Ch 6 Psychological Needs


Read chapter 6. Summarize the chapter. What was the most surprising thing you learned? If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life? Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

Provide a list of terms at the end of your post that you used from the chapter. 500 words


Chapter six covers the psychological needs that humans have. These are the needs that create the intrinsic motivation that we talked about in chapter five. The chapter begins by explaining that these needs are organismic psychological needs. This approach assumes that humans are active. It also says that humans engage in the environment to fulfill their psychological needs and that the environment can either support or frustrate the fulfillment of these needs. The chapter then discusses the three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self-direction and have control over one’s behavior. Whether behavior is self-directed depends on the perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice. Competence is the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment and depends on the appropriate level of skills and challenges that creates optimal challenge and flow. Finally, relatedness is the psychological need to have close emotional bonds with other people that include caring, liking, accepting, and valuing.

The most surprising thing I found in this chapter was the chapter’s explanation of what causes people to feel lonely. The book states that lonely people don’t necessarily interact with less people than non-lonely people. The difference in their interactions is that lonely people don’t have close, intimate relationships. Because lonely people don’t experience the caring, liking, accepting, and valuing of communal relationships and only interact with people in exchange relationships, their relatedness needs are not being met, causing them to feel lonely. This was surprising to me, because I always assumed that loneliness stemmed from not being around people. It never occurred to me that the “quality over quantity” aspect is so important. Even people who are around others all day might feel lonely because they’re not experiencing quality relationships.

I would consider myself to be highest on the relatedness need. As a self-prescribed “people person,” I really require quality interactions with people who care about me to make me feel as if I have had a “good day.” If I spend all day at work interacting with people I am familiar with but not close with and then go home and spend the night by myself, I do not feel very positive about the day, and I tend to get lonely. I think my high need for relatedness is part of the reason that I am a communication studies major. I enjoy interacting with people because it satisfies my need for relatedness, and a job in the communication field will allow me to do that every day.

I think I’m also pretty high on the competence need, although not as high relatedness. Part of the reason that I enjoy school is because it allows me to challenge myself, and when my skills are enough to tackle the challenge, I feel a great deal of competence. This is also true for my job. My boss has been very good at giving me new challenges because she knows that if I continue on the same project for too long, I begin to get apathetic because my skills are much higher than the challenge.

Finally, I feel that I am more medium in terms of my need for autonomy. Although I do enjoy being able to decide what I want to do and have control over my decisions, I am also tuned in to how my decisions will affect others. Because I know that my decisions don’t exist in a vacuum, I am willing to give up my autonomy in order to meet the needs of other people in my life. For instance, some weekends I may choose to go home to see my family per their request even though I would rather stay and spend the weekend with my friends. Even though I’m giving up some of my autonomy, I don’t mind because I’m able to meet my family’s need for relatedness.

My guess about the fish bowl picture would have to be that the fish is deciding to meet its psychological need for relatedness. That looks like a pretty lonely fish bowl to live in, and it probably wants to go establish some communal relationships with other fish so it’s not so lonely.

Terms: organismic psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, exchange relationship, communal relationship

Chapter 6 was about psychological needs like autonomy, competence, and relatedness. We all have different things in life that are of our interest. Some of us like to read, go for walks, shop, and all kinds of other things. We all are intrinsically motivated to do things each day that satisfy our psychological needs. Other things we do each day are extrinsically motivated. With autonomy it is a choice we make based on something that we want to do. These are things like saying I want to go for a walk because it makes you feel good about yourself or reading a book because it sparked an interest to you. These are our self-determined goals. The things that mean something to us that we want to get done or do. These are a choice to use. We are not being told by other people to do these things that we choose to do. There may be outside influences on some of the things we chose to do but we also do them for ourselves. An example would be brushing, flossing, and using mouthwash. The dentist tells you that you should do this everyday maybe even two or three times a day. You are intrinsically motivated to do it already because you want fresh breath and want your teeth white and healthy. Autonomy supportive motivation is the psychological need that you have to do something but something that you want to do. Autonomy supportive environment would be an influence from outside factors to do so. An example of this would be like you signing up for track and your coach telling you what you will be doing on the team and giving you your daily practice schedule and having you follow it. You sign up because you love to run but you are running and doing practices because your coach wants you to train that way. Competence is wanting to fit in with everyone else. This is something that I think is both intrinsically and extrinsically motivating. You have the desire to be who you are but you are also influences by others that you met in your life. For example when you go to school and see how other people dress you are more likely going to dress similar to them. It is also finding new challenging and overcoming them. The book related this a lot to sports. For example you might be highly interested in a sport but not be very good at it. You might be very good in a sport but not interested in playing it. Or you might be good at a sport and interested to play in it. With competence the people who are not so good might set a goal to get better. An example of have of me when I was in cross country was I was not a very good runner but I would practice all the time trying to get better times because to me if felt great when you would finally get the time you wanted. To me competence is trying to fit in but then also setting goals of things you are not so good and trying to achieve them. As with competence is the feedback you are given. The more positive feedback you get the more you might continue on. The negative feedback can work in two ways. It can motivate you to want to keep trying harder or it can make you want to give up. The more you are motivated the more you going to try harder. Last is relatedness. Relatedness is the desire to feel close to others and feel needed. This is when you make news friends or join a new club. You get the social interaction with others, which makes you feel close, and gives you a bond with others. A good relationship is built on trust and honestly. When you met these new people you will have a good idea on who you feel you are able to trust and who you are not able too trust. Once you find this out the relationship grows from there. With relationships comes engagement with other people. People long for the need to engage with other people. Being along can start to take a toll on people. People also need time alone. Finding the balance is what is important. If I had to rate myself on psychological needs I would say I am somewhere in the middle. I get a lot from all of the three components but some more than others. I think for college students that is normal. We are all doing this because we want to but there are some outside factors that play on a role on when it all gets done. Relatedness would be my top just because I love being around other people. I am motivated to go to work, which I work with a lot of people. I am motivated to go to class and be around other people. I am working on trying to get to know other people in my classes and on campus rather than just going to school and leaving right away. It’s starting to get a little easier but is still taking time.
I would say the fish bowl has to do with all of our psychological needs. We are all a small fish in a large world and we just want to fit in. By fitting in we are finding the people who have similar interests to us and are motivated just like us as well.

Social interaction
Autonomy supportive environment
Autonomy supportive motivation
Intrinsically motivated

This chapter focuses on three big psychological needs; autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In each need there are many different factors that are involved in achieving them. Autonomy is achieved through doings that we want to do because they may make us happy or satisfied. Competence is reached when we achieve things such as flow by doing something that we find challenging and satisfying. We find relatedness when we have a lot of close and/or intimate relationships with others. Then it talks about how a person feels when all three needs are met at the same time, leading to the phrase “having a good day”.

The thing I found most interesting was when it talked about what it takes to have this good day. Vitality is one way that this is achieved. When we feel vitalized we feel alive, vital, bursting with happiness, or energized. I have felt this many times in my life but never knew that it was because I reached autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This is what the fish is feeling in the picture. He is very happy and seems to be “jumping for joy” right out of his bowl.

The first of the psychological needs is autonomy, which means that our behaviors and decisions are driven by things that we like or want to do. It deals with the choices we make and the freedom we have when making them. I would say that I am medium in autonomy. I find myself participating in swimming because I want to, but I also find that I don’t have a lot of freedom when it comes to participating in practice and meets. When it comes to college I felt a lot of perceived choice when choosing my school, major, minors and where I wanted to live. But once I have decided on these things, I suffered from “either-or choices”. This happened because I was then assigned to certain classes I must take and only given certain time slots to take them at.

The next psychological need is competence, which means we seek out challenges or activities that match our skill level, leading to a feeling of satisfaction and accomplishment. I would say that I have a high level of competence. Swimming has been a huge part of my life for many years and I have always gotten a sense of satisfaction during practices and meets. During swim practice I find myself entering a state of flow, which is a deep involvement in an activity. I am able to attain flow because my skill level and the challenge of practices match up, so instead of getting bored I am immersed in the challenge.

In my life I can see many ways competence motivates my behaviors. Looking at swimming again, I see it in every practice I attend. I enjoy swimming because after hard practices I always felt like I accomplished something and leave with a more positive and happy attitude. Throughout my swimming career I have thrived on making people feel proud of me as well as feeling proud of myself. I experience performance feedback during big swim meets or competitions. I like to see my hard work pay off as I push myself as hard as I can. I then get to receive initial feedback when the race is over. During swimming I can also experience failure tolerance when I do badly at a meet and fail instead of swimming fast. I have found that having a bad practice or meet is more likely to happen than a good one, so failure tolerance is something I feel a lot. Although this happens often, I know it is supposed to and therefore it doesn’t stop me from swimming.

The third psychological need is relatedness, which means we need close and sincere emotional bonds with others. I feel like I am high in relatedness because I love having friends and having the feeling of being loved and cared about by them. I enjoy interacting with my friends and work hard to keep in touch with good friends I have made over the years. I like hearing about how they are doing as well as sharing how I am doing. I am very close with those who care about me, such as family and friends, who are known as communal friends. I agree that quality is better than quantity and I am happy with my small group of great friends.

Terms: Autonomy, perceived choice, competence, flow relatedness, interaction, communal, performance feedback, initial feedback, failure tolerance, vitality

Chapter 6 dives into psychological needs and how they can impact our everyday lives. The chapter discusses how psychological needs differ from physiological needs based on proactivity and reactivity. Physiological needs are how our body reacts to a situation or deficit while our psychological needs are proactive in the sense that they motivate us to do something we want to do which elaborates on intrinsic motivation from chapter 5. Chapter 6 talks about the three organismic psychological needs that we have. According to the text, organismic theories recognize that environments and situations change therefore we need to adjust to them so our potential can grow. The three organismic psychological needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the control that we feel over ourselves. It is the desire to do what we want to do because we are all individuals with specific wants and needs. Competence is how we react and work in the environment around us. We seek things that challenge us mentally (and sometimes physically) but also things that we know we are capable of doing with our given skill sets. Relatedness is the desire for close bonds with others. We crave emotional connections whether it be through friendships or intimate relationships.

One of the most surprising thing I learned from this chapter was how complex perceived autonomy actually is. Perceived autonomy is composed of three different qualities: internal perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice over one’s actions. Perceived locus of causality is our understanding of what causes our motivated actions. If we do something because we want to do it, say listen to music for example, we’re listening purely out of internal perceived locus of causality. If you add homework into the mix, say listening to music while working on a math assignment, then you’re working out of an external perceived locus of causality. Volition is how willing we are to engage in something. For example, when I watch scary movies my volition is high because I’m doing something that I want to do without pressure to do so. Perceived choice is the flexibility we are given to make a decision with our own self interest in mind.

