Ch 6 Psychological Needs

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Read chapter 6. Summarize the chapter. What was the most surprising thing you learned? If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life? Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

Provide a list of terms at the end of your post that you used from the chapter.

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Summarize the chapter: Chapter 6 strives to answer the question, “what helps to explain and predict when we have a good or a bad day?” On a good day, the events in our lives work to involve and satisfy our psychological needs. On bad days, events in our lives work to neglect and frustrate those same needs. So what are psychological needs? This chapter goes into depth on the three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement. In other words, we want to be the one who decides what to do, when to do it, and how do it (if we decide to do it at all). Competence is the need to be effective in interactions with the environment; we seek out optimal challenges in which to engage in order to exercise our capacities and skills. And the third need, relatedness, deals with our desire to belong- to have friends whom we can trust and who care for us. This chapter not only thoroughly defines the three psychological needs, it also goes into depth on the motivational significance of three particular aspects of a supportive environment (or relationship): autonomy support, structure, and involvement. These three aspects nurture and satisfy our psychological needs, which ultimately results in engagement, which is the intensity and emotional quality people show when they initiate and carry out activities. Why is that important? When highly engaged, the textbook states, people show on-task attention, effort, and persistence at a task; interest and enjoyment in the task they are doing; a preference for challenge; and a verbal expression of their preferences and interests.

What was the most surprising thing I learned? This entire chapter was filled with fascinating information that continually left me saying, “That makes sense!” An example of a concept that was discussed in the chapter that made sense to me after reading it (and yet I was still surprised at what I learned) dealt with optimal challenge and flow. Per the book, flow is a “state of concentration that involves a holistic absorption and deep involvement in an activity.” In other words, flow occurs when you are so engrossed in an activity that you find the time just passing by. There are times when I am working diligently at a task, and I look at the clock to find that what felt like 5 minutes was actually 5 hours. Now, before reading the chapter, I never knew what caused that so-called “flow.” According to the textbook, we experience flow whenever the challenge of the task at hand matches our skill. Not only do we experience flow, but we foster concentration, involvement, and enjoyment. What surprised me was that if we are more skilled than what an activity requires (under-challenged), we will experience boredom. And if the task is too challenging and we don’t possess the skill to tackle it, our competence is threatened and we find ourselves worried or anxious. Understanding it now, I can analyze my past experiences and understand the subsequent feelings I felt. I can now say, “It all makes sense!”

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life? In regard to autonomy, I would rate myself as low to medium. As an accounting student, the particular behavior I engage in the most is studying (which requires reading a textbook and bookkeeping). And my reason for engaging in studying related behaviors is to do well on the upcoming test (external locus of control). I don’t read because of an interest. I read because I feel like I HAVE to do it, which shows that I don’t experience a high amount of volition. Also, I am quite indecisive, so sometimes choices and the need to make decisions overwhelm me. Regarding the second psychological need, competence, I would rate myself as medium to high. Even though I am in a major that requires a significant amount of outside work due to the complexity of the subject matter, I enjoy the challenges I experience whenever I engage in tasks or activities for my classes. As per the discussion on optimal challenge and flow, I now know that I would experience boredom if I was in a major that was too easy (not very challenging) in relation to my (higher) skill set. Thus, even though I sometimes hate my major and all the time and energy it requires, I persist at it because of the challenge; it enhances my skill set. Finally, concerning the need for relatedness, I know I have a high (extremely high) rating. My desire for social bonds, to feel like I’m cared for and loved deeply, is incredibly strong. I love to make friends, but, more than that, I love to deepen the friendships I already have. As the textbook states, “When it comes to relatedness and relationships, quality is more important than quantity.” I couldn’t agree more.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors. As this need is the most prevalent in my life, I choose to discuss the need for relatedness. As previously stated, relatedness reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally (and reciprocally) involved in warm and caring relationships. Three times a week I meet with three close friends of mine for about an hour. During that time, I ask them personal questions about their schoolwork, love life (or lack thereof), relationship with God, their relationships with loved ones, etc. In summary, I ask them questions so that I can know them more intimately. Of course, I disclose intimate parts of my own life to them as I don’t want them to feel like our friendship is one-sided. Instead, my goal is to deepen our current friendship so that they know they can trust me because I truly care for them. As I’m involved in SALT Company, a Christian ministry on campus, I have been blessed with an amazing group of close friends who I know with absolute certainty love, support, and care for me. Their friendships have helped me to overcome self-esteem issues I’ve had. Their friendships motivate me to study really hard so that I never miss SALT on Thursday evenings. Their friendships satisfy my need for relatedness.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter? The fish is jumping out of the (empty) fishbowl. Here are my three guesses of how it correlates to the three psychological needs from this chapter. It jumped out of the fishbowl because it was lonely and lacked communal relationships (relatedness). Its best friend (or lover?) was in the fish bowl next to it so s/he wanted to be reunited. The fish wanted to jump out to be reunited because s/he wanted to (autonomy). And the fish jumped out because s/he didn’t know for sure if s/he could do it and wanted to overcome the challenge (competence) and brag to its friend.

