Our class book is called "The ABC's of Behavior Modification" by Otto MacLin and Dwight Peterson. This is provided for free, and has not yet been copy edited (so it is a little rough around the edges).

Section 1: Behavioral Principles
Section 1.1 - The ABCs of Behavior Modification
Section 1.2 - Contingencies: Reinforcement & Punishment
Section 1.3 - The Language of Behavior
Section 1.4 - Some Behavioral Terms
Section 1.5 - More About Behaviors

Section 2: Behavior Modification
Section 2.1 - What is Behavior Modification?
Section 2.2 - Reinforcement
Section 2.3 - Punishment
Section 2.4 - Additional Concepts
Section 2.5 - Schedules of Reinforcement

Section 3: A Look Back: Pavlov to Skinner
Section 3.1 - Thorndike
Section 3.2 - Pavlov
Section 3.3 - Classical Conditioning
Section 3.4 - Watson
Section 3.5 - Skinner

Section 4: Self Directed Behavior
Section 4.1 - Need for Self-Directed Behavior
Section 4.2 - Self-Directed Behavior Steps
Section 4.3 - Importance of Goals

Section 5: Behaviors and Antecedent
Section 5.1 - Measuring Behavior
Section 5.2 - Rule Governed Behavior
Section 5.3 - Functional Analysis of Behavior
Section 5.4 - Changing the Antecedents
Section 5.5 - Selecting a Reinforcer

More sections will be added as needed.



section 2.3 - the example for positive punishment below is actually negative punishment
I did spot something that I may not have understood. In the
section of positive punishment there is an example of the brother
deleting all the itunes songs, and the aversive consequence would be
cutting the power.

Since discrimitive stimulus is a cue on what behavior to elicit I decided to use a video of a skunk.

1) One thing I really liked about this section was that even though new concepts were introduced, we still read about them in previous chapters, they just were elaborated more. I also liked how they gave us examples of the concepts because they could be confused with other terms like with extinction and punishment.

2) One thing I liked least about this section was writing paragraphs incorporating the words like extinguish, reinforce, and behavior because it was harder than it seems. It took a while to understand the differences between the words and using them in the right context so that they made sense in a way that I could remember their meaning.

3) Three things I will remember are that extinction is stopping the reinforcement of behaviors that have been reinforced because it can decrease a behavior without it being a punishment, extinction burst is when there’s an increase in the amount of behavior because the individual tries harder to obtain reinforcement, and variability is when similar behaviors to the target behavior will be done in an attempt to get reinforcement because it relates to extinction and it’s important to keep these separate.

After reading section 2.5, please respond to the following questions.

4) One thing I liked in this section was associating a slot machine example with ratio versus interval schedules of reinforcement because when reading their definitions it was hard to understand what they meant, but adding them with something in the real world made it more relatable and also makes it easier to remember in the future.

5) One thing I disliked about this section was learning the notations of the fixed and variable ratio and fixed and variable interval (FR10) (VI20) because it talked about how a variable can have a range and it got confusing adding the numbers and keeping track of the ratio and interval. It’s something I need to spend more time learning.

6) One thing I will remember is that a reinforcement can be so powerful that it only needs to follow the behavior once to be effective enough to maintain or increase the behavior because if I ever want to modify a behavior I can do so using a powerful reinforcer, that there are FR and VR schedules and ratio refers to numbers because there are so many things that fall under these categories that we do every day that can modify behaviors, and the 2x2 table of the different types of schedules because it is something I can fall back on if I need help remembering what goes with what schedule. It’s a good tool to use.

7) You should now have a week's worth of data collected on how much water you drank each day for a week. Please fill out the information below:
Day 1 =2 16.9 oz
Day 2 =2 16.9
Day 3 =3 16.9
Day 4 =1 16.9
Day 5 =2 16.9
Day 6 =1 16.9
Day 7 =2 16.9
Average = 1.86

Drinking more water is something that takes getting used to but if I got rid of something like pop and replaced it with more water. I could reward myself after 7 days with pop so it is a reason to keep doing it.