I would consider myself to be very high on the relatedness rating. I invest a lot of my time into my relationship and friendships and try to incorporate them into my every day life as much as possible. I am not in any way shape or form a lone wolf. I would prefer a group project over an individual just for the simple fact of working with others. I am on the executive team for my sorority and have a position that requires a committee to assist me when needed. I would not be able to do half the things required for my position if I didn’t have the connections that I do within my committee and the executive team. I fear that this will be something I will struggle a bit with in grad school because it is more individually based.

My guess is that the fish is jumping from the bowl because of high autonomy. Why should he (or she) have to stay in a bowl because someone put him there when he (or she) can jump out because it is what it wants. But then he would die, so talk about a lose/lose situation.

Terms: autonomy, organismic psychological needs, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, competence, relatedness, physiological needs

Chapter 6 of the text book was entirely about the three psychological needs of relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Also discussed were the ways in which people seek out opportunities and relationships that will satisfy these psychological needs and how they motivate us to do so. Autonomy is essentially a person’s need to experience and pursue what they want to, when they want to, and how they want to. People want to have control over their actions or at least enough choice to enhance and satisfy the need for autonomy. Competence is the need be effective in one’s everyday life and the yearning to expand capacities, skills, and knowledge through challenges. Finally, relatedness is the need to establish meaningful, close relationships with other people and the desire to be emotionally connected to and involved with others who care about our well-being as we care about theirs.
The most surprising thing that I learned while reading this chapter was about the internalization people go through where external regulations and/or values given to them are changed into regulations and/or values that they truly endorse and believe within themselves. This internalization happens through relatedness need satisfaction with the person prescribing the regulations and values as well as clear rationale as to why the prescription will benefit them. This is helpful information for me because I plan on having children one day, and I can use this to make it more likely they will internalize what I need from them and why in a way that does not undermine their autonomy or intelligence.
I would rate myself as medium in autonomy, medium in competence, and high in relatedness. I say I am medium in autonomy because while I am at work at in class, I don’t really have free reign over my time. This doesn’t bother me much, though, because I feel like I am accomplishing things that will better me in the future and I don’t hate going to work or class. I still have a fair amount of time to do what I please during evenings and weekends when I don’t work long or have a ton of homework, so it all works out. As for competence, I say I am medium because I don’t engage in challenging activities all that often because I’m busy, but my classes challenge me enough and test my capacities to a relatively sufficient level. I say I am high in relatedness because I am very content with the relationships I have with my close friends and family, and I feel a great deal of satisfaction from these connections because I know they care deeply about me and I care deeply about them. My psychological need for autonomy motivates me to get the work I need to for my classes and job done so that I can do what I want to do with my time, which is usually to solve puzzles, watch sitcoms, and hang out with friends which also satisfies my need for relatedness.
If I had to guess what the fish picture means, I would say it has to do with all three of the psychological needs. The fish, who I will call Carl, is challenging himself to jump out of the bowl (competence) as an exercise of his freedom of choice to do as he pleases (autonomy) to go and find other fish friends to connect with (relatedness.) This all relates to this chapter because those are the same psychological needs that motivate some of our behaviors as well.
Terminology used: psychological needs, relatedness, autonomy, competence, internalization, motivation

Psychological needs are motivating needs are desires that cause motivation for different needs that focus on learning, growing, and developing. They differ from physiological needs because they motivate growth, where physiological are often motivated by deficit, such as a deficit from food or water. The three big psychological needs are competence, autonomy, and relatedness. All can arise at different times and for different people have various levels of needs with each. Each have varying factors associated with them. The chapter ends with talking about what makes a good day. This was rather interesting because the research showed that often times our psychological needs being met, or not met impact whether we have a good or bad day. People have a good day when they have an experience of vitality where they feel good about things going on such as energized, alive, and vital. These often relate to the three main psychological needs.
I rate high on competence and I desire and am motivated to do things well. For example, when writing these essays and not getting 9’s or 10’s I get frustrated especially because I feel that I meet the requirements, but don’t do as well as I would like. I am motivated to do well in school and the feeling of getting A’s and making dean’s list meet a psychological need for me. I have a high need for autonomy and I partially think that’s why I like the idea of vocational full-time ministry. I like to make my own schedule, be flexible to do the things I want, such as going fishing up north frequently, being able to speak about what I want and having my own influence and not as much control from others or designated 8-5 job where I can’t be very flexible. I like to be in charge and lead the way, but would say I am very teachable and can subdue to leadership specifically if they give some freedoms and flexibility. When reading the section defining autonomy (p.145) the descriptors defined me perfectly for having a high need.
I would say I am medium on a scale for relatedness, because it varies and is high one day and low another day. I am very extraverted and thrive off of being relational and interacting with people, however sometimes I like to spend time alone and not being bothered by anyone.
Having a high need for competence often times for me relates to sports. I hate to lose and I love to be better than, perform better, and beat the other team and person I’m against. Whether there is a reward or not I often get frustrated with losing or not performing well. Last week I was playing football with a group of friends and my team had the ball and had one down to score and if we did we won. I was the quarterback and threw a ball to the end zone right to my teammate and the defender clearly shoved my receiver and had pass interference. The result was a turnover on downs and even though the game had no reward or implications and was just for fun, I was upset and got frustrated that they didn’t give us another down. We ended up losing on the next possession and my frustration came from not feeling effective in the environment I was in. Winning at being good at sports are a psychological need for me, but for others it might not be, and something such as being good at playing an instrument well is important for them.
I think the picture represents the fishes need for psychological needs. He feels trapped and not in control (autonomy). He also is in the bowl by himself and isn’t getting the need for relatedness met and is trying to find a way out to fulfill that need.

Terms: Psychological needs, competence, autonomy, relatedness, vitality

Chapter 6 on Psychological Needs talks about three different types of psychological needs; autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and how they rely on an organismic approach to motivation. First off, people and animals are inherently active. We explore and we’re interested in how to do things that are inherently interesting to us. Secondly, a person acts on the environment and the environment acts on a person. This means that a person uses his or her psychological needs to engage in the environment and sometimes the environment supports these inner needs and other times it neglects them. Human being possess a natural motivation to grow, learn and develop in a mature way, and this can be done when the environment supports their psychological needs.
Autonomy is described as the desire to have a choice and having decision-making flexibility. Basically, it’s the need for being the one who decides what to do, when to do it, how to do it, when to stop doing it, or whether or not to do it at all. A person’s ability to satisfy his or her autonomy is dependent on the supportiveness of his or her relationships and environment. People who are self-determined and don’t let their behaviors be controlled by others show positive outcomes and are high in achieving autonomy. Competence is described as the need to interact with the environment and utilize one’s skills and capacities, and to overcome challenges. The need for competence is produces the motivation to develop, improve, and perfect personal skills and talents. When environment skill is high, as well as personal challenge, people tend to experience the state of flow. Flow is a psychological state that is characterized by maximal enjoyment. The more environments satisfy people’s need for competence, the more people will master challenges and grow in the environment. Relatedness is described as the need to establish close and emotional relationships and bonds with people around you. It is the desire to emotionally connected and interpersonally involved with others. Relatedness is satisfied by one person confirming that the social bond with other people involve caring and liking.
I would say I am high on autonomy, as I am a very independent, outgoing person who likes to be in control. I would say I’m medium on competence, as I do feel a certain need for overcoming challenges and achieving something as well as improve on my personal skills. But, I don’t feel nearly as strong of a need for competence as I do for relatedness. I am high on relatedness as I value my interpersonal relationships a lot, and I feel a strong need to establish close relationships with people. I would maybe say I’m the highest on relatedness as a psychological need. I am constantly wanting to meet new people and I have a strong desire to be liked by people and I crave good relationships. I think that having close relationships and being able to relate to others give me a sense of belongingness. I like being involved in things on and off campus, and I am someone who really values good environments with good people who get along with really well.
If I were to take a guess on the picture of the fish jumping out of its bowl I would say it’s probably trying to fulfill or meet his psychological needs of autonomy; doing whatever he wants, competence; improving and overcoming the challenging of leaving the lonely bowl, and relatedness; the need to establish some kind of relationship with someone outside of his “home”.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, flow.

Chapter 6 focuses on psychological needs, such as; Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. These needs encourage growth and generate energy that is proactive. These 3 needs can be referred to as “Organismic psychological needs” and apply to an entity that is alive and in active exchange with its environment. This organismic approach suggests that all organisms are motivated to grow, adapt, and succeed. The three terms stressed in this chapter are:

1) Autonomy, the want to make decisions for ourselves, to be independent, and to have the freedom to decide what is important to us and what is not. The text defines it as “The psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior.” There are also three subjective qualities within the experience of autonomy; Internal perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice over ones actions.

2) Competence, the need to be effective in interactions with the environment and the drive to become better with challenges. This motivation to do better at tasks we want to succeed in can give us a sense of pride and enjoyment once accomplished. In return, we continue to grow and better ourselves as an individual and society.
3) Relatedness, or the need to feel like you belong. It is hardwired into us to desire social interaction. The need for close bonds is important because it is difficult to learn and to grow without support from others. Even those that interact with many individuals yet lack a close relationship often feels very lonely.

I feel that the most surprising thing that I learned is the difference between autonomy support and controlling behavior. I feel that I was raised in a very controlling environment and it caused a lot of stress for me that has carried into my adulthood. I think I would feel much more confident in my decisions and less anxious if I had someone supporting my personal development gradually instead of feeling pressured into things. I would personally rate myself high in autonomy, low in competence and medium on relatedness. This is because I am often very stubborn in doing the things I want to do, when I do them and what convinces me to do them. I can have 10 people tell me that I should do something yet I will still think of reasons not to do it, and if I find those reasons more important, I won’t do what I am told. I typically value my mental health and overall sense of happiness over things that are considered “very important” such as finishing a homework assignment. I would choose to take a reduction in points over stressing and staying up all night to complete it. (autonomy) Yet I am very relaxed when it comes to challenges and feel that failing/losing is not that big of a deal. I am not competitive at all, yet I am still successful. (competence) I have many friendships, but I am very comfortable having few super close relationships. I don’t think I need many people to approve of me to feel self-confident. (Relatedness)

I think that this fish picture relates because his tank is completely empty and he is probably seriously bored, so his drive for growth, accomplishment and friendship is driving him to take the possibly lethal leap to find something more.

