Reading Activity Week #14 (due Monday)

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Please read sections 5.4

After reading section 5.4, please respond to the following questions.

What are three things you will remember from what you read in the chapter? Why? What was one thing that you really liked that was in the chapter? Why? What was one thing that you disliked that was in the chapter? Why?

Please graph your behavioral data that you collected last week. You should have been  reinforcing the behavior last (or punishing if that is the case). Continue to reinforce the behavior through this week and bring your graph to class. It can be done with a program such as Excel or by hand it is up to you.

NOTE: the graph should include both the base line data (no reinforcement) and the data collected during reinforcement. Just draw a cut off line on the graph to indicate when the behavioral intervention (reinforcement) began.

Here is a random sample graph I found on the Internet - yours doesn't have to look exactly like this - it is just an example.


51 Comments

5-4
Three things that I will remember from this chapter are: punishing toys rather than the children themselves- because i agree with this method and believe that it would work more efficiently than punishing the child themself, Not using no- because by using no when controlling the child or overusing it will just eventually cause the child to repeat it and not understand its meaning or eventually become ineffective therefore not reinforcing for a target behavior, and finally DOR because I feel that it is like another form of reverse psychology- in order to change the behavior of the organism we reinforce a behavior that is opposite or desired of the behavior that is already being elicited in order to gain control and manipulate the person into performing the desirable action. I really liked the DOR simply because it is very similar to reverse psychology and can be so easily used on anyone. there wasn't anything in particular in this chapter that i didn't like.
Terms: DOR, desired behavior, organism, reinforced, elicit, target behavior

I will remember to punish the toy, which i found interesting because I nevr would have thought of bringing an inadamnet object into behavior modification. To punish the toy as you would the child puts a new view on right and wrong with the toy, givng it an identity to the child, removing the solitary feeling of punishment. The introduction of an environment (antecedent) as one of safety for the child thus only emiting positve behaviors which reduces the NO's. And finally I will remeber the DRO being a way to control the antecedent by reinforcing a behavior that is incomapatbale with the undesired behvior. i can see how this has real world applications.

I didn't like anything more than any other bit of information nor did i dislike anything in the chapter.

Sorry, forgot my terms: Emit, Antecedent, behavior, reinforcement, DRO, punishment

Sec. 5.4

One thing that I will remember from this section is the idea of reinforcing an incompatible behavior instead of punishing an undesirable one. I know from class that reinforcement is much more effective, so this is a great principle to use. Because it allows us to get rid of an undesirable behavior be reinforcing a desirable behavior. Another thing that I will remember from this section is the idea of controlling the environment. Controlling the environment or antecedents is key to helping us change behavior. Sometimes we feel like we have little or no control over an environment, but there is generally always little things that we can do to help, like removing the candy dish and replacing it with fruit. Another thing that I will remember from this section was the idea of a removing the no’s when dealing with small children. The idea is that children will be less likely to behave badly if we make sure to control the environment as to minimize opportunities to behave badly. This can bed one by placing things up high or completely removing them from the room. I thought that this was great parenting technique. One thing that i found interesting from this section was the idea of the toy time out. Instead of punishing the child, which we know is not as effective; we punish the toy by giving it a time out. This removes the toy from the environment, which hopefully will cut down on the undesirable behavior. I thought that this was another great parenting technique that I plan on holding on to. I didn’t find anything in this chapter to be uninteresting I thought everything was pretty interesting.

Section 5.4:

Three things I will remember from this section include the following:

1) The importance of changing the environment when trying to change an aversive behavior. The idea in this section about the toy time out really put into perspective how just a minor change in an individual’s environment can have a huge impact on the behaviors that occur. This use of a toy time out not only reduces the aversive and negative action of punishment on the child, but also reduces the aversive behaviors such as tantrums that might be elicited if the punishment of the child route was taken instead. This is just another amazing way that behavior modification can help in making a negative outcome positive by just a simple change. I love behavior modification!

2) Changing the antecedents. It was neat to read about how just by changing the antecedents of your behavior, the outcome can turn out to be completely different. This section definitely high-lighted how extremely important the antecedents of any behavior really are. The antecedents are key to behavior modification.

3) In all reality, we do have control in some way of our environments. Before reading this section, I was like most other people that would make up excuses as for reasons why I didn’t succeed at completing a goal due to environmental factors, but now I realize that there should be no excuses. In most environments there is something that you can do to change the outcomes of your own behaviors. After all, you do have control over your behavior and by making small changes to your behavior and interactions within your environment, any goal can be reached.

One thing I really liked about this section was reading about the toy time outs and the removal of “NOs” and how important the environment is in determining what behaviors will be emitted.

This section was very interesting to read and always kept me wanting more, so in the end there was nothing that I disliked about this section.

5.4

What are three things you will remember from what you read in this chapter? Three things I will emit remembering from this chapter are 1) changing the antecedents great way to modify behaviors. For example, in the situation that the sweets were being ate by the roommate’s while the other roommate was trying to avoid them, the easiest solution would be to ask that roommate to not eat them around you. 2) Making changes to the environment can make changes to our behaviors. For example, again using the sweets example, by placing the bowl of fruit on the table for everyone, it makes it more accessible and therefore leaves the roommate less likely to go to their room to retrieve the sweet snack when the bowl of fruit is readily available. 3) Observational learning, when you learn by example. I liked the example used with young children. This is exactly how they learn. If you eliminate the negative actions/thoughts, you are more likely to raise a child that reacts the same way you would as the caretaker.

What was one thing that you really liked that was in the chapter? One thing that I found very pleasurable was the observational learning. Although it seems obvious that your child will act the same way you do, it seems like something as simple as saying “no” doesn’t seem like it is to be negative because you are usually doing it to keep the child out of harm’s way, however, in the interim you’re teaching them “no” which will then be used in everything! I think this is great in all examples of raising a child. For example, I am not one to spank or hit, I feel that if you do that to your child, you are only teaching them that when something “wrong” is done, hit! Why would we want to teach our kids that it is ok to hit?

What is one thing that you disliked that was in the chapter? There was nothing that I found aversive within this particular chapter.

Comment on section 5.4 – Changing the Antecedents

Three things I will remember are:
Toy time outs change the environment by removing the center of conflict. It would be great if we could apply this idea to hostilities among nations – take away Iran’s nuclear industry, for example. I guess for this, we would need really super parents.
The terrible twos are the result of observational learning, not a defiance stage in child development. I thought the terrible twos were a transition to a more independent person that every kid goes through at about two years old. Maybe, though, the behavior of constant “no’s by the two-year old is mimicry of parents’ constant “no’s” as part of the child’s learning to be independent.
Differential reinforcement of other behavior means to reinforce a behavior that is incompatible with the behavior we want to change. For some reason, this idea has never seemed so clearly stated before.
I liked the discussion about changing the context or environment as a way to elicit a more desirable behavior or to disrupt the operant behavior, and it seems to me that if could have a timed locking system on my t.v. so that it could not be used until later in the evening, I would be more likely to spend my early evenings at the WRC.
The discussion about parolees seemed a little oversimplified, given the difficult economic and social obstacles facing people recently released from prison.