Terms I used: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, flow, optimal challenge, external locus of control, and volition.

Chapter 6 was about psychological needs and its components. To begin with, Psychological needs refer to the human need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness and explains how these three mechanisms affect behavior. These psychological needs create the natural motivation to learn, grow, and develop which are basic needs for humans to feel healthy and mature as a person psychologically and physically. Autonomy is one’s need to have choices of behavior, to start it or to keep a certain way. We all have to feel like we are in control of something, some more than others but the psychological need for autonomy is always part of one’s development. It could be in sports, relationships, career, etc. Autonomy is based on one’s choices rather than environmental influences. Second, competence is the next psychological need for humans. Competence is the need to seek out and put effort in an activity to eventually reach and solve optimal challenges. It is considered an inherent source of motivation according to chapter 6. Competence causes flow, a pleasant feeling that involves confidence and reassurance of doing something right, when a person experiences flow, they are more likely to repeat the activity multiple times. The third mechanism in psychological needs is relatedness. Relatedness refers to the desire to build relationships with others. That need is based on emotional bonds and attachments that make one feel wanted or loved. Humans have the need to interact with others, to bond, and to experience social acceptance. These three characteristics put together generate satisfaction to humans and are crucial for their well being and development.

The most interesting to me was the motivational model of engagement. It consists of capturing intensity and emotional quality shown when begin or continue activities that involve interaction with others. People feel more positive and active when they engage more in activities. Some of the characteristics of highly engaged people are attention, effort, persistence, verbal participation, and positive emotion. Engagement enhances autonomy, competence, and relatedness because it satisfies these psychological needs through interaction, socialization.

My ratings for psychological needs would be as follow:
Autonomy- high
Competence-high
Relatedness- medium
I believe that because of being an athlete and doing a lot of traveling by myself, my psychological need for relatedness is lower compared to the need for autonomy and competence. When you have to travel and take care of yourself for a long period of time, you start to not feel that interaction with others is one of the most important parts of life. Instead, you start focusing more on the things you have control over such as health, nutrition, and developing as an athlete and person. You become more selfish for not having to take care of others or interact with others as much. On the other hand, feeling competent and autonomous plays a big role in my life. Having autonomy and feeling that I can get a task done, or achieve a goal is part of who I am. They matter more to me than specifically being related to others although that is necessary to be able to have a normal, sane life. Relatedness is always there, just not as strong as autonomy and competence.

I pick autonomy as my psychological need because it is what seems to show more based on my behaviors towards my professional career. I am constantly on the move to a better, more challenging job at a bigger university, bigger program. Because I am always moving, I tend to like my freedom therefore I engage in tasks I feel will help me develop as a coach. Because of that, I also tend to not let things get in my way.

If I had to take a guess and relate it to myself, the fish would jump out of the bowl to find something new and more challenging. It would jump in search for other environments where boredom would not exist. It is taking the risk of dying without water, but it prefers to live a life with risks than not living at all.

Terms: Psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, mechanism, motivational model of engagement, positive, active.

The theme throughout chapter six is that when people find themselves in environments that support and nurture their psychological needs, then positive emotions, optimal experience, and healthy developments follow. Both people and animals are inherently active. When we are participating in an activity that involves our psychological needs, we feel interest. And when an activity satisfies those psychological needs, we experience enjoyment. Unlike physiological needs which come from our biological deficits, our psychological needs are proactive and are understood as growth needs.

The three psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are referred to as organismic psychological needs. This focus concerns how organisms initiate interactions with the environment and how organisms adapt, change, and grow as a function of those environmental interactions. The opposite of this approach is a mechanistic one in which the environment acts on the person and the person reacts. This is rejected by organismic theories. They emphasize a person-environment dialect in which the relationship is two-way. Both the person and the environment are constantly changing in this approach. In this approach our needs provide the motivation that supports initiative, learning, growing, and developing.

The psychological need for autonomy is defined by our text as the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and the regulation of one’s behavior. Behavior is autonomous when our interests, preferences, and wants guide our decision-making process to engage or not to engage in a particular activity. An internal perceived locus of causality (PLOC) works to define the subjective experience of autonomy and refers to an individual’s understanding of the causal source of his or her motivated actions. Volition is an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity or how free versus coerced they feel. Volition is high when they person is engaged in an activity because that person wants to. Perceived choice is the sense of choice we feel in environments that allow us to be flexible in our decision-making. This presents a conundrum, however, because not all choices are the same and not all choices promote autonomy. It is only when people have a true choice over their actions and when they are offered choices that are meaningful to their lives that they experience autonomy. This experience leads to greater intrinsic motivation, effort, creativity, preference for challenge, and performance.