Terms: Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, Motivation, Psychological needs, Behavior

Chapter 6 is all about psychological needs of humans and the three main focuses are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the textbooks way of saying that we as humans like to have control over what we do, when we do it, and how we go about doing whatever task we want to do. There are three qualities that are looked at when trying to define autonomy. The first is a perceived locus of control which is the person's understanding of where the motivation comes from to do a desired action. There is an internal locus of control which means that the motivation to do something comes from a personal need that needs to be satisfied, while an external locus of control means that something in the environment causes you to complete a task. The second is is called volition which is the feeling of being unpressured to do engage in an activity. The more someone feels pressure to engage or participate in an activity the lower the volition and the less autonomy we feel about that activity. The third quality looked at is if there was a precieved choice over the actions that we choose to engage in. The more choice we have in deciding on which behaviors to engage in the more autonomy one will feel. Another main focus of this chapter is competence. As humans we all have a need to feel competent in whatever task we are performing so we want to create environments that foster competency, especially when learning or performing a new skill. One way to create a supportive environment for competency is to have good structure within the task, have high tolorence for failure, and provide positive feedback during and after the task or behavior. The other big psychological need covered in this chapter is relatedness. Relatedness is the feeling of belonging that we all have which is why we interact with people on a daily basis for the most part. There are many different kinds of relationships within the environment to help satisfy those needs. Whether it be friends, coworkers, spouses, ect. we all have a need to belong to something and be part of something bigger. One positive that comes from relatedness is the idea of internalization. Internalization is the taking of some external force or regulation and turning it into an internal one that we now do because we want to fit in with the larger group we are trying to be apart of.
I wouldn't say that I was suprised by anything in this chapter but what I did find interesting was the examples and suggestions the textbook gave if you are trying to create a more autonomy and competence supportive environment. I would say that out of the three psychological needs I would score highest on autonomy because I like to have control over when, where, why I do my daily activities. When looking at competence for me personally i would say that competence seems to be my greatest struggle because I don't always feel that I am competent enough to do a given task so that is something i need to work on within myself. I think i would score moderate on relatedness because I do like to feel a part of something and like to be social but its not something that drives me very often.

Chapter six of the textbook covers psychological needs. It discusses three psychological needs which include autonomy, competence, and relatedness. It begins by explaining autonomy and how we ideally want our behaviors to reflect our personal interests and desires. Within autonomy, the text explains the conundrum of choice, explains motivating styles and autonomy support. The next psychological need that is discussed is competence and how each individual strives to be competent and effective in their environment. This section also explains flow, the state of concentration involved when one is wholly involved in an activity. One more thing that is discussed in this section is failure tolerance, which is when an individual must be willing to accept failure or errors before really being able to optimally engage in the activity. The final psychological need discussed in relatedness which is the desire to form relationships with individuals, groups, organizations, and communities. The chapter closes with a discussion that puts all three aspects together and discusses how they work together to produce engagement.

The most interesting thing that I learned in this chapter was about relatedness. I didn’t really know a whole lot about the specific terms of relatedness. I was a little surprised about the fact that a social bond needs to be formed with the individuals we interact with, not just a conversation or interaction with another. In previous classes, when we have discussed people needing social interaction, I was given the impression that they only need social interaction and not so much the bond with it. However, this makes complete sense to me now that I think about it more. It would obviously make sense that an individual wants to feel like they are deeply cared about by the other person and that the person likes them. From this section in the chapter, it seems that the stronger the relationship is with someone, the more relatedness you feel because the more one feels that they can be their true self with another, the more it seems that one is important in the eyes of another.

If I were to rate myself as low, medium, or high in each of these psychological needs, I think I would give myself medium in both relatedness and autonomy and high in competence. It’s obvious to me that these psychological needs have a contribution in my life. They are the reason I act certain ways or feel more or less comfortable in different places. It is obvious to me that autonomy is lower in my life at this point because right now I spend a lot time doing things that I don’t necessarily want to be doing, like working and studying for exams when I would rather be doing something I am more passionate about like being outside exploring, hiking, or even kayaking. However, I do realize that I am working to make money so I can be in school and I am in school and studying for exams so that I can eventually follow the career that I want to and spend more time doing activities that I like doing.

For competence specifically , I feel that I have a good grasp on who I am in my place and how I interact with my surroundings in many aspects of my life. I have always felt that I am good at interacting with people, I know my way around, and have common sense which all help to allow me to reach the competence I personally strive for. I think that one way my behaviors are motivated by competence is shown in how I am involved in my sorority and our philanthropy. I feel that I interact effectively in my chapter and I have made a positive impact with my position. In addition, through my sorority, it has helped me to develop skills I would not have gained otherwise which I feel plays a great deal into competence.

I think that the fish in the picture is jumping out of the bowl because when it is in it’s small bowl, it does not feel autonomy which he so much longs to feel. At this point in his little fish life, he is tired of not having autonomy. So he is jumping into a larger bowl with more fish (which is not pictured) to reach his dreams and do more of what he wants to do like eating lots of fish flakes, and swimming and exploring a bigger, more beautiful fish bowl. In addition, he probably wants to experience relatedness and interact with other fish so that just gives him more motive to jump to the other fish bowl.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, conundrum of choice, motivating styles, autonomy support, flow, failure tolerance

Chapter six in our textbook is about psychological needs. The chapter begins by explaining that an activity is motivated by psychological needs when we decide to participate with the activity because it is inherently interesting and enjoyable to the individual. It then goes on to talk about how physiological needs, from chapter five, originate from biological deficits. Psychological are different in nature because energy generated by these needs are proactive. Psychological needs motivate people to explore and to seek challenges, instead of being originated from deficits they are originated from growth needs. There are three psychological needs and they are often referred as organismic psychological needs. Organismic theories acknowledge that since the environment around us is everchanging, organisms need to be flexible and can accommodate to these changes. The three organismic psychological needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is psychological need to experience self-direction and being able to control over what we want to, when we want to, and how we want to. Our behavior is autonomous when we are participating in activities that we have an interest or preference in guides our decision-making processes to continue these activities. An individual experiences competence when we develop our skills and improve our capacities, talents, and potential. Relatedness is the desire to belong, be involved in social interaction, and the want to have close personal relationships.

The most interesting thing I learned in this chapter was the section about what makes for a good day. When we are satisfying our psychological needs, this generates positive emotion and psychological well-being. A study was done and college students were told to keep a diary of their moods and well-being and the results showed that that when individuals experienced higher levels of competence and autonomy. I find this part interesting because there are benefits of taking care of our psychological needs and before reading this chapter I didn’t consider what made me experience a good or bad day.

I think that at times I am high in all three of these areas of psychological needs. I think my highest area would be autonomy. I experience high autonomy because my interests and preferences motivated me to do certain activities. I like to be in control of everything I do and once I don’t feel like I am in control I feel uncomfortable. I think that competence scores a little lower than the other areas because I do want to be skillful and work on my talents, but I am more motivated to complete an activity because it is interesting to me or because my friends are doing it as well. Lastly, I think that my relatedness is high as well. There are times that I will join a new activity for a sole reason of meeting new people or we all have tried something new because everyone else is doing it. I think that it is important to consider our psychological needs because there are benefits to our mood and psychological well-being.

My best guess of the fish in the fishbowl is either autonomy or relatedness. The fish wants to be control and is deciding to jump out of the bowl because it wants to be in control of its life. With relatedness, we are participating in activities because we want to belong or form close relationships. This fish is the only one in the bowl and is unable to form relationships if it is the only one in the bowl. He is being motivated by his psychological needs and is jumping out of the bowl to be able complete these needs.

Terms: Psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness.

Chapter 6 was based on our psychological needs. These needs underlie interest and enjoyment of activities. They can also be understood as growth needs. One of the biggest approaches is the organismic approach. This approach focuses on the interaction and adaptation to the environment. It explained that the organismic approach assumes people are inherently active and they use psychological needs to engage in the environment. This can either support or neglect their inner resources.
I found it surprising that we have good days because the events in our lives are working to satisfy our psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). When we have bad days, it is because the events in our lives are neglecting and frustrating these needs. So I thought it was surprising that whether or not we have a good day depends on if our psychological needs are satisfied or not.
If I had to rate each need with a high, medium, and low rating, I would first rate relatedness as very high. I am constantly finding myself around people, and really do not like to do things alone. I like to engage in conversation with people, and I like to help people. There are sometimes where I like to have time to myself such as when I’m doing homework or studying, but if I am not doing these things, I am more than likely around other people or hanging out with my friends or roommates. I think this need motivates most of my behaviors since I am constantly around or hanging out with other people, and I do not like being alone.
I would consider my medium rating to be on competence. I am a somewhat competitive person, and I have been since high school. I think a lot of this comes from my dad because he is an extremely competitive person. This has rubbed off on me throughout the years. I really enjoy challenging myself and striving towards new goals because of the satisfaction that comes from when you overcome this challenge or meet this goal. I really think that it is one of the best feelings.
For myself, I would give autonomy the lowest rating. I am horrible when it comes to making decisions for myself, and I often find myself asking other people what I should do when it comes to certain situations or decisions. Even if these decisions have nothing to do with them, I seek other people for confirmation or to make the decision for me. Even when I do make a decision, I am very skeptical as to whether or not it is affecting the people around me. I am such a people-pleaser that I try my best to not hurt anyone’s feelings.
I think the fish jumping out of the fish bowl could symbolize a few things. I think the biggest thing is competence. The fish is making the choice to jump out of the fish bowl maybe to accomplish a skill or challenge. He’s definitely going outside of his comfort zone to try something new.

Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, psychological needs, organismic approach

Chapter 6 focuses on psychological needs. As discussed in pervious chapters our needs effect our motivation. Psychological needs create a willingness to engage in an environment influence for our benefit. These needs motivate us to grow and develop. Without growth and development, we would be stuck in the same place forever. Through autonomy, competence, and relatedness we are driven to keep moving.
The most surprising thing I learned this chapter was the flow theory. According to the theory any activity can be enjoyable… I understand that different tasks may be more enjoyable for different people then others but how can a task be enjoyable for everyone. Of course, we all want a pleasurable experience so we are motivated to make even the most boring and mundane tasks enjoyable. It is interesting to think about how we can trick our brains to enjoy tasks we normally wouldn’t.
If I had to rate myself on various psychological needs, I would say I have a low motivation for my psychological needs, especially now. I just have a lot going on right now that I am just trying to survive. I wish I could be more focused on engagement and relatedness but right now there just isn’t time. We all feel like we need to belong and I am no different but when you have more physiological needs to meet.
In class, we have discussed how we all have different motivations for different things. In my life, I see this clearly. I have low motivation for things that are of low importance and vice versa. An example of something I have low motivation for is cleaning my room. An example of something I have medium motivation for is studying for an exam a week in advance. An example of something I have high motivation for is paying rent.
The psychological need for autonomy motivates me to figure out where I am going to do my field instruction. I have always been a planner and I have always wanted to know what is next. With being a senior the future is coming very quickly and this is motivating me to get things figured out. Right now, I am relying on my friends and family to support me in my autonomy because I have so many choices to make in the next couple months. The text talked about conundrum of choice and that is totally applicable to my life right now. I live being able to make choices but right now the choices are overwhelming.
I am going to go out on a limb here and say the reason for the fish picture is kind an anomaly. Obviously, the fish needs the fish bowl to survive just as we have psychological needs that need to be met to survive. The picture relates to chapter because just as the fish will die outside the bowl we will not live without needs being met.
Terms: psychological needs, flow theory, engagement, relatedness, autonomy, autonomy support, conundrum of choice, physiological needs, autonomy, competence, and relatedness

