dog in the same way that he would speak to a human. Although it may seem that a complex sentence would be too difficult for dogs to understand, I have found that it is quite the opposite. I can instruct my dog in full sentences, even with words I haven’t taught him to recognize, and he will obey. This method does take a consistent trainer and a bit of time, but it is not outrageously difficult or complicated.
The last point the speaker made that resonated with me was his view on behavior modification. He called for people to recognize the applicability of the techniques used in dog training for things like teaching children about conflict resolution and preparing adolescents for their first relationships. I feel that this falls in line with what we have been gradually learning throughout this semester; that is that behavior modification is not just a theoretical system or something that we can do to try and lose a few pounds, it is a way of looking at behavior that we can apply to nearly every aspect of our lives.

I chose to watch the dog training video. I thought there were a couple of very interesting points that the man in the lecture discusses. The first one is why it is included in the Premack Principle page of course. He talks about how effective it is to reinforce a dog using this principle instead of just food. You substitute behaviors that the dog enjoys doing, things that indeed might under other circumstances be unwanted behaviors, you make them reinforcers for the target behavior, and this ends up being much more effective. Another concept he talks about is the idea of english as a second language for dogs. It makes a whole lot of sense, there is absolutely no reason that a dog would inherently understand our commands without them being taught. So he talks about first teaching them the behavior, and getting them to do it with a food reward, then getting them to do the behavior from the command, and eventually phase out the food as a reinforcer. He even is able to teach enough language to animals that he can just say complete sentences, and the dog will understand each part, and be able to perform more complicated tasks, such as bringing notes to his son. The other part I thought that was striking, and related to what Dr. Maclin speaks about a lot as well is the idea that punishments don't have to necessarily be nasty, or scary, or painful. He gives examples of using a calm reprimand with a very aggressive dog was effective in reducing an unwanted behavior, whereas raising a voice or showing aggression would have resulted in being bitten. The other important thing discussed in this video in my opinion is something else Dr. Maclin has spoken of in class, and thats the fact that we train puppies to do a very different set of behaviors from that which we expect once they are fully grown. We reinforce in the early stages of their lives that jumping up is totally awesome, and a great way to get attention and reinforcers, but then we suddenly switch that on them a little further down the road. It's no wonder training animals can be such a challenge.

reinforcer, target behavior, premack principle, behavior.

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