This surprised me perhaps the most, because as an education major, it is emphasized that we should offer choice in our classrooms. According to the student-centered model, it is enough to simply allow students to choose what book they want to read or the topic for their project. The reading rejects that, because they are still being pressured to make a choice between already approved options. This makes me a little frustration, then, because it seems like it would be impossible to allow “true choice.” Certain things need to be accomplished in a classroom that may not get accomplished if the students were allowed to the choice and chose not to do them. For example, true choice would be asking whether the students wanted to do a history report at all (instead of allowing them to choose their topic of interest). If given this choice, many students would feel inclined to not do one at all and this is can’t happen. Assessment needs to be able to happen.

The text does offer two motivating styles that help to make an approach supportive or controlling. An autonomy-supportive motivating style nurtures motivational resources, relies on informational language, promotes valuing, and acknowledges and accepts expressions of negative affect. A controlling motivational style pressures people toward a certain outcome and uses social influence techniques to achieve that outcome. The autonomy-supportive style is preferred and when a person experiences autonomy it shows positive outcomes including higher motivation, engagement, development, learning, performance, and psychological well-being.

Competence is defined as the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and it reflects the desire to exercise one’s capacities and skills, and in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges. When we engage in a task that is just the right level of difficulty and complexity for our skills and talents, we feel a strong interest. When we further develop these sills, we satisfy our needs. Optimal challenge, a clear and helpful structure, high failure tolerance from others are the environmental events that involve competence. When a person is engaging in a task in which their skill and the challenge is moderately high or high, they experience flow and are more likely to repeat the activity again and again.

The principal environmental events that satisfy our need for competence are positive feedback and perception of progress. Performance feedback gives an individual information needed to formulate a cognitive evaluation of their perceived level of performance.

Everyone needs to feel that they belong. This is the need for relatedness and is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. It reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. It is important because people who meet this need function better, are more resilient to stress, and report fewer psychological difficulties. People seek these positive interactions and interaction partners and this involves their psychological need for relatedness.

However just being with people doesn’t satisfy the need for relatedness. To be satisfying a person must create social bonds in which the individual perceives the other to care about their welfare and like them. Their true self should be shown and seen as important. These relationships are communal (versus exchange) because each person cares about the other’s welfare and needs. Relatedness is important to a person because it supports internalization, the process through which an individual transforms a preciously externally prescribed regulation or value into an internally endorsed one.

The chapter ends by presenting an engagement model that exists to explain how relationships and social contexts involve and satisfy our psychological needs. It argues that autonomy support, structure, and involvement all influence and enhance our engagement. Experiences that involve and satisfy our psychological needs create positive emotion and psychological well-being. And finally, it offers us the psychological components needed to feel vital and well.

I guess I would consider myself a psychological needy person. I say this because I would rate all of these as a high need. In the area of autonomy, I highly value the opportunity for choice and I do not like being told what to do. I would be lying if I said that this high need for autonomy didn’t ever cause some friction in my life and relationships. I am the type of person, that if someone tells me to do something and I feel like I am being forced to do it, my automatic response is to refuse to do it. I think this is perhaps why I offer to be in leadership positions because then the ball is in my court and I get to call the shots. My need for competency is also high. I like to be good at what I do. For me, I do not understand how people can be satisfied at giving anything than their best. I enjoy being challenged and taking on leadership positions or opportunities that I know will help me grow. I have done this in my sorority as formal recruitment chair this past year and I loved being able to tackle the challenge of planning formal recruitment and receiving feedback from my chapter once it was over. Finally, I am a social person who has a high need for relatedness. I strive to feel like I belong and cultivate meaningful relationships. I am probably most unhappy when this need is not being met. Although I would rate all of these needs as high, I would probably rank them in order from highest to lowest as relatedness, competent, and autonomy. I could probably do a task assigned by a professor with no choice and receive a less than fantastic grade. However if I valued this professor’s opinion of me, and he or she expressed disappointment in my character or performance, this would probably affect me the most.

My high need for relatedness is a strong source for motivation in my life. It has motivated me to get involved on campus and to join a sorority in my sophomore year of college. It motivates me to reach out to girls in my sorority to cultivate meaningful relationships with a few that will last, rather than surface deep relationships with every member. My sister always used to tease me when we were younger that she was “just so popular” (direct quote) when I only had a few friends. However, this never made me upset because I felt that it was the quality of these relationships that mattered versus the quantity of friendships I possessed. It is this need that continues to motivate me to stay in touch with a select few childhood friends, to call my family at least once a week, and to be a good person and friend.