This chapter deals with the psychological needs of the body. Psychological needs are sometimes broken down into 3 categories, that are referred to as organismic psychological needs. These types of needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These things provide people with natural motivation to learn, grow, and develop. Autonomy is a major talking point in this chapter. Autonomy is the ability to choose and make decisions without having to check that decision with someone else. There are three experiential qualities that go into autonomy. Those three are perceived locus of causality, referring to an individual's understanding of the causal source of his or her motivated actions. The second is volition, which is an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity. Thirdly, is the perceived choice, and it refers to that sense of choice we experience when we find ourselves in environments that provide us with decision making flexibility that affords us many opportunities to choose. Autonomy is a difficult thing to judge. It puts trust in the individual to make the correct decision. However, it also allows for growth and opportunity. When compared to a more control type of motivating style, autonomy easily is the better, and more healthy way. Competence is the second part of this chapter, which is the need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and seek out optimal challenges. We want to seek out that challenge because of the want for positive feedback from others, and the perception of progress. The structure is the amount and clarity of information about the expectations of completing the desired outcomes. Positive feedback is a huge reason for why people do challenges. It comes from doing the task, comparing pas performances of self, or other, and the evaluations of others. Relatedness is the last part of the chapter. It is the want, desire, and need for personal and social interaction. Relatedness tells us that we want warm, close relationships with others. Engagement is something that is present in all of these things. It means that it is the intensity and emotional quality people show when they initiate and carry out activities.
The most surprising thing that I learned was that there were different pieces of autonomy. I did not know that autonomy had so many different aspects of it. I always just thought it was the ability to choose and that was it. I would rate myself as medium on autonomy, and competence, and high on relatedness. I like the ability to choose and make my own decisions but it is nice to just have direction given to you. For me, it takes less effort and is sometimes easier to understand what to do. Seeking out challenges is fun for me to do, but like most people it is sometimes a good confidence builder to seek out a less challenging task. Social relationships are essential to everyone, and for me I like to be around others. I feel a sense of belonging and some reward in knowing I have people to go to when I need to. Relatedness is a difficult one for me to do because I am an introvert. I normally like to just stay in and watch movies, but if someone asks me to do something, most of the time I will.
I think the fish is lonely and lacks relatedness. So, in an effort to fix that, he has a high competence challenge and uses his autonomy to jump out of the bowl to try and make friends.
Terms: psychological needs, organismic psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, competence, structure, relatedness, positive feedback,

Chapter six defines and describes human psychological needs. The organismic approach to motivation acknowledges that environments constantly change and thus, organisms need flexibility to adjust to and accommodate the changes. Another theory on psychological needs is that of the person-environment dialectic. This theory states that the relationship between person and environment is reciprocal in that both the person and environment constantly change. The ever-changing environment offers challenges, provides feedback, and contains relationships that support the psychological needs of the ever-changing person. Both the environment and the person feed off each other in order to support the other. Organismic psychological needs are define as: autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Autonomy is the want to make our own decisions for ourselves; it is the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. The text states that there are three qualities that work together to define autonomy: perceived locus of causality (individual’s understanding of causal source of his/her motivated actions), volition (unpressured willingness to engage in an activity), and perceived choice over one’s actions. Supporting autonomy comes from the environment that provides opportunities for self-direction.
Competence is the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and reflects the desire to exercise one’s capacities and skills and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges. As stated in the text, the key environmental conditions that involves human need for competence are “optimal challenges, clear and helpful structure, and high failure tolerance from others.” The environmental conditions that satisfy our need for competence are those environments containing “positive feedback and the perception of progress.” According to the text, the essence of enjoyment is traced to the “flow experience.” Flow is the state of concentration that involves holistic absorption and deep involvement in an activity. This occurs when a person uses his/her skills to overcome a challenge; flow emerges when challenge and skill are either moderately high or high.
Relatedness is the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people; it reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. In order to satisfy the psychological need of relatedness, a person needs to confirm that the emerging social bonds with other people involve aspects of both caring and liking (e.g. communal relationship). The chapter wraps up by discussing social contexts that support these three psychological needs such as engagement, having a good day, and vitality.
Something that surprised me was the factors that go into the psychological need for relatedness. Before reading the chapter, I assumed that just social interaction would fulfill our need for relatedness. However, simply being around and talking to people is not enough. To be satisfying, the social bonds need to involve genuine care and liking. More importantly, the relationships need to involve self-disclosure. When you are able to show your true self and feel important to another person, you will experience relatedness.
I rated myself medium in autonomy because I like to make my own decisions but I can also be very indecisive. Even though I have a hard time/do not particularly making decisions, I still have a need to have control over the decisions made. I look to other people’s opinions and ultimately take them into account when I make the final decision for myself. I rated myself high for competency because I am a really driven person. I like to do my best on everything. In school I try doing my best on exams and homework assignments and work hard while at work.. I also rated myself high in relatedness. My relatedness need is pretty fulfilled but I’m very outgoing and love making new friends. I always put my family, friends, and boyfriend first before myself. That’s also why I think I’m in the medium part of autonomy, I want to have others opinions on things as much as my own so it can also please them in a sense, I stray away from trying to be selfish when it comes to those closest to me.
The three psychological needs indeed manifest themselves in my life as they are all interconnected. It is hard for all of my needs to be met if just one need is being sacrificed. A specific psychological need that motivates some of my specific behaviors is the need of relatedness. I absolutely love making friends, and being around people in general. Whether I know someone in a class personally or not, I make a new friend so that before class and during class I have someone to chat with instead of being on my phone or being silent, and I have someone to relate to when it comes to schoolwork or something of that nature.
To me the fish is trying to meet all three needs autonomy, competence and relatedness. Being alone in the bowl does not satisfy the need of relatedness, so it is jumping out in hopes of finding other fish it can have a relationship with. The fish has little autonomy, and it must act on the schedule of its owner. The fish challenges itself as it makes a decision to escape and jump from the bowl showing competence. Therefore, all of the needs are applicable to this specific picture of the fish jumping out of the fish bowl.
Terms: organismic approach, person-environment dialectic, autonomy, perceived locus of causality, perceived choice, volition, competence, optimal challenges, flow, positive feedback and relatedness

Chapter six is all about the psychological needs consisting of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Autonomy is all about choice and how we want our lives to go. We want to make smart choices and make our desires noticeable. As it states in the book people have autonomy for their self-direction to endorse one's behavior. People want to freely do whatever they want, not because of what people want them to do. Relatedness describes how people have the need to belong; everyone wants to fit in. This is where we start to build emotional bonds with others so we can experience social interactions. Also, because it is such a psychological need to belong it makes it easier to want to have strong relationships with people. Lastly, competence explains how we become effective within the environment and our behavior reflects our interests and skills. When one is overchallenged it can cause stress on a person making it harder to become competent in a job or task. People need balance in their life so they can complete each task they want too.
I would rate myself high on autonomy because I solely base my life on choice. I strongly believe choice makes up somewhat of who a person is. For example, people who choose to drugs versus those who choose to not do drugs. I would choose to never do drugs because I could never put something like that into my body and I am also a very cautious person. However, the people who do choose to do so could be making poor life choices all around. Everyone struggles in life but it is all about the choices you make in whether or not you want it to be the life you imagine.
For relatedness, I would rate myself also high because I strive to have strong, emotional relationships with the people in my life. I believe communication is key for everything! If there is a problem, the person will never know about the problem is you do not speak up. Also, because everyone needs and deserves to have friends and families for emotional support. Just in general, having someone to talk too is extremely nice!
As for competence, I'd say medium because although I do strive to be the best, I know I'm not the best. In other words, I apply myself but also push myself too hard in certain situations. For instance, sometimes I am too tired to exercise and do homework right away in the morning so I keep putting it off until I am fully motivated to do the task. I try very hard to prioritize my life so I have balance because I get stressed far too easily.
The most interesting thing in this chapter was vitality. Even though it is only a very short selection in the chapter, it just stood out to me. Vitality is a way someone experiences a good day. I like this because it tires all three psychological needs into one! For instance, some example sentences from the book, "I feel energized, I feel alive and vital." Also, an important state that I found to be true was how our psychological needs from growth, not the actual need. I truly believe in this because every day, if putting effort, a person does grow every single day. You learn something new every day whether it is something important or not even needed! Growing through hard times and being confused with life is how a person is able to grow and shape themselves into the person they become.
I think the fish is representing the psychological need of relatedness because he has no other fish to swim around with (talk too). So he is feeling lonely so he chose to jump out to find a new fishing bowl filled with lots of fish!
Terms: autonomy, relatedness, competence, stress, balance

Chapter 6 discusses the psychological needs one faces in order to grow and function on a cognitive level. Each person has to have certain areas of the brain stimulated on a regular basis in order to learn and grow. These are what the book refers to as psychological needs or, organismic theories. The book breaks down the three psychological needs; autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The first psychological need: autonomy, is our need to be able to have control over things. We want to be able to make choices and decide what to do. We have a psychological need to not be restrained and have the freedom to do what we want. The book talks about how this includes making goals, expressing our interests, and desires. The book discusses how providing someone with the ability to make choices as being one of the biggest sources of autonomy. It is stated in the text that along with raising autonomy, ones intrinsic motivation will also be raised. The next psychological need covered in the text is competence. Competence is how skilled one is at any given task. The book describes competence as extending to all aspects of life including school, work, relationships, recreation, and sports. When someone has a hobby they care about, and strive to get better at, competence is the psychological need that is in play. In other words, competence is a persons need to test ones skills and see how capable we are at a task. The third and final psychological need discussed in chapter 6 is relatedness. The book describes relatedness as simply the need to belong. Relatedness deals with interacting with other people. Nobody wants to be alone and not interact with people. Relatedness is what drives us to want friends and to be apart of things. It gives us a massive opportunity to learn and grow. We don’t just thrive for interaction and relationships, we thrive on meaningful ones. We need to be accepted and acknowledged. We want our needs to be noticed and want people to care for us. The book states that we seek warmth, care, and mutual concern when we interact with others. I think the most interesting part of this chapter deals with the research done on what makes a good day. While this is a very objective question meaning the answer can vary from person to person, the results still helped confirm the 3 psychological needs. For me, a good day would be one spent sleeping and doing a lot of nothing. The book states that the researchers found a good day involves being active in all 3 of the psychological needs. People often had their best days when they were engaged (competence) and found themselves to be highly autonomous. When it comes to me and the psychological needs personally, it changes from day to day. I most often find myself the highest in competence. I have a lot of hobbies that I strive to master, and once I have, I move on to something else. I like to test my skills and see how capable I am at any given task. I would also rate myself high in the autonomous category. I like being able to make my own decisions and express myself freely. I have a job where I can make a lot of my own decisions and I think that’s what drew me to it. I would probably rate myself low on the relatedness scale. I don’t necessarily care about spending a lot of time with other people and rarely go out of my way to make plans. I enjoy my time alone and find myself having the most meaningful moments when I’m by myself. I think the fish jumping out of the bowl represents ones need for competence. I think the fish has a need to escape and test himself/herself out of its comfort zone. This may translate to how some people go to the extreme to get an adrenaline rush.