5.4
One thing I will remember from this section is how important the antecedent really is when it comes to modifying a behavior. It's really easy for people to get stuck when trying to modify a behavior of theirs, but if they manipulate the setting they are in, or even just remove something from the setting, it can make a whole world of difference. The example given in the reading was someone trying to not eat junk food as much, but their roommate always have some sort of sweet as free access in the room. If nothing is done about that, it could be extremely hard to not eat the sweet. You can change the antecedent, however, by asking your roommate to hide the sweets.

Another thing I will remember from the section is that DRO is an effective way to reduce a behavior and can be elicited by changing the environment. If the environment is controlled, undesired behaviors can be reduced, and we can make sure the environment has proper antecedents to elicit appropriate behaviors.

Thirdly, I will remember is that changing the environment is always going to be crucially important and a good idea when wanting to elicit a good behavior modification program.

One thing I liked about this section was how it took something we already know about, and thoroughly explained it in more detail than before. I also really liked how short it was. It got to the point but provided enough information still. Another thing I liked was the example of the "NO" behavior modification. It's interesting how a whole typical child stage can be completely avoided if you just change around the antecedents.

I found nothing aversive about this section.

Terms used: elicit, emit, antecedent, DRO, behavior, modification, manipulate, aversive

After reading this section, I found it enjoyable to attempt to consider way in which we can manipulate the car environment to speed less frequently. After thinking about this, I came up with two that I really like: you could adjust your seat so that you sit farther from the gas pedal, or you can utilize cruise control if your car has that function. What gained through that exercise was the ability to think more critically and creatively about how to manipulate the environment to produce a desired behavior. When you have defined the target behavior you desire to emit, sometimes there are elements of your environment that are more difficult to manipulate. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior addresses this. Sometimes you must bargain with another person, such as your roommate, to aid you in developing a desired behavior. For instance, if you drink too much alcohol, it is aversive when your roommate constantly holds beer pong parties in your room. Since you cannot just kick your roommate out of the room, you have to figure out how to manipulate the environment so that you don't have to sit through an aversive situation. You might offer to be the designated driver for your roommate and friends.

Terms: manipulate, environment, desired behavior, target behavior, emit, differential reinforcement of other behavior, aversive.

5.4

Three things I will remember from that chapter…

1. I will remember that I can find a way to have more control over my environment, even ones that’s I don’t feel I have much control over, and that will assist me in reaching my target behavior, and increase the frequency.

2. I will remember that in order to achieve a target behavior, someone must be very deliberate, aware of their environment, and understand the consequences of their behavior. Changing a behavior takes a lot of work and concentration. Most people don’t think that reaching a target behavior will be terribly hard. However, depending on the target behavior that we wish to emit, we have to be strong and extremely willing and focused.

3. I will remember that we can improve our chances of changing the behavior if we use Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. If we want to reduce a behavior we need to reinforce a behavior that is incompatible. This allows us to change the environment in two ways; we are able to take out the undesired behavior, and it allows us to set up the correct antecedents so we can ensure that our desired behavior follows through.

One thing I really liked about that chapter…

1. While reading this chapter I found that I really liked the different examples that were used. I thought they really helped me visualize how changing the antecedents could help obtain the target behavior. It also gave me a sense of how behavior modification can continue to be sued in the “real world”. Something like using the word “no” on a child happens every day, and most people don’t think to simply make the word not necessary.

One thing I disliked about the chapter…

1. I didn’t particularly like thinking about the environments that I have little control over. It elicited me to have aversive feelings. I’m much more of a type A personality and like to know what’s going on and know that I have at least some control over what happens in my life. Thinking about environments when I truly have little control over something was troublesome.

Terms: target behavior, frequency, environment, antecedents, emit, aversive, elicited, differential reinforcement of others behavior, consequences

Three things from this chapter that will elicit a remembering behavior for me were ways to change your environment even if it seems unchangeable, ways to manipulate antecedents, and DRO. There are events or places in life that we have little control over that we may want to elicit a change to in order to modify a behavior. Even though these things seem unyielding, we may be able to change it to elicit the desired behavior. For example, you are trying to elicit the behavior of paying more attention in. We have little influence and control on the classrooms, but we can choose where we sit. The place you sit can help set up the right antecedent that will help elicit the desired behavioral change. The second is that you can manipulate antecedents to bring about change. We can remove objects that elicit undesired behaviors, and add objects that elicit desired behaviors. An example of this is by eliminating all junk food from your cupboard while on a diet. DRO is differential reinforcement of other behavior. This is the process of reducing a behavior by reinforcing another behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior. I do this in my life all the time when I want to reduce a snack eating behavior at night before I go to bed. To reduce that behavior, I replace it with a behavior of going to work out, because the two behaviors cannot occur at the same time.
One thing that I enjoyed from this section is all the example that were given. It really helped me think of ways to alter my surroundings and antecedents. I really found this section to be informative and transferrable to my daily life, so I don’t have anything that I disliked. It helped me look at situations and think outside of the box.

Three things I will remember from this chapter:
1. That the "terrible two's" can be taken away and there is a very simple explanation for that stage of development and it all comes down to observational learning. They say kids are a sponge so why wouldn't anyone think they would pick up on the stuff that their parents do to punish them? Then use it against the parents when they feel that the parents are the ones that are wrong? It was made simple in this chapter.
2. Changing your environment can include simple things or more complex things but changing the antecedent to change a behavior can have a huge impact on the amount of times you may slip up when trying to reach your goal. Some of the antecedent changes give you more consequences for breaching your goal and that is exactly what a lot of people need to keep on track.
3. DRO (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior) this is a very cool idea I believe because it entails not completely cutting out an unwanted behavior (which can be very hard sometimes) but instead approaching it like a trade off, so instead of doing this you do this instead and in the end you feel good about it because it helped you reach your goal. It makes it sometimes impossible for you to do the unwanted behavior but replaces it so you don't end up just sitting around thinking about how your not doing the behavior your trying to change (which can be very taxing).
I really liked this chapter because of the different examples we got to fill in in the worksheets as well as the bullet point examples of how you could change not eating too many sweets. There is a lot of options out there that could be simple if you can just come up with them.
I didn't really like this chapter because it was very short and I feel like it didn't provide the needed information, it was just a lot weirder being done reading in about not even 5 full pages. I wished the DRO was emphasized more with more examples.