As far as the picture with the fish I think a hypothetical (although perhaps outlandish) situation could be created to relate to each of the psychological needs. For autonomy, let’s say the fish feels trapped in its fish-bowl with no control over its environment. It is jumping out of the fishbowl to seek a more freeing environment. For competence, let’s say the fish has been practicing jumping out of water for some time. It is a task that it feels challenging and enjoyable. Jumping out of the fishbowl requires high skill and when the fish jumps it experiences flow. Finally for relatedness, the fish is probably lonely in his fish bowl. He is jumping out to seek company in his neighboring fishbowl. While perhaps ridiculous, each of these situations can illustrate the three psychological needs.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, organismic, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, autonomy-supportive and controlling motivation style, engagement, flow, feedback, communal and exchange relationships, internalization, engagement model

Summary Of Chapter:
This chapter discusses that three different psychological needs that are present in an organism needs to function at an optimal level. They are autonomy. competence, and relatedness. These, according to the book, have been adaptive mechanisms needed to survive. Each of these is a psychological function that served a purpose throughout the course of history.

Autonomy from the book is defined as a psychological need to for self-direction and personal endorsement. It more or less is the self-determination to pursue one's own interests. Autonomy is broken down into three different qualities. The perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice. The first helps organisms to understand the source of why they are motivated to preform certain actions, while also not being motivated to preform others. Theses causes can be both internal (personal) or external (environmental). Examples of both of these would be reading a book for enjoyment as a hobby, or reading the same book because it is required from a particular class. Volition is the willingness to engage in certain behaviors. Does one have to be persuaded, or are they willing to do this without any influence at all. High volition is displayed when an organisms engages in an activity under their own willingness rather than being persuaded to. What is meant by perceived choice is when we, as organisms, are allowed to make choices based strictly on what we would prefer to do.

Competency is the ability for an organism to interact well and effectively with the environment that surrounds it. This is true of all aspects of life, from school to work to relationships with those around them. Competence drives individuals to use there skill and seek out and learn new challenges (as long as they are not too difficult). When organisms are able to complete asks on their own without assistance and are able to do these various tasks well they find a strong sense of accomplishment. If the task is too difficult then people become anxious and worry about the tasks, but if they are too easily completed then the person begins to become bored and will lose interest.

The last psychological need discussed in this chapter is relatedness. This is the need for one to relate to others in a personal and social setting. The chapter discusses things that involve relatedness. This is mostly involved in starting new relationships in life, and why people would do so. It has been discussed that the reason may be because of the things that come with meeting new people falling in love, childbirth, dating, starting school, or finding a new job. Supporting relatedness involves making sure that the relationships one forms involve things like acceptance and valuing the other person and that the other person values you. If these are not present in the relationship then the psychological need of relatedness is not met.

Most Interesting Aspect of the Chapter:
Prior to reading this chapter I did not understand the the psychological needs of a person could be broken down into three needs. I had anticipated that there were hundreds of thing that would be need to meet a person's psychological needs, but the more I think about it these things can fall into one or more of these different categories. This makes learning the material a bit more simple than it previously may have been. Also I found it interesting that while seeking out different relationships (as a part of relatedness). Stresses on the relationship itself can actually serve a poor function of meeting these needs. The relationships that we need in life need to be healthy and all parties in the relationship need to value one another. Also an interesting thought for me is that the autonomy is a somewhat simple concept, but it can actually be a hard need to obtain. This is because life gets in the way and people can't always do exactly what they want to in the exact way they wish.

Rating Level of Psychological Need and how They Manifest in Life:
At this point in life I would rate my level of autonomy at a level that would be low to medium. I am a student and I am currently enrolled in 16 credits. Most of my free time is occupied by my studies. I also have a job where is work close to 30 hours a week. This does not leave much room for me to have decision making flexibility. I have have relatively low volition, it takes a large amount of self-coercion to make sure that I can complete all of my homework on time and still go to work around school. In the aspect of competency, I feel a medium to high amount of competency. I am engaged in enough activities to test my skill, I am often anxious about keeping my schedule straight. And relatedness is also medium to high. I have a good relationship between my family members, and the friends I currently have.

One Psychological Need and how it Influences my Behavior:
My need for competency is the reason that I often "pile on" more school than is typically needed. I have not taken less than 16 credits per semester since I have come to college. When I was at the junior college that I transferred from I would often take an excess of 18 credits per semester. I like to test my skills an acquire new knowledge. If I think back on this it is likely the reason that I have double majored through school. I like to feel that I am learning and using my abilities to their fullest extent.

Fish Picture:
As far as the fish picture goes I can see how it may apply to a couple of different needs discussed in the chapter, first being autonomy. The fish made the decision to jump out of the bowl because it wanted to. It had a high volition, because form this angle I can not see anything coercing the fish out of the bowl. It may also apply to the need of competency. The fish may have been appealing to his need to prove its jumping abilities, so it jumped from the bowl.