Terms: Psychological needs, organismic needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness.

Autonomy, competence, and relatedness are fundamental of psychological needs. These three psychological needs could be referred to as organismic psychological needs. Organismic theory of motivation states that environments often change, therefore, organisms need to adapt, change and grow in order to fit in with those new environments. The organismic theory focuses on a person-environment dialectic. It is a mutual interaction between both the person and environment. It means that environments constantly change and so do we. Childhood experiences would be a perfect example to describe organismic theory such as how children explore this world. Autonomy is a need based on freedom that is available for ourselves. Basically, I am determining my own actions by deciding what I want to do, when I want to do it and how I want to do it, especially during leisure time. For instance, whenever I have free time, I will do assignments while listening to instrumental music. This is what I like to do and I feel happy about it because I am doing what I want. Generally, choosing what I want to do would lead me to subjective experiences. Perceived locus of causality, volition (feeling free) and perceived choice are the three basics that work together to define the subjective experiences. Perceived locus of causality (PLOC) points out the causal sources of our motivational actions. There are two types of PLOC, which are internal and external PLOC. For instance, if you read a book because you like it, then it is an internal PLOC, but if you read it because you have test, then it is an external PLOC. In my opinion, doing things because of external PLOC seems less sincere because you are not doing it for yourself. As what I have experienced as a student, if I read and study because I want to pass the test, then, sooner or later, after the test, I will tend to forget what I was reading and studying. Furthermore, as stated in the textbook, volition is an unpressured willingness to participate in an activity. For instance, I am playing guitar because I want to play it. Thus, volition is more sincere because nobody puts pressure on what I am doing. Perceived choice refers to the experience when we have freedom and opportunity to choose a lot of things to do. For instance, as an independent student who is living miles away from my parents, I have given choices to schedule my own daily activities. Moreover, supporting autonomy is important because it satisfies peoples need for autonomy. Environments that support and satisfy people need for autonomy is called autonomy supportive, while vice versa environments are called controlling.
Competence is the second most important for psychological need which refers to individual’s need for success by making interaction with the environment. When we are given an opportunity to improve our talents and skills, we will all make progress for it. When we do so, we will feel satisfied. Optimal challenge and flow are used to trace the essence of enjoyment. Flow is a state of consciousness that involves during involvement in an activity. Basically, the person will use his or her skills in order to overcome some challenge. Therefore, the person will constantly repeat the activity so that the flow could be experienced again. Underchallenge activity will neglect competency, thus, manifest certain negative emotion such as boredom while overchallenge activity will produce emotional problem and suboptimal experience. This should not be a problem because some people would like to have a hard task so that they could improve their skills. As stated in the textbook, the worst is to pair a low challenge and a low skill because of its result a boredom and for sure the person does not care about the assigned task. Therefore, the best is to keep everything at either moderate or high level of challenge so that flow could be experienced. Furthermore, interdependency between challenge and feedback is also crucial because it generates some kind of motivational sources. This only works if the person uses positive feedback to motivate other people. For instance, students need feedback from a teacher so that they can make an improvement.
The third psychological need is relatedness. Relatedness is a need to create a warm and close relationship with people around us. We only gravitate around those who trust us and tend to drift away from those who don’t. Relatedness would not be satisfied if the relationship does not involve caring, liking, and accepting and valuing. Exchange relationship is a relationship between two people who do business together while communal relationship it is a relationship for those who care about each other such as friendship, family, and romantic relationship. Exchange relationship tends to be harsh in the way that people can act uncaring and sometimes be neglectful towards other people. While in a communal relationship, people will tend to keep track towards other’s need. However, in my view, it is not easy to find someone who we can trust to disclose our feelings. A family might work, but it depends on what our personalities look like because some people feel more open to express their feelings to friends than family.

Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, organismic approach, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, flow, communal and exchange relationship

Chapter six talks about the psychological needs that people have. The chapter breaks down the idea of psychological needs into three main categories Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. It starts out by explaining that people's psychological needs are met by being active at a young age. Everyone is active, to a certain degree, as a child and they enjoy it. That joy is an intrinsic motivation that compels the child to keep moving and being active. Then the chapter moves on to the concept of Autonomy. This is the desire to make one's own decision. People like to know that they can choose when, where, and how they do something. The problem is people can receive a false sense of autonomy when they are offered a few choices. They don’t think about what their “true choice” would be. Next, the chapter talks about Competence and people wish to feel effective or important in their environment. For competence, people strive for positive feedback and a perception of progress. Finally, relatedness is the desire to feel apart of a community or group. This section explains the psychological need for social interactions and the intrinsic motivation people have to seek them out.
The concept of flow was interesting to me. It talks about how people get greater satisfaction out of doing a task when they are comfortable and good at it. It is a pleasurable experience because the individual uses their skill level to complete a task. Completing the task gives them intrinsic motivation to further test their skills.
I would rate myself high on autonomy because I like to be in charge. I enjoy making plans and decisions on what to do. At work I can take orders from people, but I like to try and do things my own way to get the job done more efficiently. I would rank myself medium on relatedness. I enjoy interacting with people to help when I can or even hanging out with a group of friends. Although, I do not actively seek out new people to meet or befriend. I'm happy with the group I have now and I don’t put any effort into expanding that group. I’m also very shy so forming new connections is difficult for me. I would rank myself high in competence because I try to be as useful as possible for people. I love helping people with problems they might have whether it’s giving advice, physical work they need help with, or just trying to cheer someone up. I get a lot of joy out of knowing I have helped someone else. This motivates my behavior because whenever I see an opportunity to offer my help I do. I like knowing that some people think of me first when they need help with something. When I do help someone I try and give my full attention and effort because I want them to know that I can be helpful and useful.
I feel the fishbowl represents autonomy. A fish is assumably going to stay in its bowl and not go anywhere. But, this one can do what it wants a make its own decision.

Terms: Psychological needs, Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, Intrinsic motivation, flow relatedness.

This week we learned about psychological needs. Psychological needs are what motivate us to do a certain task throughout our daily lives. We discussed these needs in the previous chapter, which consist of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The chapter goes in depth about how autonomy allows a person to feel in control of what they can do and the options that they have. Competence looks at how confident a person is in doing a particular task. Lastly, relatedness is what fulfills a persons social interactions, people enjoy others who share the same interests. These psychological needs are what give us our intrinsic motivation, which we learned is an extremely important motivation to have.

The most surprising thing that I learned was that of the flow model. This model shows us that there is a certain point where someone feels the most enjoyment in a task or activity. This is when the challenge of the task meets right with your ability or skill to do the task. A task that is too challenging will result in anxiety until you become just as skilled to meet he challenge. If the task is not challenging enough compared to your skill level than it will be seen as a boring task.

Looking at myself and my own psychological needs I would rate myself high on relatedness, medium on competence, and low on autonomy. I feel I am high on relatedness because throughout my life I really look for people who share similar interests and values as me. For me it makes it much easier to talk with others when I have something that I can relate to. I feel I am low on autonomy because I am a person that can usually just go with the flow. I am extremely indecisive so if someone is the one making the calls then it can allow me to have less stress over making a decision. Lastly I believe I am medium on competence because for the most part I like to be good at something and be able to do it well, but I also really enjoy learning and trying out new things. There are things that I am terrible at, but I generally enjoy doing them such as snowboarding, playing pool, volleyball, etc. I usually enjoy the challenge of trying to learn something new.

Relatedness seems to be the biggest motivator for me and my behavior. I have always enjoyed playing sports since I was young so the majority of my friends also played sports. Now that I am done with sports I still find myself playing in some volleyball and softball leagues as well as going to the gym pretty regularly. I also really enjoy playing video games, this is another activity that my friends really enjoy. I am usually very motivated to do whatever activity my friends or family enjoy doing so that I can more easily relate to them.

If I were to guess what the fish picture represents it would be that the fish is looking to meet his psychological needs. In that small bowl the fish doesn’t have much autonomy because it really doesn’t have anything to interact with. The other two psychological needs of competence and relatedness will usually need other organisms of its own kind to socialize with.

Terms: Autonomy, competence, relatedness, feedback, flow, needs

Dylan eigenberger

Chapter six covers psychological needs, the person to environment dialect, and organismic needs. The chapter also dives into what autonomy is and how a person’s need to experience self direction/personal endorsement can be enhanced, supported, and even controlled. The concept of challenge and flow is also touched on in the chapter. Competence is discussed as well, and is closely related to autonomy in the sense of challenge and positive feedback can motivate a person's self direction. The chapter wraps up with tying everything together by talking about how social contexts can support psychological needs. After reading the chapter I found myself surprised at a couple of sections. However, my interest were mostly directed towards was the competence section. More precisely the challenge and skill flow chart. I feel like I found it the most surprising because it was the most relatable part of the chapter and it was visual display of the concept which is something that I can read/understand better. The chart (figure 6.5) was a visual representation of a study done by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Mihaly interviewed people who he thought might know what I feels like to have fun and then studied people who sat at home most of the time. The essence of enjoyment was related to the term called “flow experience”. I felt like my day to day activities were very skill and challenged based. My major is art so I’m constantly looking for opportunities for challenge and my skill is something that comes into play quite often too. The same could be said about my races as well. When thinking about how to rate myself on a scale from high to low on the various psychological needs, I find it rather difficult. My first instinct is to say high for all of them. For autonomy I’d say it's of high importance due to my life as an artist requires choice and the flexibility of decision making. Almost everything I do in the studio requires my professors to create an environment in which my decisions are my own and that there isn’t a sense of control happening. Competence is also high for me as well. I relate this need more to my athletic races and practices. I think back to the flow chart and how being over challenged produces emotional problems and suboptimal experiences. I’ve felt that before and it led to anxiety and worry of myself and my performance in the sport too. The last need “relatedness” is really interesting to me in the sense that it sort of balances out my anxiety from my need for competence. I’d rate it high as well because I feel the need to establish emotional bonds and then having those bonds are what give me a sense of self and self direction. Looking at the fishbowl image that is above this assignment I’d say that is a visual reflection on the environment that is present and the psychological need for self direction. The fish want has the need to swim and be a fish but is contained in a small vessel and don't have much room for opportunity or growth so it leaves the tank.
Psychological needs
Organismic needs

Chapter six talks about the psychological needs that each person to have and that contribute the intrinsic motivation mentioned in the previous chapters. We do things that we need because they are organismic psychological needs because of humans are assumes.We also engage in environments that help meet those needs. They also mentioned that it can support or you frustrate the needs as well. Autonomy, or the need to have self control, competence, or the need to complete things well or have a skill, and relatedness, or the psychological needs to be emotional bonds with others. These are the three psychological needs that they discussed.
What I found surprising this section was talking about the lonely people. It was interesting to learn about how people deal with being lonely and what causes it. Its the way that they interact with others not so much about who they are or that they are lonely. When they talk about it they don’t experience caring, liking, accepting, or valuing the exchanges or conversation with others.  I have never thought about this but then it does when you think about it because no one wants to be alone all the time. I would have assumed that they were lonely because it was something in there personality that made them be less lonely.