Section 5.4

One of the things I will remember by emitting the behavior of reading this chapter is removing the "NOs". I think it's a great idea to have a separate place where everything that is there is things the kids can utilize and won't be hurt by. They can use all the items in the place, so it eliminates the aversives for the parents and the child. It's just a positive place where the child's behavior can be reinforced and is a good place for learning. It reduces the punishments and it's a smart idea. I will remember this because one day I would like to be a parents, and this is something that I could use, if it will help my child to not go through that "terrible two" stage, I'll do it. I will also remember just simple ways to change the environment by eliminating aversive antecedents. My boyfriend is trying to be more fit, so next year he's going to not buy any junk food, so this way he's changing his environment and behavior by controlling the antecedents. The third thing I will remember is the DRO or the Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. Reinforcing behavior that is the opposite of a behavior you want to decrease. So you reinforce eating healthy foods because you want to decrease your behavior of eating unhealthy food. I think that this works and it's something to keep in mind. It's reinforcement which seems to work better because it's positive, where as if you were punishing eating unhealthy food, it probably wouldn't work as well and it's aversive.

I liked that this chapter covered a lot of different things. I felt like I learned a lot even though the chapter was very short. The terms were easily relatable and it just clicked.

Overall there wasn't anything I found to really be aversive about this chapter. It was pretty fun for me, I liked it!

5.4
One thing I will remember is that antecedents form the environment and context for all behaviors. They control the target behavior and if you change the antecedents, you can control the behavior.

I will remember observational learning is when kids learn by example. They see a behavior and want to copy it, and it is common during the terrible twos. They tell their parent "no", but the parent needs to control the environment how they want to get the behaviors that are desired.

I will remember that DRO stands for differential reinforcement of other behavior. We can control the enviornment so that it has the proper antecedents to elicit the desirable behaviors.

I liked how this section was short and to the point. It had a lot of great information and it was easy to grasp the main concept. I also liked how the examples fit well into the section and helped me understand the material. I didn't find anything in this section that I did not like, it was a fun, easy section to learn.

Section 5.4 Reading

What are three things that I will remember from this section of reading?
1. The first thing that I will remember from this section of reading is what a DRO is. A DRO is the Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. Not only can we control the environment to reduce the undesired behaviors, we can control the environment so that it contains the proper antecedents to elicit the appropriate behaviors (the desirable behaviors that are incompatible with the undesirable behaviors that we are trying to reduce).
2. The second thing that I will remember from this section of reading is the fact that antecedent's form the environment and context for all behaviors. By controlling the environment you can control behavior. I will remember this from the examples, toy time outs and removing the “No's” from the environment. This was very interesting for me to read about! It will also be helpful for someday in the future when I decide to have kids of my own.
3. Finally, the third thing that I will remember from this section of reading is changing the environment while an undesirable behavior is occurring can function to disrupt the operant behavior. Also that changing the environment should always be considered when implementing a good behavior modification program.

What was one thing that I liked about this section of reading?
1. One thing that I really did enjoy about this chapter was that I had to emit a bunch of my own examples. I also enjoyed Otto's examples and how to change your antecedent to stop eating junk food. I found that very relatable to my own life and class. It was very helpful and true, very good idea's for sure :) Also, this section was very short, so there wasn't a lot to read and less of a burden! That's always nice!

What was one thing that I didn't like so much about this section of reading?
1. There really wasn't anything that I didn't enjoy about this section of reading. It was pleasurable to read and I didn't come across any aversive parts to this section!

Terminology that I used in my blog: Aversive, Pleasurable, Emit, Behavioral Modification, Environment, Undesirable, Desirable, Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors, Antecedent, Elicit, Function, Implementing.

5.4
1. One thing that I learned from this section after emitting a reading behavior is just how important an antecedent is for a target behavior. By changing the antecedent you can change a behavior drastically or a target behavior. An example of this from the section is taking away a toy (the antecedent) from fighting kids. Once the toy is gone, the bad fighting behavior is good, and with out punishment.

2. Controlling the environment is also very important when it come to modifying behavior. when you control the environment it can effect your behavior. A good example of this is the junk food example that was used in the section. Asking your roommate to keep the junk food in their room so you wont be able to access it, or to keep out fruit and not buy junk food so when you want to snack, a healthy fruit type snack is what is available and fast.

3. Another part of the section that I will remember is DRO, differential Reinforcement of other behavior is referring to the controlling of the enviroment

One thing that I enjoyed about this section was that it was short, and the examples gave very good explanations and made me understand the topic very well

One thing that I disliked about this section was all of the examples we had to think of. I got very tired of doing them and started to not be able to think of good examples

5.4

After emitting the behavior of reading this section I will remember three things. The first thing I will remember is what observational learning is. Observational learning is learning by observing other peoples examples. The second thing I will remember is the example of toy time outs. Toy time outs alter the environment when two children are fighting or arguing about a toy by removing the antecedent of the fight by taking away the toy. It also disrupts the operant behavior of fighting and arguing. The third thing I will remember is that changing the environment or changing the antecedent is often very powerful when trying to alter a target behavior.

One thing I really liked about this section was that in the end it made a point to state that even in the most difficult of environments something can be done to gain some control. That makes me feel like I have the power to do so. There really wasn't anything that was very aversive to me about this section.

Section 5.4

Three things that I will remember after reading this chapter are:

1. When attempting to modify a behavior, if you remove the “no’s”, or changing the antecedent, you have a more powerful way of modifying behavior.

2. DRO means differential reinforcement of other behavior. This means that to reduce a behavior you can reinforce a behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior. Not only can you control the environment to reduce the undesired behaviors, you can also control the environment so that it contains the proper antecedents to elicit the appropriate behaviors. To achieve behavioral success, you often have to be very deliberate which requires you to be aware of your environment, your behaviors, and the consequences to the behaviors. This takes work, which is a reason that many people fail to reach their New Year’s goals. Changing a behavior takes work, forethought, discipline, and reflection. If the goal is something really important, it is
worth the effort to be deliberate about the ABCs.

3. Even when the environment is difficult to control, there is usually some way to exert some control over it. A successful way to change behaviors is to change the antecedent. This can include the context in which the desirable behaviors occur more often to the context in which undesirable behaviors occur. You can also change things in your physical environment.

Something that I liked about this chapter was that it was short and to the point. I also liked the section about removing “no’s”.

There was nothing in this chapter that I found aversive.

Section 5.4

Three things I will remember from this section are:

1. Changing environment: If we look at what we have control over in our various environments and say we don't have control over a particular one, it is interesting to look at how we may be able to grasp control over it. I really enjoyed doing this in the section.

2. DRO: Doing a behavior that is incompatible with the undesired behavior is another way to elicit the particular response we want. I hadn't really thought of this before and seeing the example made this an intriguing point.

3. Antecedents on desired behavior: This is what I really liked about this section; I found it great to work on the examples to see how we can critique the environment, or manipulate the environment, to get the individual to emit the target behavior.

One thing I really liked in this section was that it had many questions where I could go in and work on how I could change the antecedents to elicit a particular target behavior. Working with the various examples in the different kinds of ways made this section quite interesting and memorable.

There wasn't anything that I didn't like in the section. Perhaps, that the introduction paragraph about what we have done wasn't necessarily tied into the rest of the chapter.

Three things that I will remember from this chapter:
1. Rather than negatively punishing a child for fighting over a toy we can punish the toy by removing it from the situation. This is an example of changing the antecedents to decrease the frequency of an undesirable behavior. I believe this could make the toy even more reinforcing once given back to the child and can be used to elicit more desirable behaviors (do your chores and you can get the toy back).