8) Terms: extinction, punishment, reinforce, behavior, reinforcement, extinction burst, variability, target behavior, ration and interval schedules of reinforcement, fixed and variable ratio, fixed and variable interval

section 1.3 and 1.4

1. I really enjoyed that there were a lot of in assignment fill in the blank activities, because it gave me a chance to get creative and put to use what I have learned.
2. There was nothing that I disliked. Everything was interesting
3. It seems difficult at first to use the vocabulary words when speaking but once you get used to it it becomes normal. Reinforcement and punishment sentences and the quote given “we say to you don’t give up, keep trying even if you are frustrated. Frustration just means that you are in the process of learning.” Because I found all of these examples interesting.
4. Again I really enjoyed using the fill in the blank sections they were fun.
5. There wasn’t anything I didn’t like I just got sick of reading.
6. When I think of emit and elect sentences I will think of French fires now. Repetition is necessary for learning the vocabulary words. Learning the language of behavior is cumulative.
7. I now understand why you keep talking about how important it is for us to use the language when we are speaking so we can comprehend it and better understand what the vocabulary words mean. I didn’t realize how many vocabulary words there were to learn. I’m kind of nervous for that.
8. I didn’t use any terms of vocabulary in my post, I didn’t know I was suppose to. Opps!

1 a&b) What was one thing that you really liked that was in the section? Why?
I really enjoyed how there was multiple demonstrations of manipulating sentences to put them in behavior language.
2) What was one thing that you disliked (or liked least) that was in the section? Why?
I did not dislike anything. Everything was beneficial.
3 a,b&c) What are three things you will remember from what you read in the section? Why?
1) You can put any behavior in behavioral terms.
2) Establishing operation is something that makes a reinforcer even more reinforcing.
3) Extinction burst is when the person's behavior begins to vary.
After reading section 1.4, please respond to the following questions.

4 a&b) What was one thing that you really liked that was in the section? Why?
I liked how detailed the definitions and explanations9 s of the terms. It benefited to my understanding of the terms.

5) What was one thing that you disliked (or liked least) that was in the section? Why?
I did not like the writing boxes, however I liked the boxes where I reworded the definitions because it contributed to my understanding.

6 a,b&c) What are three things you will remember from what you read in the section? Why?
1) Satiation occurs when the behavior can no longer be modified with reinforcement.
2) Target behavior is the behavior one desires to alter.
3) Emitting behaviors is voluntary, whereas eliciting behavior occurs by the presentation of a stimulus.
7) Now that you have read sections 1.3 & 1.4, how has what you thought about behavior modification changed (or not)?
What I thought about behavior modification has changed a little. I never realized all the different terminology for a way to do a behavior. In other words, I was not aware of the language of behavior.

8) Once you are done with your post make list of the terms and terminology you used in your post.
manipulating, behavior, behavioral, establishing operation, reinforcer, reinforcing, extinction burst, satiation, reinforcement, target behavior, emit, elicit, language of behavior

1) I liked the section on targeting behaviors, because it used a real life example of a teacher in the classroom and how he will target undesired behavior and effectively modify the poor behavior by digging out the root of where the behavior is coming from and providing an accurate change to the student’s environment that will correct the behavior.
2) I found that using waving as an example to explain behavioral cases un-interesting. A wave typically serves only a few purposes. However, the situations in which we use a wave can vary to a very high degree. Every situation can be just a little bit different. Just like our behavior. The context as to why we behave the way we do is ever changing and different situations call for different measures to correct undesired behaviors, and that is why it is difficult to hold distinct criteria for classifying undesirable behavior.