I think the psychological need that I am highest am in would be relatedness. I think that this is the one that I am highest in because I love talking to people and getting emotionally bonded to others. I think that this is so relevant because of my major. I love getting to know people and talking to people and understanding them and getting to know them in a better way. I think that this is so important for humans because they need to get along and be around people who make them happy and that is a good way to do it. I think that I would also be high competence because I like to do things well obviously and do things well. It is also very important for you psychological needs to accomplish things and do them well. It would be really hard to fail at things so much you wouldn’t want to do things because you would always be failing.
I think that the first is using autonomy because they were trying to do a some sort of flip or maybe reach the food outside of the bowl.

Terms: organismic psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, exchange relationship, communal relationship

Chapter 6 titled “Psychological Needs, focuses on the concept of Organismic Approach of Motivation. The organismic approach includes three major psychological needs: autonomy (individualism), competence (understanding), and relatedness (connection to others). The organismic approach follows a person-environment dialectic, which is based on the spectrum of environment and personal influences. The “person” side of the spectrum includes needs based on interests and values which are based on personal needs (internal influences). The other side of the spectrum, “environment,” includes challenge seeking instances (external influences). This spectrum will then help explain the organismic psychological needs. Autonomy is the individuality of needs. It is the need for self-direction and personal endorsement. In autonomy, there are three qualities that make it up. The first quality, perceived locus of causality (PLOC) is the person’s understanding of their motivation. Are their understanding internally motivated (for interest and value) or is their motivation external (for someone else). The next quality is volition. Which is best understood with this question, “how free is someone willing to engage in an activity?” And the final quality, perceived choice, focuses on how we are truly given a choice. The second need, competence, is the psychological need in which we are willing to seek out a challenge based on our desire to exercise our skills. By exercising our skills, we feel a sense satisfaction for our needs. When people engage in activity or challenges in which it is perfectly matched with our skills, then we enter a state called “flow”. Flow is a state of concentration in which the person is deeply invested in the activity. With flow, its is best in maintain a good balance between challenge and skills. Without proper balance, needs may not be met. And the final need is relatedness. Relatedness is the social aspect of our psychological need. The other two needs were mainly about the self, however relatedness delves into the social aspect of environmental influences. Relatedness is the psychological need to build a bond with other people to maintain the desire of emotion and connection. Social bonds, as a need, must maintain two factors: the person must care for the welfare of the individual and they must like the individual.
The most surprising thing about the chapter was the varying degree of psychological needs. I never expected psychological needs to include autonomy, relatedness, and competence, mainly because I never took the time to think of these needs that way. I mainly view psychological needs as something as “one” to maintain proper psychological health. In a realm of psychological health, I would think psychological needs was something similar to physiological needs in which the needs must maintain proper bodily function.
If I were to rank my psychological needs, I would say my needs are ranked in the medium range. For autonomy, I find myself influenced by environmental factors in my self-direction, with even medium level PLOC. For competence, I find myself definitely trying to find challenges which perfectly match my skill level in my area. Although I find myself sometimes engaging in activities well beyond my skill level (sometimes failing), I try to atleast give it a shot.
I believe these various levels of needs manifest themselves in my life through the environment. When we grow up, we want to feel connections with others through relatedness. We then develop other needs such as competence based on relatedness with others (beyond family). And with competence, we try to understand things for the sake of socialness with others and we develop a sense of autonomy to help us deviate from others.
One psychological need that motivates me, is competence. If anything truly motivates me, it is taking the time to understand something I find interesting and trying to accomplish it. In video games, music, school, sports, etc, all of which I try to gain some sort of knowledge so that I may accomplish my goal.
The picture presented on the blog of the fish jumping out of its fish bowl, may explain metaphorically that psychological needs may be more or just as important as physiological needs.
Psychological Need
Physiological Need
Perceived Choice
Social Bond

Everyday we experience and engage in countless activities. As we learned before, some are motivated by physiological needs and some are influenced by extrinsic or intrinsic motivators. Psychological needs also motivate us to participate in activities. We are motivated to do so by three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These needs are a major component in achieving positive emotions, optimal experience, and healthy development. In other words, these are routine motivators that have a great impact on our emotions and well-being or happiness. Intrinsic motivation pushes us to play a sport or do a puzzle, but the psychological need would be to challenge ourselves through those activities. This means they are development and growth needs.
The first component, autonomy, is about self-regulation and self-direction. We are motivated to find ourselves by choosing our own path and realizing what drives us, and eliminating the pressures to follow an external force. Instead, taking command of behavior in order to keep it connected with our interests and desires. Finding that independence proves to be rewarding, as opposed to being controlled by others. Basically, when we do the activities that we enjoy, that sense of personal achievement and liberty is satisfying.
It was in this section that I found the most surprising information. The conundrum of choice was not something I had really processed before. It may seem like having a choice of two options from someone would create a sense of autonomy but the book suggests that’s not true. Instead, it has no impact on our autonomy, leading to the realization that we need “true choice” to accomplish a sense of autonomy. We need to feel that the choice is open to our control, not confined to the options decided by an external force.
Next is competence, which has to do with the feeling of sufficient performance. The book describes it as an interaction with the environment more than self. Everyone desires to be right. Of course no one wants to be wrong. This is another tool for growth because it’s our desire to master skills and to improve in relationships, school, athletics, or whatever it may be. For example, someone may attempt to make 100 shots everyday after basketball practice because they enjoy playing basketball. However, the true motivation comes from the desire to improve or achieve a goal to feel more accomplished and competent. When we excel at these types of activities our psychological needs are met. We attain great pleasure through optimal challenge.
Relatedness is the desire to belong and relies on social relationships and interactions. The desire for bonds and understanding is inherent in all human beings. Simply interacting with others isn’t enough to feel relatedness. Those are called exchange relationships. We need deeper, genuine relationships, known as communal relationships, to meet our psychological need of relatedness.
When it comes to autonomy, I actually feel like a pretty dependent person and I’m most comfortable when I don’t feel I’m entirely responsible for the task at hand. So I’d say my need for autonomy is low-medium. On top of that, it seems reasonable to assume that it’s relatively common for me to be persuaded by external sources in the PLOC. I’ll eat wherever my friends suggest. This may have to do with the fact that I’m the youngest in my family and have four older sisters.
As for competence, I do feel a pretty great need to know I’m doing the “right thing” or spending energy “correctly.” For example, when I’m given an assignment or a job I am likely to ask several questions to ensure I’m understanding correctly what the intended outcome should be. So I’d say a need for competence is relatively high, because I take extra steps in securing competency. I don’t like to feel wrong and have a pretty strong desire to be “right.”
Relatedness is pretty important to me as well. I have a strong need to feel liked and accepted. In fact, I hate conflict and will lie to pretend I have similar feelings in order to feel related and avoid conflict. Again, this reminds me that if relatedness is high then autonomy is fairly low for me. I’d rather feel similar than independent. While they may not be perfectly negatively related, I think there is some correlation there for me. So the need for relatedness is another fairly high rating for me.
The fish picture in my mind suggests that we are continually challenging ourselves. At times our environment forces us to grow, or to grow out of our environment, so we have to find new ways to develop. And sometimes we take big risks in order to become more autonomous, like a fish out of water, in hopes of growing. Maybe the fish thinks that if it leaves its bowl, that it can develop the ability to walk or fly. The fish wants to satisfy its psychological needs; it’s simply trying to make for itself a good day.

Terms: optimal challenge, self-regulation, self-direction, PLOC, conundrum of choice, social bonds, exchange, communal

In chapter 6 we learn about psychological needs. In specific, autonomy, competence and relatedness which are considered as the organismic approach towards motivation. This approach highlights two main points of consideration. The first one, is to expect inherently active behavior as human nature and accept the active behaviors as we all tend to take part in an activity we personally enjoy or are interested in. The second is similar to a cause-and-consequence reference towards the environment. An individual engages in the environment and the environment responds back positive, negative, or neutral.
Autonomy is basically the individuals need/want to pursue personal achievements, the book goes on to talk about self-determination, forms of discipline and self-maintenance in layman’s terms and how that goes to affect the outcome of satisfying ones autonomic needs while taking in consideration of the environmental factors, as well as one’s self. The section of autonomy also mentions the mixture of motivating styles and autonomy and how that can influence the behavior of another with many positive attributes that shape the individual into a better individual psychologically, physically, etc. In a sense, they become more efficient all around without being interfered by emotions that slows or degrades the process of attaining their personal achievements.

Competence highlights the environment as a need for one to interact with in order to complete their achievements or obstacles. One main factor when it comes to the environment is the people around you. Individuals that are high on competence are in need of positive feedback and their own perception of what progress is to them leading to a psychological state called flow which consists of feeling enjoyment, focus, and devotion towards the task giving what some people call 110% effort. Relatedness also takes in the environmental aspect as the main focus as this section of the organismic approach towards motivation requires other people. The relatedness category refers to the friendships, family, close bonds and chemistry with the other individuals. It’s the motivational desire to be connected to people in order to establish warm caring relationships and has to include both caring and liking in order to reach a high magnitude that satisfies the need for relatedness.