2. A parent can decrease the amount of “NOs” they say to their children by putting them in a safe play area where the child can’t emit any undesirable behaviors. This is a way to reduce the frequency of the child saying NO back to the parent that they learn through observational learning (they are told no all the time by their parents so they being to say it back).

3. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) involves reinforcing a behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior that we are trying to reduce the frequency of. In the reading a guy wanted to stop eating junk food but his roommate kept making sweets available to everyone so he was asked to keep the sweets in private and in turn the guy who wanted to stop eating sweets would put out fresh fruit for everyone to eat.

I liked that this chapter had very good examples of ways to change the antecedents. The better the example the easier it is to understand the concept.

What are three things you will remember from what you read in the chapter? Why? What was one thing that you really liked that was in the chapter? Why? What was one thing that you disliked that was in the chapter? Why?

5.4

I learnrd about kids and the terrible 2's. i now know that u should create a space that makes it almost impossible to say no in. they learn to say no due to observant learning. i also learned the very important point that one way to reduce a behavior is to reinforce a behavior that in
incompatible with the undesirable behavior. such as stop speeding to have more money for self.one other is the fact that there is always a way to elicit some control over ur enviroment. such as class and how u participate helps u enjoy it more. the onething i disliked was the shorness of the chapter and how i felt it was review. i really enjoyed the information about kids and terrible ti since i feel this will be usful in my future.

5.4
I will remember the importance of antecedents because they are very influential on behaviors. The example of the two year old was very good because it advocated making the environment safe (changing antecedent) to make safe behavior more likely. Its such an obvious fix. Of course it makes sense to make things safe, and control the environment instead of relying on the you child to emit the proper behaviors of safety. It makes the behavior modification easier, which is pleasurable.

I will also remember how behaviors can be antecedents for other desirable behaviors. Like How having fresh fruit available is a stimulus and increases the likely hood that a person will eat fresh fruit because it is available. To do this one must first emit the behavior of remembering to get the fruit and display it. So it might take behavior modification to elicit a behavior which will in turn elicit the target behavior.

I will remeber how important environment adn antecedents are because of some peoples lack of controll over them. They may actually have no controll, which is aversive. then they may perceive that they lack control which is aversive as well.

I found teh multiple examples of small environmental changes pleasurable because it simplified the concept. By having the easy example of child proofing a room, it made environmental a modification seem smart and easy. If teh chapter had just discussed it in the abstract, I would have been more likely to side with the 'i have no control over envrinment ' point of view and may not be able to use antecedents to my benefits.

I found the small amount of content aversive because it was so interconnected that it was hard to pick apart individual things to remember. I guess this is good because I'm likely to remember it all. But it was harder to write about.

Section 5.4

On thing I took from this section is that I can have more power over my environment. Having more control will help me manipulate a target behavior of mine that I want to change.

The second thing I took from this section the Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO). This goes along with controlling the environment. This is when you reinforce a non-target behavior in order to change the target behavior. For example, eating healthy food in order to reduce eating unhealthy food.

The third thing I remember from this section is the idea of eliminating the word "no" when dealing with young children. Children will misbehave less if we create an environment with minimal opportunities to misbehave. I like this idea because I have a two-year old niece who is in this stage and it gave me ideas as to how to reduce her misbehaving.

One thing I liked about this chapter was how relate-able it was to life. I found it very easy to think of ways to use what this section was talking about.

I didn't find anything aversive in this section. It was all very interesting.

For Section 5.4
The first thing I will remember about this week's reading assignment is the idea behind the "Removing the NOs" section. I like that this section talks about observational learning. By including this, the chapter recognizes and draws attention to the fact that kids learn how to act, at least at an early age, from their parents. Perhaps by changing the way we raise our kids, we can alter the tendency for punishment to the be the easiest form of behavior modification for people to call to mind.

The second thing I will remember from this chapter is the idea that we can affect our environment in unexpected ways. This is important to remember. So many people are likely to fall into the trap of thinking they are stuck with the way things are, that the status quo is set in stone. I will remember this because people need to remember that this kind of control is possible.

The third thing i will remember is the list of suggestions to control our consumption sweets. As I read over this part of the chapter, I kept thinking to myself that these are really good suggestions. I would bet that most people do snack to excess simply because those junk foods are convenient. I will remember this list because I am going to try to use it in my apartment to cut down on how much I eat all the cookies my parents send to us. I would have to say that this is my favorite part of the chapter. This is because of all the reasons I have listed above.

The thing I didn't like about this chapter is that I didn't feel that the chapter was really long enough to find something to dislike. I think this chapter provides just the information it says it would. It doesn't really cover anything I disagree with, which is something I usually tag for use in this part of the assignment. So, I would say there isn't a part of this chapter that I particularly dislike.

Three things I will remember from what I read in the chapter include:

1. DRO—differential reinforcement of other behavior as a control technique. This is important because it is a way to use positive control rather than punishment in changing a behavior.

2. Even though we may have little or no control over the environment there is almost always SOMETHING that we can do to try and change a behavior. This is important because it directs us to try and not to give in or give up.

3. Antecedents are just as important in controlling behavior as consequences. They give us another way to change the environment in order to change the target behavior.

One thing that I really liked that was in the chapter was the concept of DRO—this is a neat way of avoiding having to use punishment. And once I started to think of incompatible behaviors, I see that there are many of them in any instance of trying to change a target behavior. DRO gets you thinking about the alternatives, in a way it is a problem solving technique.

There wasn't anything that I really disliked in the chapter. I think the number of examples given and asked for was just about right in this chapter. Sometimes I think we are asked for too many examples. But I didn’t feel that way this time.

Terms: DRO, differential reinforcement, environment, antecedent, incompatible behavior, target behavior, punishment, changing behavior, consequences

Sec. 5.4

After emitting the behavior reading this section, there were three things that elicited a remembering response and they were; the concept of toy time outs, the idea of not constantly using the word “NO” when children are young, and the concept of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO).

The first concept that elicited a remembering response was that of toy time outs. This idea is that when kids fight over a toy or misuse it, instead of punishing the children by giving them a time out, you can instead put the toy in a time out, therefore removing it from the situation. This changes the environment by removing the antecedent of the fight. This concept was easy for me to remember because I found it very interesting. I work as a nanny and I am faced with the problem of fighting over toys quite often. Instead of punishing the children, which we have learned is not very effective; I could instead try this idea of a toy time out. Being able to apply this to everyday life made it easy for me to understand as well as remember.