Motivation and Emotion Terms:
autonomy. competence, relatedness, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice.

Chapter 6 is about psychological needs. It can be said that when someone is in an environment where there psychological needs are being met and nurtured they experience positive emotions, optimal experience and healthy development. The ultimate underlying reason why we participate in certain things in our environment is because it satisfies our psychological needs. This chapter reviews 3 psychological needs known as organismic psychological needs. The organismic approach suggests the environment is constantly changing and therefore organisms have to be flexible. The next is a mechanistic approach. This says the environment acts on a person and the person reacts. Finally the dialectic approach suggests a reciprocal relationship, the environment acts on the person and the person reacts on the environment.

Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. Three experimental qualities that work together to define the subjective experience of autonomy are perceived locus of causality, volition and perceived choice. Next we learn about the conundrum of choice. It explains people only truly feel a sense of autonomy when they are offered choices that are actually meaningful to their life and when they have a true choice over their actions. Also, when the environment imposes deadlines it interferes with autonomy but when it provides opportunity for self-direction it supports autonomy. The text book also goes on to explain that there is a difference between autonomy supportive people and plain controlling people. We learn that some of the benefits from autonomy support are self-worth and an increased psychological well being.

The next psychological need explained in the book is competence. Competence can be defined as the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and reflect the desire to exercise one’s capacities and in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges. The key environmental condition that satisfies our need for competence is positive feedback and the perception of progress. Feedback, structure and failure tolerance all affect our competence in different ways. The best way to support competence is to provide informational feedback when people make progress.

The final psychological need is relatedness. This is the desire and need for relationships with people but also with groups, organizations and communities. People do this by seeking emotionally positive interactions and interaction partners. It is also thought that when it comes to these relationships, quality is sought more than quantity. The difference between communal relationships and exchange relationships is communal relationships contain care and concern for one another whereas exchange relationships are only between acquaintances or business partners.

I would say the most surprising thing I learned was the difference between the autonomy supporting motivating style and the controlling motivating style. When I think more about this it is sort of common sense and obvious however thinking about it in a sporting context and thinking about the way my coach sometimes motivates our team I can see it is so much more beneficial when he uses the autonomy supportive approach. The controlling method can work but when he makes us all intrinsically motivated via the autonomy supportive approach I think we do a lot better.

I would say my autonomy levels are normally medium to high. However, if I am participating in something I’m not as sure about my levels decrease as I don’t experience as much self direction. This manifests into my life as a class I am currently in is very challenging and I’m often unsure and have to ask for extra help. I don’t have very much self direction and therefore autonomy in that class. Once I know what I am doing my levels increase a lot more. Overall I would say I have quite high levels of autonomy. Again I would say my competence levels are reasonably high. I try to keep most things in my life structured and organized so I often find myself meeting challenges I set for myself. This manifests into my life as I make myself goals for soccer. I set challenges high for myself and I have high expectations. Sometimes if I don’t meet these goals my competence is lower but generally I would say it is high. Finally, I would say relatedness is the highest out of all three of the needs for me. I have a very close bond with my family, my team mates and friends. I never doubt these relationships. This manifests into my life as every day I receive a message from one family member or team mate or friend which shows me they care about me and are concerned about my day.

The psychological need I have chosen is autonomy. I would say this relates the most to many of my behaviors. I am the captain of the soccer team and therefore seen as a leader. Because of this, during practice and games and off the field I need to have self-direction so I can be sure of things if team mates ask me. Another time autonomy relates to my life is during group projects. I like to know what’s going on all the time and I often like to take the lead. This is where I regulate not only mine but others behaviors too.

The way I look at the fish jumping out of the bowl is that it can relate to all 3 of the psychological needs we learn about in chapter 6. Firstly, the fish has self- direction (autonomy). He doesn’t want to be in the bowl anymore so he is getting out. Next the fish could have received some positive feedback about jumping out of the bowl and therefore continues to do it as his competence levels are high. Finally, the fish looks as though it could be lonely in the bowl by itself so I think he is looking for relationships so he can satisfy his need of relatedness.

Terms: self-direction, autonomy, relatedness, competence, positive feedback, behavior, supporting motivating style, controlling motivating style, communal relationships, exchange relationships, psychological need, organismic needs, dialectic approach, mechanistic approach.