If I had to rate myself, I would rate high on autonomy. I tend to focus a lot on higher knowledge, improving myself efficiently, self maintenance, prudence and virtue. I do understand in order to have an advantageous outcome you have to consider the environment around you. However, my anxiety/awareness already does that for me, like a natural reflex so I chose the one I prioritize most in which is myself. The reason for not choosing competence and relatedness is because for competence, it relies on the feedback of others and more specifically, positive feedback. Now billions of factors happen at every second and those have to be addressed in order to determine if the feedback satisfies you or not. Some are too mean, some too nice, some doubt, some have anxiety and some are too gullible. So from my perspective, the opinions of others at my point in life have already been confirmed after having anxiety and having to find myself through others opinions to find out who I am to them and what I can do to keep or change that into an advantageous outcome. Relatedness is also low as it refers to closeness with other individuals. I am not even close with any of my family members due to cultural differences, I haven’t seen or spoke to the members of my family in 10+ years so the need for others warmth and care have been greatly repressed by my own choice since I can’t control other peoples will into being a warm loving type of person.

organismic psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, feedback, achievement, social interatction, flow,

Chapter 6 discusses the three psychological needs present within humans: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Each of these three needs interact with the organismic motivation approach that assume two things: people and animals are inherently active and that the person-environment dialectic is an “ever-changing synthesis” that determines if personal needs become satisfied or frustrated. The organismic approach to motivation (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) provide motivational support that help initiate learning and initiative through maturation and opportunity.
Autonomy is the psychological need to self-direct and have “personal endorsement” in the initiation and regulation of a human’s behavior. Autonomy has three qualities: Perceived locus of causality (PLOC) (understanding source of motivation), volition (free will), and perceived choice (experience of choosing from many opportunities). When all three qualities are present in an environment, the person will feel autonomous or self-directed. Though it is important to note that providing choices have shown to generally boost sense of autonomy and intrinsic motivation, not all choices promote autonomy. Competence is the psychological need to interact effectively with and environment to exercise one’s capabilities and skills for optimal challenges. This need relies on the level of challenge in comparison to one’s own skill level. Once a match between skill level and level of challenge has occurred, flow (concentration) and feeling enjoyment then occur. Relatedness is the psychological need to create emotional bonds and establish close relationships or attachments with others. However, for a relationship to be satisfying, it needs to provide two factors: the other person cares about your wellbeing/welfare and that they genuinely like you. In addition, a relationship begins to feel valued and important when the other person has accepted your “true-self”. When all three needs are achieved and combined, they then effect the level and extent of engagement a person exhibits.
The most surprising thing that I encountered this chapter was the section on the pleasure of optimal challenge and positive feedback. It was interesting to me that the children did not smile the most after the most difficult anagrams, but smiled most after the moderately challenging anagrams. The children felt the most satisfied when challenged but still had the capability and skill to solve the 5-letter anagrams rather than the more time consuming and “frustrating” 6-letter anagrams. This suggested that general mastery gratified competence.
In regards to my level of psychological needs, I would say I am high in autonomy, high in competence, and moderate in relatedness. I find myself needing a lot of autonomy when it comes to doing certain tasks. If I feel like I am being forced to do something, my interest in the task plummets and it becomes strenuous to do. I also need to feel like I am competent enough for a task to feel fully comfortable doing it. There are new things that I will do/try, but accompanied by a little uncertainty and nervousness, which can hinder my confidence or performance. Lastly, I see myself as a people person but do not strive to make new connections or bonds all the time. Wanting to blend in with others to feel relatedness is not as strong a need as autonomy or competence.
Autonomy is a psychological need that I feel has a large hold on my motivations and behaviors. As mentioned previously, without autonomy my interest and motivation usually plummet. I get stubborn about doing tasks, which then causes me to procrastinate or hate certain tasks that I would normally enjoy if I chose do to myself. This aspect really hinders my ability to behave in accordance with my goals and aspirations that have deadlines to meet.
If I had to guess what the fish picture means, I would say the fish is bored and lonely in his solitary bowl, and is trying to satisfy his neglected psychological needs. The fish is searching for more choice in his life than swimming around a small bowl (autonomy), exercising his swimming capabilities in a larger bowl (competence), and forming emotional bonds or closeness (relatedness).
Terms: psychological need, Organismic, autonomy, competence, relatedness, flow, engagement, PLOC, volition, perceived choice, intrinsic motivation.

Chapter 6 talks about the psychological needs that every human has. It goes into depth talking about three main organismic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the psychological need that focuses on an individual’s desire to be self driven and experience self-direction. Competence is the need to seek out challenges that one has a good chance of overcoming to prove that they can effectively interact with their environment. The final need discussed in the chapter, relatedness, focuses on establishing connections and relationships with other people. After giving in-depth information about these three needs, the chapter ends with a brief discussion on engagement and determining what causes a person perceive that they had a good day.
    The most surprising thing that I learned in this chapter was how simple it is to determine whether someone will have a “good” day or not simply based on meeting their main three psychological needs. If all three needs are met, an individual will perceive that they had a good day. If an individual’s needs are not met at all, they will perceive that they had a bad day.
    I would rate myself as high in autonomy, medium on competence, and low in relatedness as far as my psychological needs go. My low psychological need for relatedness can be seen manifesting in my introverted behavior, I would be much happier staying at home and watching a movie compared to going out to the bars with my friends. My medium competence can be seen when I engage in sports or other competitive activities where I focus more on engaging in the activity instead of winning. I will feel slightly happier if I do win, but I will still feel competent in myself even if I do not.
    My high autonomy has been a very large driving factor in regards to my overall behavior in life. Likely due to the fact that I am an only child who grew up on a farm without much interaction with my peers, my need for autonomy motivates the majority of my behaviors on a regular basis. For example, I am motivated to make my own food, wash my own clothes, and pay for my own bills because I prefer to handle things on my own rather than have someone else do them. This can also be seen in my academic work whenever I am forced to do a group project. Many times I am motivated by my autonomy to either take charge of the group and try to guide things as I want, or to mostly cut myself off from my other group members and only do my required part of the project.
    I think that the fish is trying to escape the fishbowl because it no longer wants to be contained. It relates to our chapter because the fish is showing at least two needs: autonomy and competence. It is showing that it is capable of escaping the fishbowl if it wants and that it can do so of it’s own power. It may also be relatedness because the fish may be trying to escape to find other fish.

Terms: organismic psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness

Chapter six is a continuation of the types of needs that motivate our action. In this reading, it talked about psychological needs that all human beings have. A psychological need is the desire to have a connection with the environment that we live in, helps us expand our viewpoints and lead us to development of our mindsets. There are three different attributes that come from psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Autonomy is the need that gives us the understanding of our own independence, and the realization of what we can achieve in the world. When individuals find autonomy, they are freely able to make choices for themselves. These choices reflect the type of person they are, what is worthwhile to them, and the amount of dependency they place on themselves or other people.
The second highlight from the psychological needs chapter talks about competence. Competence is viewed as the desire to be successful in the relations we have around us. When we desire competence, we set a goal for ourselves, and usually it is a goal that has a challenge to it, but once when we have achieved that goal, it gives us a boost in morale and makes us feel successful.
The final section from the chapter discusses the need to have relatedness. What this means is we want to have the opportunity to interact with people and form social group. It gives us a sense of belonging when we surround ourselves who we share attributes with. By having that social interaction, we can satisfy ourselves knowing that there are other people out there just like us who share are qualities, desires, and struggles. It’s what makes us human.
The most interesting thing I read from the chapter was about what we consider to be a good day. Sometimes when we say we are having a good day, it’s because we’ve been put into a good mood. However, I’ve never stopped and thought about what puts us in a good mood, and if it is the cause of feeling like today was a good day. A good day is actually perceived when all of our psychological needs are met. What this looks like is that we’ve experienced being independent, successful, and interacted with our social group. When our psychological needs are satisfied, it gives our body psychological nutrients to release those good moods, endorphins, and an overall positive well-being.
As far as my personal psychological needs go, I feel as if they’re all at medium to high ranges on the spectrum. Autonomously, I definitely feel like I’m reaching closer and closer to the top of the scale. There are some setbacks, like I still depend on my parents for some things, or I don’t always like “adulting” (which is slang for doing adult tasks such as paying a bill, running errands, booking your own appointments, etc.). With competence, I feel like I do okay for a 20-year-old. I’ve experienced what it’s like to be successful academically, and in other aspects. Finally, I think I strive high in relatedness. I find myself to be a very open person, who values getting to know people, and being around them. I’d be in the wrong major if I didn’t. I believe relatedness is one of my biggest motivators because I love being around people, in crowds, and understanding each other. However, it can be a setback too, wanting to relate to someone too much can wear me out, especially since I fall victim to trying to be a people pleaser.
I think the relevance of the picture is that the fish has realized it’s potential and desires to be autonomous. A fish in a bowl is dependent on others, primarily their owner. However, if it’s realized that it can be on its own, then there’s no stopping it from getting what it wants.
Terms: Psychological Need, Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness

This chapter highlights psychological needs, autonomy, competence, and relatedness and how these components interrelate and how they’re pertinent to the topic of motivation. The text shows validity to our everyday lives by expressing how psychological needs are important to engage in exploration and challenge seeking. Autonomy support, a psychological need discussed in this chapter, can be identified as an interpersonal sentiment and behavior to identify, nurture, and develop another’s inner motivation resources. It is important to be aware of the environments, social contexts, and relationships that support your own autonomy, because this will correlate with how you value and understand another individual’s perspective. The opposite of autonomy supportive can be identified as controlling individuals. For example, an autonomy supportive individual would allow others time to talk while a controlling individual would show correct answers. The chapter also provided important information for the topic of competence. To simply competence, it can be explained as the psychological need to be effective. There are many components of competence to take into consideration such as the level of challenge a task is, feedback an individual is receiving, or structure of the task. The text emphasizes that competence is vital for a healthy well-being and completion of a task. A task can not be too challenging but must be challenging enough to derive pleasure from success. Thirdly, the topic of relatedness was discussed. Relatedness is an individual’s desire to belong and to feel included with the peers they desire to be surrounded with. A topic pertinent to relatedness is internalization. This is the component in which an individual rationalizes in their own mind a notion that they feed emotionally distant or close in positive or negative relationships. When putting all of these psychological need components together, we learn that they all pour into the extent of engagement of an individual. Their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, as well as voice, hinges on how the psychological needs discussed are met. The most surprising thing I learned in this chapter was the information explaining the Conundrum of Choice. I learned that although choices increase intrinsic motivation, not all choices promote autonomy. Autonomy is felt when no strings attached choices are provided. Though some might believe choices provide better performance, I learned that choices are more effective when they’re more meaningful to someone’s life. This was surprising to me because I feel that people have displayed choices to me not in my interest as though they were doing me a favor however if it doesn’t pertain to my life, personal values, or interest it is not contributing to my autonomy. If I were to rate myself my autonomy would be medium, competence would be high, and relatedness would be high. These levels manifest themselves in my life through my advocacy of my autonomy. Often times I voice what I desire while others times I sit back and let it be chosen for me. While school I may feel a little less competent, I feel very competent in the area of sports because of playing and watching and understanding it for so long. I scored my relatedness high because of the large of amount of positive interactions and bonds I have with others. To be more specific my life revolves around sports and watching them but i don’t think I would do those things if I never comprehended what was going on or how they were played. My understanding of the picture would be that the fish is jumping out of the bowl and this relates to the chapter because once you’re psychological needs are met you feel very motivated and maybe this fish is very motivated because his needs have been met so he feels like he can do anything and jumping out of the bowl is just the start of it all.
Terms used: psychological needs, autonomy, relatedness, competence, environment, nurture, support, pleasure, internalization, Conundrum of Choice