The second concept that elicited a remembering response was that of removing the “NOs” when working with young children. When children go through the “terrible twos,” they often say “No” to their parents and those around them. This is in part due to observational learning. During this time, many parents are constantly telling their child “No” because they tend to get into things that they shouldn’t be. However, by changing the environment, parents could greatly cut down on the frequency with which they say “No.” Parents can change the environment by creating a safe room for the child to play in. This can be done by covering outlets, removing low hard surfaces, and moving anything that you o not want the child to get in to. By controlling the environment, the only behaviors that child can emit are safe and appropriate. This can reduce the number of times the parent has to use the word “No” and since children learn by example, it may even cut done on the amount of times the child uses this word as well. This concept was also very interesting to me for the same reasons as the first concept I covered. While nannying, I constantly find myself saying “No.” I often realize this but am unsure of how to keep the children safe without emitting the behavior of saying “No.” After reading this section I have a better understanding of how to do this. This concept will be easy for me to remember because I will be putting it into action the next time I nanny.

The last concept that I will remember is that of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). This just means that in order to reduce a behavior, we can reinforce a behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior. This concept was very easy for me to understand and remember because we have covered it in earlier sections as well. So when I saw the term in this section, I already knew what it meant and was able to use my previous knowledge of the concept to further understand how it was being used in a different context. This concept was just a refresher for me. The more I see something the more likely I am to remember it. Having seen this concept before made me more apt to remember it now.

One thing that I really liked about this section was that it was extremely short. I felt like I learned the information that I was suppose to but it did not take forever to do so. It did not take me forever to complete it and therefore I was able to concentrate on other assignments as well. Having this extra time is especially crucial as the semester winds down and I have more and more things to accomplish before graduation.

One thing that I disliked about this section was a few of the example problems. I just felt like I was doing the same thing over and over again and it seemed very repetitive. It was hard enough to come up with three examples for the first problem, but then I had to do it again and again. I think one or two of these examples would have been plenty for me to understand the concept.



Section 5.4

I will remember the following things from Section 5.4:
1. Surprisingly, changing the antecedent is a very effective way to modify behaviors. This means, controlling and manipulating the environment around you affects the behaviors that people emit. The environment, or antecedent, elicits different behaviors based on the surroundings in which the behavior occurs. This is different from what we have previously learned, in that the consequence of a behavior affects the behavior being emitted by the individual.
2. DRO, Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior, is to reinforce a behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior, in turn reducing the target behavior. This type of technique is used often with foods and limiting or reducing the amount of “bad” food you eat. For example, if you want to stop eating your Easter candy, you place it in an inconvenient spot and place healthier foods in more convenient spots. This way, when you are hungry for a snack, you choose the more convenient option.
3. Lastly, changing the environment while the target behavior is being emitted can disrupt the operant behavior and function as another way to modify behavior. This shows even more how the antecedent can assist one in modifying their behavior once it is changed BEFORE the behavior, or even during the behavior.

One thing I disliked about this section was confusion I was faced with when reading the section about DRO, Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. This concept is confusing to me and I would particularly like examples that do not involve food so I can see a wider scope of this concept.

On the other hand, the thing I liked about Section 5.4 WERE the examples about food because they were highly relatable. In the middle of the section, there were several examples in regards to DRO involving food. I like to read about dieting and weigh lost in terms of behavior modification because I can relate very well, and because it applies to the target behavior I am changing for myself.

Terms Used: Antecedent, Modify, Emit, Environment, Learned Behaviors, Target Behavior, Undesirable Behavior, Disruption, Operant Behavior, Elicit

The three things that I will remember from this chapter are removing the no’s, altering our environment, and dros. Removing the no’s was interesting to me because I plan on having kids some day in the future and knowing more effective ways to modify their behavior will be very important for them and me. Altering our environment was also interesting because it says that even if we have little control over our environment, we can go out of our way to alter it and make it less of an antecedent. The dros were interesting to me because it was a concept that I was not familiar with and it seemed to make perfect sense. If we don’t want to do a certain behavior, reinforce something that is the opposite and make it less aversive.
The one thing that I really liked from the chapter was thinking about ways to change environments that I have little control over. It made behavior modification seem a lot easier because it showed that there is always a way to change our behavior.
The one thing that I disliked from the chapter was thinking of ways to reduce speeding tickets. I seemed to have a little bit of difficulty thinking of ways outside of personal control to reduce speeding.

The first thing I’ll remember is observational learning. This is learning by example – or learning by observing, therefore called observational learning. I really liked the example the text used with observational learning. The “terrible twos” are a time when a child can emit the aversive behavior of saying “no” constantly. This is because they have been told no by their parents so often, that it is all they know. Now obviously most of the time when a parent tells a child no, it is for their own good and safety. Children, especially such young toddlers, cannot grasp this concept and therefore continue to say no because it is when they have learned by observational learning.

Next we talk about controlling the environment, or as the chapter is titled, changing the antecedents. Just like in the textbook, we looked back at the terrible twos example to understand this. If a parent would eliminate the dangers in the environment and move them out of the child’s reach, they would not have to tell their child no so often. Therefore the child would never experience the word no in their observational learning and he or she would be exempt, at least to some extent, from the terrible twos stage.

Finally, I learned about and will remember DRO, aka Differential Reinforcement of Other behaviors. As we have talked about in lecture, we want to decrease punishment and increase reinforcement. Therefore DRO is reinforcing a behavior that that is incompatible to the aversive behavior. We can take the behavior I want to change for an example. I want to decrease the amount of sweets I eat. Rather than punishing myself for eating something sweet, I should reward myself when I opt to eat something healthy instead.

The thing I liked most about this chapter is that there was a summary again! Though I do not know if I needed it like I have missed it in previous chapters, because this chapter was pretty straight forward. This was another thing I liked about this chapter. Though it was very easy to understand, it still wasn’t to the point of being boring.

One thing I didn’t like about this chapter was the very last example. I thought it was interesting and it definitely elicited critical thinking, but the question was difficult. In the example above, we were to list examples of environments that we have little control over. Then the next example, the one I found aversive, was to list ways that we can control the environment. This was a difficult task for me to accomplish, and I felt like I was stretching a bit in order to make my examples plausible.

Section 5.4

Three things from this chapter that I will remember are:
removing the no's. It was interesting to me to see that in a new perspective along with how much more beneficial it is to reinforce behaviors rather than punish them.
The second thing I will remember is DRO. this was interesting to me because it is something that I have never heard of and never thought about trying. It makes more sense to me now to realize how to refrain from behaviors that are aversive to me.
The last thing is changing the environment. Antecedent are only a fraction of the behaviors we emit. Yes the antecedent determines how we will emit a behavior but if we do not like the antecedent then change it. I never realized how simple it could be to get out of an aversive antecedent.

Thing that I liked the most in this section was how relatable it was to my life. It was easy for me to see the situations and learn the new topics in my own environment and put them with my past situations.

Something that I did not like were some of the example problems were a little confusing to understand and flet unrelated to the topics. other than that I really enjoyed this section

Three things I will remember in this section include:
Understanding that our environment affects our behavior and when we want to change our behavior we might have to change our behavior, along with manipulating the antecedents result in changing the behaviors of people around us. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors is also something that I will take from this section because it is eliciting behaviors that will reinforce the same behavior. The third thing I will take from this section is that we have to be aware of our environment, which may be hard to control but being aware of it can help us change or emit certain behaviors.
One thing I liked about this section would be how the whole section ties into controlling our environment, and antecedents to help change our behaviors. It had a lot of valuable information that will help understand this concept.
There was not anything in this section that I didn’t like, I really liked it all and found it all important.