Summarize the chapter.
Chapter 6 examines the motivational significance of the three psychological needs; autonomy, competence and relatedness. Autonomy is the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. This is achieved when ones interests, preferences and wants are what guide their decision making process. The availability of choices is the main aspect that generally enhances or diminishes an individual’s sense of autonomy. Competence is the need to be effective in interactions with the environment and it reflects the desire to exercise ones capacities and skills, in doing do, to seek out and master optimal challenges. When an individual’s skills match an opportunity for challenge, concentration, involvement and enjoyment rise, this experience is also known as flow. However, the key environmental condition that satisfies our need for competence is positive feedback and the perception of progress. Finally relatedness is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people and it reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. These needs are also referred to as growth needs because they promote a willingness to seek out and engage in an environment that we expect will be able to nurture our psychological needs. The organisms approach to motivation is discussed in this chapter explaining that human beings possess a natural motivation to learn, grow and develop in a way that is healthy and mature and they do so when the environment involves and supports their three psychological needs. Finally chapter 6 also uses the motivational model of engagement, which incorporates autonomy support, structure and involvement, in order to specifically demonstrate how certain environments and relationships support these psychological needs.

What was the most surprising thing you learned?
I was really surprised to read all the individual benefits that can arise from using a autonomy supportive motivating style rather than a controlling motivational style. Autonomy supportive motivating style refers to a person’s willingness to take the others perspective and to value personal growth opportunities during an activity. All of this was very interesting to read about and I want to make use of this kind of motivational style rather than taking a controlling approach which pressures the other person toward a prescribed outcome, especially if I want to become a successful school counselor. If I am going to be working with kids I want to use specific techniques that will promote high levels of autonomy within my students. Some of these behaviors as listed in table 6.2 which include listening carefully, allowing others time to talk, encouraging effort, communicating rationale for uninteresting endeavors, praising progress and improvement and acknowledging the other persons perspective. This autonomy support not only nurtures the psychological need of autonomy but also the needs for competence and relatedness as well as additional motivations such as intrinsic motivation. I thought it was surprising that just by exhibiting those specific behaviors I would also be able to energize my students inherent growth potentials in ways that promote healthy motivation, strong engagement, growth-orientated development, meaningful learning, enhanced performance and psychological well-being of my students. This is something I definitely want to make sure I utilize when I become a school counselor.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?
My need for autonomy is in-between medium and high. I like knowing that I am in control of my life and I can decide what I do and don’t want to do, however being a student sometimes controls my behaviors. For example I did make the decision myself to attend a University and get my bachelor’s degree which would be an internal perceived locus of control, however a lot of the decisions I make and my behaviors revolve around my class schedule and things that may help me succeed. I read my textbooks in order to better understand my class material and I go to the library a lot during the week nights in order to get my work done. This is motivation caused by the environment or an external perceived locus of control. My need for competence is also in-between medium and high because I often want to face a challenge and know that if I try hard enough my personal skills will help me accomplish it. This is shown a lot during classes, especially when it comes time for a test. I usually am pretty hard on myself and push myself to do well on every test because I know I am capable of getting good grades. This sets the stage for the challenge of getting good grades on my tests which motivates me to go to the library and study instead of hanging out with my friends. However I do not experience challenge until I actually start taking the test and receive my performance feedback. The feedback that I get from my test scores, whether positive because I got a good grade or negative because I did poorly, determines whether or not I perceive my performance to be competent or not. If the feedback is positive and interprets a job well done, my psychological need for competence is satisfied. I would rate myself the highest for the need for relatedness. This is because it is the people and relationships in my life that I enjoy the most. Friendships are something I cherish and I like having people I know understand me for who I am and I want others to accept and value me as an individual.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
Because relatedness is what I scored myself highest on I decided to explain how it motivates some of my behaviors. I have formed social bonds with certain individuals because I know they care about my well-being, like me, and I've acknowledged that my, “true-self” has been shown important to them. These social bonds are a part of my communal relationships because both parties feel an obligation to support the others welfare, this would include my close friends, family and boyfriend. In order to maintain these relationships I make sure that I spend quality time with every person and talk to them about what is going on in our lives. My roommates and I try to have a “roomie dinner” at least once a week where we can all take time away from our busy schedules and talk about everything that has been going on. I also am motivated to go home every once and awhile and see my family. It is the positive relationship I have created with my parents that has caused me to internalize or voluntarily adopt and integrate into the self, their way of thinking and behaving. Also the desire for social interaction has also motivated me to join clubs on campus and get involved with volunteer work in order to be around others with similar interests as me.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
I believe the fish in the picture is trying to satisfy its psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness by jumping out of the fishbowl. It feels a sense of volition knowing that it has the unpressured willingness and choice to jump out of the fishbowl which satisfies his need for autonomy. In order to fulfill its need for competence, the fish was motivated to seek out and master optimal challenges, in this case jumping out of the fishbowl. In succeeding to do so it received positive feedback and the perception of progress which satisfied this need of competence. Finally the need for relatedness is shown because the fish does not want to be alone and isolated in the fishbowl; instead he wants to join the fishbowl that is next to it with several other fish in order to engage in social interaction.
Terms: autonomy, organisms approach to motivation, motivational model of engagement, autonomy supportive motivating style, controlling motivational style, internal PLOC, external PLOC, competence, flow model, competence, positive feedback, relatedness, social bond, communal relationships, internalization, and volition.