In this chapter, the significance of three psychological needs are introduced – autonomy, competence, and relatedness. When an individual is placed in an environment that influences these needs in a positive way it allows for a healthy development for the individual. – these needs provide people with a natural motivation for learning, growing, and developing. These needs are explained as organismic needs. This means that organisms initiate interactions with the environment and engage in exchanges with the environment that motivates us to adapt, change, and grow as a function of these environmental transactions and also motivates the individual to exercise the development of skills to accomplish this. The outcome of the person-environment interactions is a constant changing combination in which the individual’s needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) are satisfied or frustrated. Environmental interactions that would satisfy the needs could be achieving challenges, engaging in interesting activity, etc. Environmental interactions that would frustrate the needs could be challenging obstacles, failing at a goal, etc.
I would rate myself high on the level of need for autonomy within myself. Autonomy refers to the extent of an individuals decision making flexibility and need to experience personal endorsement while regulating the behavior in engaging in this choice or not. Within autonomy there are three qualities of experience; perceived locus of causality, violation, and perceived choice. When i find myself doing a project, i cringe in the thought of a rubric or specific guidelines to the project. I want to implement different ideas or aspects to the work. When i find myself in a group setting, I tend to find myself forcing ideas into the brainstorming discussion, and having a heavy desire to force the use even to the idea.
The fish in the picture i believe relates to autonomy and the need for growth, exploration, and challenge seeking. If it spots something on the outside of that bowl that it seeks to bond with or it attracts - the motivated behavior of jumping out to reach it is the source of relatedness.
Terms: relatedness, autonomy, competence, perceived locus of choice, violation, perceived choice, organismic psychological needs, external & internal sources

Chapter six focuses on our psychological needs as humans. The three big psychological needs discussed are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Two core assumptions to motivation are made in the study of these three important needs using an organismic approach to motivation: 1) people are inherently active, and 2) within interactions between the person and the environment, the person uses their psychological needs to engage and the environment either promotes or neglects these. According to the organismic approach, human beings have a desire to learn, grow, and develop, and this is done when the environment is positive and supportive to this.
Autonomy is the need to have self-direction and personal endorsement. Autonomy means that one is in control of their own behaviors rather than letting the environment determine these behaviors. It is a need to have ones own inner resources. Whether or not one can fulfill their need for autonomy depends on how supportive, unsupportive, or controlling their environment and the people in it are. Autonomy-supportive motivating styles are seen when one can use their internal resources, promotes types of value, and can accept negative affects as OK. Many positive things come from one who is autonomous, rather than one who is not, such as increase in motivation, engagement, development, learning, performance, and psychological well being.
Competence is the need to interact with the environment in a positive way. With competence, come skills and capabilities. It involves the desire to execute these in the best way possible. Competence leads to the motivation to execute, develop, improved, and refine personal skills and talents. With competence, come three environmental events, which are need and optimal challenge, high structure, and high failure tolerance. Flow is another effect of competence, which occurs when personal skill and environmental skill are high. Flow is a psychological state wherein there is enjoyment, concentration, and full absorption into whatever task or event is happening. Two concepts of positive feedback and perception of progress satisfy competence. The more often that the environment can satisfy a human’s competence, the more often they will take up opportunities for development and growth.
The third psychological need is relatedness, which is the need for emotional and psychological bonds with others. It is when people have the desire to relate, be close to, and emotionally and interpersonally connect with others. Simple interaction with another person influences relatedness. Caring and likening is important for relatedness. A communal relationship was mentioned in chapter six, which is a relationship that satisfies the relatedness need. Relatedness is important, as it satisfies social context and leads to internalization. This internalization is wen one can accept values, behaviors, and beliefs.
Finally chapter six briefly discussed the engagement model of motivation. This model surprised me the most in the chapter. I was surprised with this because I had previously never realized that these might be the reasons in why I have interest in something. This model explains why someone may initiate or participate in activities. It was surprising because it helped me to understand myself and my motivations in ways I never previously knew.
If I had to rate myself in these various psychological needs I would do the following: 1) medium for autonomy, as I think I tend to let those around me influence me occasionally, and I have less of my own control then I would like to admit, 2) high competence, as I understand my kills and am always letting the environment help me to use them, and 3) high relatedness because I have great relationships in my life that are much more in depth than just surface level. My relationships challenge me in great ways.
A specific need in my life would be relatedness. This motivates me everyday. Like I mentioned, I have great relationships in my life that influence and motivate me. I will use my boyfriend for example. He is very positive to me and encourages me to be my full potential. He definitely satisfies my relatedness need, as I have never been more connected to another person on so many levels. Because of this, I have motivation to be better and be the person I can be in all aspects of my life I think relatedness is my best psychological need being fulfilled at the moment in my life.
Finally, to conclude my post, my guess on this fish picture is to be outside of the bowl. Psychological needs relate to full potential in these three varying needs. We need more than being in a bowl forever our whole life. To me the fish in the bowl represents striving for more and reaching these needs.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, organismic approach, autonomy-supportive motivating styles, need and optimal challenge, high structure, failure tolerance, flow, communal relationship, internalization, engagement

More terms: positive feedback, perception of progress

Chapter 6 was mainly about autonomy, competence and relatedness. The chapter talked about how autonomy is used to give self-direction and personal endorsement to initiate the regulation of one’s behavior. One way that this is done is by providing person with an either-or choice offering, where the person must choose one of the activities and is somewhat forced and pressured to do so, which is not good for our autonomy. It is best to give unrestricted choices that way persons values, goals, and interests feel the sense of need-satisfying autonomy. While supporting autonomy there are some environments that nurture and support such as an opportunity for self-direction, there are also some environments that neglect and frustrate autonomy like deadlines. Autonomy can be seen in coaches, teachers, and bosses in the way they try to get people to accomplish tasks. People who use autonomy will use encouraging statements to get tasks finished or on track and people who are more controlling will give you the feel of its their way or the highway, and use statements like get it done, and when questioned why respond with because I said whereas a person who is autonomic would explain why the task would benefit the person.
It talked about competence which is our need to be effective in interactions with the environment. Which related to our skills and our desire to seek out challenges. The key factor that satisfies our need for competence therefore is positive feedback and the perception of progress. We simply must feel that we are challenging ourselves to be satisfied. Doing easy tasks become mundane and unpleasant unless we are to receive some form of positive feedback for the work, otherwise we start to feel that these small tasks are simply a waste of time, which is an example of flow and how it affects our competence.
The chapter also talked about relatedness and how we all desire to have people in our life that we can relate to. It stated that it is a psychological need to establish close and emotional bonds and attachments with others and reflects our desire to be emotionally connected and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. Relatedness is important because people function better, are more resilient to stress, and report fewer psychological difficulties when have good relations with others.
The subject that I found most intriguing was relatedness. Simply because I typically feel lonely even though I know so many people, however it is the quality of relationships and not the quantity that makes you meet your relatedness needs. Therefore, I have found out that I need to work on opening up and becoming closer to people since I tend to avoid relationships because I fear losing them eventually so I just don’t form friendships to begin with and usually keep everyone just as an acquaintance.
As far as rating myself on these 3 certain needs I would have to say that I find myself rather high on autonomy. I have been manager in many of my jobs over the years and I always found that controlling people to get tasks done is simply how you lose good workers and have high turn around so I have always used autonomy in my personal circumstances to motivate others. In competence, I would rate myself low now because I am finding it too difficult to do challenging tasks and prefer to do the easy mundane simple tasks first, this could very well stem from the sickness I have been battling the past week as well because normally I like to take on the challenging tasks first that way when done with all my goals the satisfaction of doing the hard tasks are the freshest thing in my mind. For relatedness, I would have to rate myself low since like I stated before I try to avoid friendships for fear eventually getting hurt by them.
As far as the fish goes I would explain him as trying to meet his needs for relatedness, since he is trying to escape the bow that he is in all alone. I believe he is needing to find another tank with others to socialize and meet those needs.
Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, self-direction, personal endorsement, regulation, psychological need, emotional bond, interpersonally, motivate

Chapter six in our books focuses on our psychological needs. It talks about three psychological needs which are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement. When we are interested in something or we want something, it will guide the decision that we make. We will either continue with the decision or decide that we not engage in the activity. Competence is when a person desires to interact with their surroundings effectively. No matter if they are at school, work, home, or with friends, it's all about successfully interacting with a persons surroundings. When a person is challenged with a situation or task, that is what they will put all of their focus on.
Relatedness is when people feel the need to belong somewhere. It could be a group at school, work, or even in their own home. We as humans desire social interaction, friends, and all different types of relationships. We have a feeling to be needed in a group, organization, or community. People put themselves into different relationships all the time that include family members, friends, significant others, and even coworkers.
I believe the most interesting thing that I learned about this chapter was that in order to fill the psychological need of relatedness, you have to have a social bond with another person. The other person has to care about your well-being and like you. In order for the person to feel those things about you, you must have shown your true self and be seen as important by them.
The motivational model of engagement puts all three psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) into perspective by considering if a person is rated high, medium, or low. For instance, I feel that I'm low on autonomy because I like when I'm told what to do, that way I can just do it and there are no arguments about if I agree or disagree. I know what needs to be done, and all I have to do is follow the steps to complete the task. I believe I am high in competence because I am able to interact effectively in basically any environment that I'm in. As long as I know what I'm doing, it's fairly easy to fit in somewhere. As for relatedness, I seem to be more on the medium part of the scale. I say this because I'm not the best at relating to other people and making friends. I can be outgoing at times, but maintaining new friends is a bit of a challenge.
When looking at the fish picture, I see a few things. He's alone but trying to escape. I believe this is because he is looking for companionship and to socialize with other fish. It's also as if he's trying to say to "think outside the box" (or bowl in this case). We need to be able to work effectively in different environments as well as being able to make tough decisions when no one is around. This fish made the decision to jump out of the bowl on his own, possibly to find a fish he can relate with.

Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, psychological need, self direction, personal endorsement, motivational model of engagement.

My summary of Chapter 6 tells how the psychological needs underlying the ways people and their environment have an effect on each other and the benefits of this relationship. The interaction of a person and their surroundings gives rise to the ability to satisfy autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The previous chapter taught us about physiological needs which are biologically based and this chapter kept its focus on the psychological needs. Building on the knowledge from Ch. 5 about the types of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) Ch. 6 adds to that understanding by breaking autonomy, competence, and relatedness down into key components.
The most surprising thing I learned was that there are different views of the person-environment dialectic. I have never been presented with the option of one way or reciprocal interaction with my environment I have just assumed and taken for granted that a person has the ability to make choices that influence their surroundings.
I would say I am a medium in autonomy in my life right now. I have had a few things happen that I have reacted to as opposed to being able to make my own decisions about. The need of competence is high especially since I feel the need to prove that I can still do it even though I have had a few circumstances outside of my control, and the relatedness is low currently. More out of the need to keep my life hidden from those who do not understand and not having the time or energy to explain to everyone I come into contact with the mitigating circumstances I find myself in.
The main need motivating me right now is autonomy. Before the events of late I felt good about my choices and felt I had a control over my life and its outcomes. Now I am struggling to regain that sense that I am in control of my life and that no matter what the choices those around me make I can prevail with confidence. I am working on catching up my school work and emailing my professors my plan gives me a sense of autonomy. Even though I haven’t met the deadlines completely I have stayed committed from my implicit pact with them because I took initiative to create my reality and a feasible schedule for my specific circumstances.

I think the fish picture is a way to say I don’t have to stay in the bowl, world, label, identity etc. that others define for me. This relates to the fish’s decision to create its own reality, the competence of taking that leap of faith and the way it relates to its surroundings is outside of the box.
Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, person-environment dialectic

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