After reading section 5.4, please respond to the following questions.
What are three things you will remember from what you read in the chapter? Why? What was one thing that you really liked that was in the chapter? Why? What was one thing that you disliked that was in the chapter? Why?
Three things I will remember from this chapter are:
a.) The fact that when changing an aversive behavior you also need to change the environment. This came from the section about the toy time outs, it’s really simple actually, when a child does something wrong we are more often likely to punish the behavior the child is doing, but without looking at the child’s environment. With this example it showed that by putting the toy in timeout you actually reduce the aversive behavior you portray onto the child such as punishment, along with reduces the aversive behaviors such as temper tantrums, throwing objects, biting, any other aversive behavior a mad toddler might elicit. I really enjoyed this topic and example because it’s something so basic and simple that can produce a positive outcome.
b.) I found the part on removing the “NO” humorous and beneficial considering I deal with little children every day. I have always used the term “terrible twos’ and I know many parents have wanted to pull their hair out because of them; being a nanny I have wanted to do so also. Taking this class really opened my eyes to the NO word, especially with children are learning to talk, they loveeee that word and it can become aversive because eventually you just stop arguing with the child so you give in, which becomes a positive punisher. Prior to reading this chapter I had already started on little environmental changes and personal emitted behaviors when it comes to being around children.
c.) While reading this chapter I realized how many people, myself included, blame our surrounding environment for our aversive behaviors, keyword here is aversive. However, this chapter just reinforced that knowledge that we all have but ignore, that our behaviors are controlled not by the environment, but by our actions. With some exceptions, but with most environments you can do something to change the consequences of your behaviors. A common example I think of could be quitting drinking, you and you only drive yourself to the liquor store or to a bar and buy that drink, it is not forced upon you.

2.) Something I enjoyed from this chapter would have been the observational learning, children are so simple and observant and I feel like adults tend to lose a little of that as we mature and we forget that our behaviors can have a positive or negative reaction on a child who is looking up to us.
3.) something I didn’t like from the chapter was, learning about the environments that I have little or no control in, I always like having a plan B per say in any situation and it’s just a little aversive to think that in some situations you don’t have that.
Terms: positive, negative, punishment, reinforce, reinforcement, aversive, emit, elicit, consequences,

5.4
Three things I remember from this chapter are the three things I would do to change the environment to fit my expectation. My example was the dorm bathroom. It is still weird to me showering in a huge room with other people coming in and out. Also I like listening to music a little bit loud while in the shower and our bathroom radio has a maximum volume on it or else we get punished for turning it up too high. The three ways I would change this is to shower at an inconvient time for others like late at night. As for the radio, I could just listen to music in my room all day so when I do go shower I will want some quiet time. Also if that doesn't work, I could try to get away with turning the radio up and just make sure to turn it down when I'm done.
One thing I liked about this chapter was the toy time out. It was an interesting concept. Also, kids that are young enough to fight over toys would probably forget about the toy ten minutes after it was put in "time out" anyways. Removing the toy removes the fighting and neither child is punished unfairly.
One thing I didn't like about this chapter was thinking of three environments in my daily life that I have little control over. There are so many depending on the day it was hard to pick three that bother me the most. It is also aversive to think of things I can't do that I do want to do and especially if it is an everyday occurance.

5.4

I will remember that in order to reduce the occurrence of one behavior, you do not necessarily need to restrict yourself to simply removing it. A good plan of how to decrease the likelihood of a behavior, you can elicit a different behavior. Replacing an undesirable behavior with a desired behavior can work better than attempting to decrease the undesired behavior.
I will also remember that in raising a child, the so called "terrible twos" can be reduced in severity or possibly eliminated by changing the antecedent (environment) in which the child spends much of its time. By "terrible twos" I am referring to the occurrence of the child saying "no" to their parents. Children normally do this because when they are in a situation that may have an undesirable outcome; the parent is likely to say "no" to attempt the child from getting hurt or continuing to get/be in that situation. Children learn through observation the majority of the time. This results in the child emitting an undesirable "no" response to the parents, and/or others. So, if the parents were to remove all possible objects/etc that could result in an undesired outcome where the child would be spending time, the occurrence of saying "no" would be decreased and possibly limit/eliminate the child's "terrible twos". This is changing the environment (antecedent) reduce an undesirable behavior.
Another way to utilize the changing of the environment/antecedent is to elicit and reinforce a target (desired) behavior instead of (in place of) an undesired behavior. This is the third thing I will remember from this chapter. An example would be the event of trying to eat less sweets. Removing the snack bowl from the kitchen to the roommate's room and replacing it with a fruit bowl. This reinforces eating fruit in place of the sweets because they are easy to get to; also, this makes the snacks less accessible by being in the roommate's room.
One thing I liked about this chapter is the example of the roommate. This is because my roommate always leaves his sandals in the middle of the floor in our room, and when I read this chapter I kicked his sandals underneath the futon. I did this because I am hoping the antecedent of having to pick his sandals out from under the futon will have him put them in a spot where I won't be able to do that. We'll see if it works.
This was a somewhat shorter chapter and had good information in it. There was nothing I disliked in this chapter.

Section 5.4

One of the three things I will remember from this chapter would be the removing of the "no's". I particularly liked this part because I learned this in one of my high school parenting classes. When I was in high school, it was odd to me to not tell a child no but it has stuck with me since then and I rarely tell children no. I will remember this because it is something that already has been stuck in my mind for years already.
The second thing I will remember would be the differential reinforcement of other behaviors. This is used to reinforce behaviors that are incompatible with behaviors that would normally be punished. This is interesting to me how well it works. I have seen this work with not only other people around me, but also in "experiments" so to speak that I have conducted myself. I like how well it works and have used it many times.
The third thing I will remember from this section would be the use of changing the antecedents to reduce behaviors. It talked about placing a baby in a room where it cannot get into anything undesirable or get in trouble in any way so that the parent can easily avoid saying "no" to their child.
One thing I liked about the chapter is that I had previous knowledge of some of it, but the chapter expanded on some of the information.
There wasn't anything I didn't like about the chapter, it was all good information and very useful.

Section 5.4

Three things I will emit to remember about this section are the following:

1) Toy Time Outs. This concept I found to be desirable to read about. When a kids fight over a toy or toys as they often do, usually the parents punish the kids. This concept does the opposite. Instead of punishing the kids, you remove what is causing the fighting, the toy. You then put the toy in a time out therefore changing the antecedent.

2) DRO (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior). This is another way of reducing an undesirable behavior. You do this by reinforcing a behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior. I found emitting to learn about this to be desirable.