Chapter 6 discusses psychological needs. The organismic approach to motivation has two core assumptions, that people are inherently active and that people use inherent psychological needs to engage in the environment which can either support or neglect these inner resources. This is known as the person-environment dialectic. The organismic approach states that humans are naturally motivated to learn, grow and develop in a healthy way. This is possible when environments involve and support their psychological needs. There are three psychological needs discussed in this chapter, autonomy, competence and relatedness.

The first psychological need discussed is autonomy. Autonomy is the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. There are three qualities that define autonomy –perceived locus of causality, volition and perceived choice. Perceived locus of causality (PLOC) is an individual’s understanding of the causal sources of motivated action. Volition is an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity. Perceived choice is the sense of choice experienced when we find ourselves in environments that offer us decision-making flexibility. Those who have autonomous behavior show gains in motivation, engagement, development, learning and psychological well-being.

Competence is the need to interact effectively with the environment. The need for competence generates motivation to develop, improve and refine personal skills and talents. Optimal challenge, high structure and high failure tolerance are environment events that involve competence needs. Positive feedback and perception of progress satisfy the need for competence.

Relatedness is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. In order for relatedness to be satisfied, social bonds need to be characterized by the perception that the other person cares about that individual’s welfare and likes them. Communal relationships are between persons who care about the welfare of others and are friendships, family members or romantic relationships. These relationships satisfy the need for relatedness.

When activities involve autonomy support, positive feedback and communal relationships, people typically are satisfied and feel enjoyment in what they do. When autonomy, competence and relatedness are nurtured and satisfied, people become highly engaged. Engagement in the intensity and emotional quality people show when they initiate and carry out activities. Those who have satisfied psychological needs and are actively engaged are having a good day and are subject to vitality and well-being.

The most surprising thing I learned in this chapter was the section about what makes for a good day. Honestly I’ve never taken into account WHY I was having a good day before reading chapter 6. I figured I was having a good day because I got a good grade on a test or got to spend time with a good friend, etc. This reading tells me that good days depend on psychological need satisfaction. Psychological needs provide psychological nutriments necessary for good days and positive well-being. Having read this chapter I now realize that getting a good grade satisfies my need for competence and that seeing a good friend satisfies my need for relatedness. I was experiencing good days because I was satisfying my needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness without even realizing it.

My ratings for psychological needs:
Autonomy: medium
Competence: medium
Relatedness: high

One psychological need that influenced my behavior is relatedness. As mentioned before, relatedness is the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. I feel that my behavior is influenced by relatedness because I will always go above and beyond to create and maintain strong relationships with people. I find that I will often overlook other psychological needs to focus on my relationships. My need to belong and my desire for social interaction dictate my behavior at school and work. I have always made close friends at all of my jobs and during most of my classes. Even if my relationships are not reciprocal, I take a lot of my personal time to care for the concerns of my friends and to discuss the day to day occurrences in their lives. I find that I am happiest when I have people confiding in me and who consider me a good friend and I think this influences my behavior to meet my high need of relatedness.

I think the fish in the picture is attempting to satisfy his psychological needs. By jumping out of the bowl, he is allowing himself sense of choice and to feel free rather than being stuck in the bowl all day (autonomy). He has challenged himself to escape his boring bowl and to interact with a new environment that is challenging and will improve his capacities and skills (competence). He also is trying to find some friends, since being in that bowl is probably pretty lonely (relatedness).

Terms used: motivation, psychological needs, relatedness, competence, autonomy, psychological nutrients, organismic approach, person-environment dialectic, Perceived locus of causality, Volition, Perceived choice, engagement, Communal relationships

Summarize the chapter

Chapter six focuses on autonomy, competence and relatedness. All three of those psychological needs ties into motivation. The chapter goes on to describe people as being inherently active to experience life. Another thing the book explains is that people interact with the environment with their psychological needs, and the environment will sometimes support their behavior or act against it. This interaction with the environment with psychological needs is an experience that people seek out to learn and grow in a healthy manner to become more mature. The healthy and mature person emerges when the environment supports their psychological needs. The chapter continues with explaining autonomy more in depth. Autonomy is defined in the book as the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. It also is more focused on the inner part of someone that drives their motivation rather than the environmental events. Autonomy relies on informational language, valuing, and accepts negative effects. Competence is also explained in this chapter. Competence is the need to interact effectively with the environment. The desire for competence comes from mastering challenges presented to an individual. Flow, a psychological state that is the enjoyment or thrill people experience, is achieved when the personal challenge and environments skill are both high and the individual is receiving positive feedback while feeling like they are making progress towards their specific goal. Relatedness is described next. Relatedness is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. It also has the desire to be in close quality relationships with other people. Just being able to talk to other people is sufficient for this need, but the bond with the other person needs to be genuine. The engagement model is explained further at the end of the chapter. This model explains how every one of the needs explained in this chapter are related and work with one another that ultimately tie into engagement.