3) This section really had a lot to do with our lecture last Friday in class. For example extinction was mentioned a few times, including when it talked about how having two people who are observing behavior and implementing modification at different times can limit the extinction process because one person may provide reinforcement for a certain behavior, but the other person might let it go unnoticed and therefore prevent extinction from occurring
4) The section on targeting behaviors really was similar to what I can remember of what I experienced in elementary school. I would stand up in my seat when I was concentrating on something, and teachers didn’t like that I was standing because it was a distraction to the teacher and the class. Only one teacher found a solution for the problem. He simply put a high desk in the back for me and let me stand next to that. It was effective because none of the class could see me standing.
5) I found the section, What is behavior Modification?, interesting, because it easy understandable clear cut examples of behavior and specific criteria for why it is un-desirable, and provides distinctions between the purposes of modifying behavior. Such as, “Does the behavior bother just the individual who is displaying it?”, “Does the behavior bother others?”, and “Does the behavior lead to trouble?”
6) I found the part about where they were describing B.F. Skinner’s opinions on reinforcement to be slightly uninteresting, because I’ve listened to many discussions over Skinner’s work in other classes
7) The information over reinforcement and punishment has been pretty standard throughout the classes I’ve taken at uni. However, this literature does an excellent job of giving us an understandable outlook on the differences between Reinforcement and punishment.
8) It’s easy to see my own behavior and the way I reinforce myself the way I do. I can see that I do things because they are rewarding and I am reinforced in this behavior because I am noticing the positives of the reinforcement that I am providing for myself. For example I eat healthy, and work out. Therefore, I see the results of these good behaviors and I like it.
9) It provided some self-confirmation, and given me some knew ideas about how I can provide reinforcement and punishment to myself and others in real life to improve myself and my relationships with others.
10)Reinforcement, Punishment, Extinction, Undesirable, Desirable, Modify, Behavior

What did you find interesting in the section? Why? From reading this section I thought the most interesting was how small words like good and good job can affect someones personality and how that is a certain type of reinforcement. Also another interesting thing was learning about a desirable stimulus.

2) What did you find least interesting? Why?

to be honest I really didn’t find anything not interesting in this chapter, but if i had to pick something would be conditioned vs.unconditioned, and when they talked about the history and what not, but I also found things interesting during that paragraph was when he was talking about his experiment with the dog, and the saliva, and the response to the bell.

3) How does the section relate to what you already knew/learned previously?

In my previous psychology we talked about this experiment, so i had a really good understanding on this, but at the same time. This has also related to my science class very well as well, I also know personally I can relate to this because when people use positive reinforcement with me I get happy especially if there small things like saying good job and what not. Even the small things make a difference. Another thing that I can relate this to is one time in my math class in high school always said that if the whole class showed up on test day we would get one bonus point. Which is a really good reinforcement and made the whole class come to test day.

) 4) Based on what you read from this section, what are two things that relate to your life? How so?

Not to repeat what I have previously stated but one thing that would relate to my life would definitely be a positive reinforcement and definitely would be going to college because I know all of this handwork and time will pay off in the long room so that is my motivation and it reinforces itself which is very nice. Another thing that would relate to my life would be when i was training my dog I used reinforcement as well, and always rewarded my dog when it did something good.

5) What did you find interesting in the section? Why? Something that I found really interesting in this section would be the whole concept of “Punishment”, was that reinforcement can be involved with punishment and people do things out of reinforcement to sometimes get punished, which would make sense.

6) What did you find least interesting? Why?

The thing that I found least interesting would have been the immediacy Punishment, out of everything that would've been the least interesting even though once again I still found interesting parts in this reading for instance like the example with the roommate and beer stealing was funny and interesting even though I probably would have not done that.

7) How does the section relate to what you already knew/learned previously? I have known about punishment for a while once again from my previous psychology class and also my sociology class. This can relate in all sorts of cases in a community or individually.

8) Based on what you read from this section, what are two things that relate to your life? How so? Something that would relate to my life would be the culture difference in punishments i could relate to this because my parents grew up in Nepal so there punishment techniques are difference than the ones here. I never got time outs or anything. I got Nepalese punishments.

Another relation to my life would be The Immediacy punishment because thats what my parents always did, and thats what I do usually as well.

9) How has reading these sections influenced what you originally thought about behavior modification? How so? It really has emphasized on punishment and reinforcement and how they are two HUGE factors in behavior modification, and it also has given me a really good understanding in that as well.

Terminology: Desirable, negative, positive, negative, punishment, reinforcer, reinforcement

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