3) Removing the "NOs". When children are young and like to play along with their siblings, parents use the word NO many times. It is said to create a safe room for the kid or kids to play (covering all electrical outlets, secure the plugs and cords, removes low, hard surfaces, etc). This way you don't always have to keep saying NO to your kids, and you won't get annoyed you have to constantly keep saying it. I found this part of the section to be a desirable read because it would be easier, in a way, and less stress on the parent if they just created an environment where it is safe for their kid(s) to play and they don't have to constantly keeping worrying about everything. They can have time to relax ever so slightly.

Overall, I found this section to be a desirable read. Not only was it interesting, but it also was a shorter read. I didn't feel overwhelmed with too much information.

There was nothing about this section that I found to be undesirable.

Terms Used: emit, desirable, punish, punishing, antecedent, differential reinforcement of other behavior, undesirable, emitting, reinforcing.

One of the things I will remember after reading this section was the first thing you talked about with the children and the toys. You brought up creating a different punishment that wasn't directly towards the children fighting with/over the toy. You in turn punished the toy, and put the toy in time out. I thought this was extremely clever, because in an indirect sense you were still using negative punishment, just not towards the child. You are still trying to elicit a good behavior out of the child by using punishment, and I think doing it this way would work really good. The reason I will remember this is because I like the different perspective, and without using reinforcement, I still believe this would work for a child.

Another thing I will remember after reading this section is that you can elicit certain desired behaviors by simply changing the environment. When I say changing the environment I simply mean using Differential Reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). When you use this it means you are simply finding a different way to manipulate and change the environment. I mean by changing how we go about the everyday living in the environment can change what behavior we emit, and we can help deter certain behavior. I will remember this because it is a new term that you just introduced.

Finally, I will remember when you talked about removing the ''no's'' from the environment. I remember this because I have heard about this before I read it in this section. I always thought this was extremely interesting and something I really want to try when I have a child. I want to remove these no's so my child doesn't go through the terrible two's. My second cousin never went through his terrible two's and I don't know if it was due to no using no's or if if was due to something else.

Something I really liked about this section was the beginning parts when you talked about raising a child and different ways to parent them. I thought this was extremely interesting and fun to read. These are things that I really want to remember to use when I have children later in life.

Something I found adversive to this section was finding different ways to change a certain environment. I thought this was extremely hard for the environment I chose to use. I was able to find two different ways, but finding the third one was rather hard. I was very happy that I didn't have to find ways to manipulate each environment that I had put down, so that was a plus.

5.4
There are three things I will remember from this chapter:

1. The first thing I will remember about this chapter is that if you want to change a behavior you have to first change the environment. This makes a lot of sense because if someone is doing a certain behavior and you don't want to punish them you can reinforce them by changing the environment that the behavior is taking place in so you don't have to punish them in the first place.

2. The second thing I will remember from this chapter is removing the "no's." I really liked reading about this because they say children learn to say no because they hear it so often. But if parents or other people aren't telling their children no then they can't hear it and use it against you. I want to try this when I have children because it would make things a lot easier. No is such a simple word but can mean so much and when removing it from a child's vocabulary and even your own you can change a whole lot of things by doing it.

3. The last thing I will remember are antecedents are very important with behavior just like consequences. I liked this because when you change the environment your are using the consequence will be different as well.

I really liked reading the different ways to change a behavior and how each person can change their behavior or other people's behaviors. There wasn't really anything that I disliked about reading the chapter.

Terms: behavior, target behavior, antecedent, consequence, punishment, reinforce.

5.4
1) I liked the removing the "NOs" concept. I have had two little cousin go through the terrible twos and when I have children someday, I would prefer to avoid that stage. The word no is overused by parents and kids then learn to follow that behavior. Parents could easily change the antecedent, such as is suggested in the chapter, and refocus the children and avoid using the word no.
2) I also will remember to think of how I can change the antecedents in my work environment in order to help myself focus and achieve the fastest work rate possible. My job tends to be a bit repetitive so its important to switch up the environment in order to keep focused.
3) The 3rd thing I will remember is the concept of DRO (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior) This is very important because it focuses on not only changing the antecedent to modify the behavior but changing the antecedent to elicit the target behavior.

Honestly, the chapter wasn't long enough for me to like or dislike anything specific. At this point in the semester its no longer a question of like or dislike, its just same old, same old. The chapters have covered pretty much the same topics just in varying depths.

terms: antecedent, environment, DRO, modify, behavior, elicit, target behavior

The first thing I will remember from this chapter is the section about removing “no’s” and the terrible twos. I found this section interesting. Children say “no” to the parent because their parents always tell them “no” and children learn from example. So by creating a safe room for the child to play in, you wont be constantly saying “no” so they don’t get hurt, and this will reduce the amount the child says “no” to you. The second thing I will remember is to make toy time outs. This is something I don’t think I would have thought of. Instead of punishing the child and putting them in time out, you punish the toy by putting it in time out because it was what caused the harm. This removes the antecedent (toy) from the environment. The last thing I will remember is that just by changing one little thing in your environment can make a huge impact on the outcome of your goal or the behavior change. You really have to be aware of what is going on around you and what influences you and your behaviors. That way you can manipulate those different things. Just the simple thing of putting your sweets in the freezer will reduce how much sweets you eat because you don’t want to wait for it to de-thaw. Its amazing how much the environment influences us.

One thing I liked was that this chapter was very short. It also gave some good information that I would have probably never thought of.

There really wasn’t anything I didn’t like in this chapter. It was very short and to the point.

three things i will remember:
1)punish the toy. Even though it puzzles the behaviorist it is a good idea to punish the toy then to punish the chid negatively.
2)DRO. using differential reinforcement of other behavior is effective when reducing a behavior. this can be elicited by changing the environment.
3) changing the environment by chaning the antecedents is an easy way to elicit the behavior that is desired.
i liked that this chapter didn't have a bunch of new infromation in it. it makes it easier to understand and remember the information.
there wasn't anything that i didn't like about this chapter it was short and easy to understand.

After reading chapter 5.4, the three things I will remember from this chapter are differential reinforcement of other behavior, removing the no’s and toy time outs. Differential reinforcement of other behavior is an effective way to reduce a behavior and can be elicited by changing the environment. Removing the no’s reminds of how much control we may have over an environment. Toy times outs is when a parent may use negative punishment by removing the child’s toy however this contradicts any behaviorist theory and essentially only changes the environment, instead of this process reinforcement is usually encouraged instead of punishment. One thing I particularly liked about this chapter was amount of examples I was able to create on my worksheet. There wasn’t something in this chapter that I didn’t like, I thought it was a very smooth and informative chapter.

Section 5.4

Three things I will remember:
1. One of the things I will remember is the concept that there is always something in the environment that you can change in order to modify a behavior. For example, we can take ourselves out of a situation in order to prevent a behavior from occurring, and we can also remove certain objects from a situation to prevent another behavior from occurring. This is also referred to as the DRO concept (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior).
2. Something that I will remember for parenting is the idea of removing "no" from my vocabulary in front of my kids. If I don't want my kids to say no to me, then I need to remove objects or prevent situations that will cause me to say no to them.
3. Another thing I will remember is that we have little control over the environment around us sometimes. There are times when there is close to nothing that we can do to change the outcome of something. However, there are always loop holes around things where we not necessarily change the environment's behavior, but we do things in a different way or at different times in order to get a different outcome.

The thing I liked about this chapter was that it was extremely short. Sometimes the best way to learn a lot of things is just to have the chapter get straight to the point and not have a lot of extra details.

I can't think of anything I didn't like in this chapter; it was all very informational and to the point of what was trying to be taught.

5.4-

Three things I will remember. . .

First, I will remember how to ‘remove the “no’s”’ from an environment and that it can be done even in a situation where it is difficult to do so, i.e. parolee example.

Second, using a roommate to help change an environment and help your apartment or house to elicit certain behaviors.

Lastly, the idea of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors, how you cannot rely on the absence of a certain object to change a target behavior, but also to introduce new objects that elicit the behavior as well.

Something I liked about this section is the application to my life and the little things I need to change and that it shows me, step-by-step, how make myself emit the target behavior.

There wasn’t anything about this section I didn’t like. It was put together well and gave us enough examples that we knew what we were talking about by the end, but not too many that we got bored with it.

Terms: elicit, behaviors, Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors, target behavior, emit.

5.4

The toy timeout idea offered by this chapter was pretty interesting. I am definitely going to try it at work if the situation arises.
I learned that changing the antecedent can have a big effect when modifying a behavior. For example if we don't want kids stealing food at work we simply have to design the room so that the food is inaccessible. In the meantime, if kids are stealing food, we can use DRO to modify behavior. If we reward an alternate behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable target behavior it can be more effective than punishing the undesirable behavior.
I liked how this chapter reinforced my knowledge on the topic of antecedents. It really helped to solidify the concept in my mind.
It's kind of hard for me to focus on reading so the chapter felt a bit long.

Terms?:: Reinforced, modify, behavior, target behavior, toy timeout, antecedent

After emitting the behavior of reading section 5.4, three things that elicited a response from me, and I will remember from this chapter is first how we can change the antecedents and manipulate the environment to accomplish a desired target behavior. This was the main point of the chapter, and thus why it will stick in my memory. The next thing I found interesting was realizing the environment I don’t have much if any control over certain environments. Something else I will remember from this chapter that I think goes hand in hand with the not having control over certain environments is realizing ways that you can gain control of the environment. The reason why I will remember both of these things is because it was interesting to know what your weak points were and how you could gain control over it.

Something I liked about this chapter was that it was really brief and to the point. The reason I liked this is because it wasn’t that time consuming to read. One thing I didn’t like about this chapter was that there wasn’t that much new information that I learned. The reason I didn’t like this is just for the simple reason it made it kind of hard to post about the information I learned and found I quickly ran out of things to write about.

Terms- Antecedents, target behavior, emitting, elicited, behavior, and environment.

5.4

The three things I’ll remember from this section are

1) The toy time out. I thought it was interesting to not punish the child but use the toy for punishment because it was causing the target behavior the parent wanted to decrease.

2) Removing NOs was another good example of how we control our environments and decrease the amount of emitting the behavior of a child saying “no”.

3) DRO is used to reduce a behavior that can be elicited by having a different antecedent.

I liked trying to come up with ways to manipulate the antecedents we are in everyday. Changing the environment can cause us to emit more desirable behaviors and eliminate undesirable behaviors.

I didn’t dislike anything about this section except it was hard to come up with ways to change the environment like speeding tickets because you can’t just try to get the speeding limit changed in certain areas where most people get caught speeding.

Terminology: punishment, emit, environment, manipulate, target behavior, desirable behavior, DRO

5.4
One thing that I will remember from this section is that a powerful way to modify behaviors is to change the antecedent. I will remember this because of the example of punishing the toy as opposed to punishing the children. This was a very interesting example of parenting as I had never heard of something like that. Another thing that I will remember from this section is that we can make changes in the environment that will subsequently elicit changes in behaviors. I will remember this because of the section of this chapter called Removing the "NOs". Parents can use observational learning to their advantage by removing elements of the room that they would have to discourage their child from being near or on( sharp corners, hard surfaces). A third thing that I will remember from this section is that we do not always have control of our environment, in these cases DRO or differential reinforcement of other behavior can be an effective means of behavior modification. This means that we can manipulate the environment to contain the antecedents that will elicit appropriate behaviors. One thing that I really liked about the chapter was that it was a very focused section. Many psych classes that I have had in the past have tended to take a very broad look as subjects whereas this chapter really focused in on specific information. There is nothing that I particularly disliked about the chapter.

Terms: modify, behavior, antecedent, elicit, emit, observational learning, reinforcement, environment, DRO

After emitting the behavior of reading section 5.4 I will remember that it is important to know that antecedents of behavior. The antecedents can help shape the environment and make the desired behavior more probable of being emitted. Punishing a toy as opposed to punishing a child is an interesting concept but I could it having a pleasurable consequence. Emitting this behavior would disrupt the operant behavior without punishing the child directly. I will also remember that behavior can be a product of observational learning, especially in children. The terrible twos come about because the children have learned behaviors and sayings, such as NO!, from observing their parents. Changing the antecedents or the environment will allow for the parent to discontinue the use of the aversive consequence and therefore decrease the amount the child emits the behavior, as well. I found the section about limited resources the most pleasurable. I like the fact that people can modify their behaviors even if their environments are not the greatest to do so. I know a lot of people that have been in situations that would elicit an aversive response for them and others. There are several behaviors they can emit to change the behavior and in turn the consequences they may have received from the aversive behaviors. The part of the section I found the most aversive was trying to emit coming up with different situations to write about for the exercises. This has been a problem for me throughout the course because a lot of behaviors we emit we do not think about. I like that I am now starting to think about the behaviors I emit and finding ways to modify them for my desired behaviors. Still situations I may not have been in seem a little harder to find “good” examples of.

Terms used: emitting, behaviors, antecedents, consequences, observational learning, aversive, modify, pleasurable, elicit, limited resources, desired behaviors

5.4
Three Things I Will Remember From This Section:
1. If you control the environment, you will control the behavior. This very relevant to me since I just transferred to UNI this semester and I have picked up some new behavior since I have been here. The impact of living with new people changes your behavior and how you live ten folds.
2. Many children learn through observational learning and emit behaviors that often times parents do not want them to because of this. Parents often elicit children’s behaviors, which under a different context could violate rule governed behavior since the children don’t know the proper time to use these behaviors.
3. You can almost always change the environment in some way. This is very effective because as stated earlier if you control the environment, you will control the target behavior. They’re many different examples given by the book, but little tweaks here and there or if it is with a person you can always find a way to address the situation

I really like that the information was very straight forward and had many realistic examples of situations that we can all relate to. I didn't necessarily dislike anything in this chapter; I actually liked it more than most of the recent ones.

Terms: Behavior, Observational Learning, Elicited, Emit, Rule Governed Behavior, Target Behavior

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