What was the most surprising thing you learned?

The most surprising thing I learned is just seeing how autonomy, competence, and relatedness are essential for a person to feel alive and function properly. There is more to survival than just food and water.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?

For autonomy it would be high because I like being independent and in control of my actions and behavior.

Competence is ranked as high as well because I enjoy trying to improve my skills or abilities. For example, I enjoyed training for a marathon by running longer distances that I never thought I could run before.

Relatedness is ranked as a medium for me because my personality is relatively introverted and reserved. Just talking and being friends with others satisfies this psychological need.


Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

Competence motivates my behavior by perusing what I believe I have skill at. I enjoyed art a lot growing up and would be inspired by seeing other well done artwork in a museum or artwork done by other friends that received praise by the teacher. This would explain why I tend to draw frequently in my free time or be really interested to check out an art museum.


If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

I believe the fish picture relates to this chapter because there is more to survival and life than what we think. We should be encouraged to think outside the box (or fishbowl in this case). It could also represent how taking on challenges are good for our development even though the challenges may seem dangerous.

Terms used

Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, Needs, Behavior, Drive, Engagement, Motivation

Summarize the chapter.

     Chapter 6 is about Psychological Needs. The text states that there are 3 psychological needs of study: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Organismic theories take the approach that the organism interacts with the environment and that the environment interacts with the organism. It is a cyclical type of interaction. The organism learns, adapts, and changes from interactions with the environment, which then causes changes in the environment. The organismic approach is completely opposite of the mechanistic theory approaches. The mechanistic theories are based on the idea that an organism (person) is reactive to the environmental cues. The mechanistic theories are one-way portrayals.

     Organismic theories emphasize the person-environment dialectic. Opposite of the mechanistic theories’ one-way portrayals, dialectic indicates a reciprocal relationship. That is, the environment acts on the organism and the organism acts on the environment. Organismic theories also place a great deal of emphasis on the assumption that the organism is active. Johnmarshall Reeve explains, “The person acts on the environment out of curiosity, interest, and an intrinsic motivation to seek out and affect change s in it; the environment offers affordances (opportunities), imposes structure, makes demands, provides feedback, offers need-satisfying or need-frustrating relationships, and offers a community and cultural context as the person strives to adjust and accommodate to it (Deci & Ryan, 1985b).” (p. 144) The organismic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) initiate natural motivations for learning, growth, and development.

     The first of the psychological needs we learn about is autonomy. Autonomy is the need to be independent, free, and self-directing in the decisions one makes on how they are going to behave when interacting in the environment. It is the person’s need to feel that they are in control of their choices in how they interact with the environment. The section on autonomy also includes perceived locus of causality (PLOC). PLOC is the understanding of what is causing a person to be motivated to act a certain way. If a person does not feel pressured to engage in an activity and has a willingness to engage in that activity, the person is engaging of his or her own volition. The environment often presents decision-making opportunities. When a person is afforded many opportunities to choose from, this is a perceived choice.

     Competence is the next psychological need that is discussed in Chapter 6. Competence is the need to demonstrate knowledge and skill in efforts to interact effectively with one’s environment. To feel competent we want to be able to handle events within an environment with intelligence and skill or be able to demonstrate that we can adapt and learn from the events. Our text states that competence is involved in principal events that provide an optimal challenge, have high structure, and have high failure tolerance. When personal challenge and environmental skill are high, a person is able to immerse themselves into the task becoming absorbed and fully involved in the event and is defined as being flow.

     Chapter 6 also discusses relatedness. Relatedness is the psychological need to have interactions with others and build warm relationships. People seek positive interactions and interactions with others to create a social bond. The social bond is the person’s perception that the other person cares for their well-being and likes them for them.

What was the most surprising thing you learned?

     I wouldn’t say I was surprised as much as I enjoyed reading more about relatedness. This chapter’s section on relatedness explained why we seek social interactions and how these interactions can satiate or frustrate our psychological needs.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?

     I would rate autonomy as being high on my psychological needs list. I enjoy feeling like I can make choices that will affect my future and the outcome of an event when interacting with the environment. Competence would also rate high, as I have a need to feel like I know what to do and how to effectively execute a skill in order to fulfill this psychological need. Relatedness would rate at medium, I do not feel that I have to please everyone in order to feel accepted. My perception of acceptance relies heavily on my competence to perform a task and the autonomy in which I can approach such tasks. That does not mean that I do not have a desire for relatedness. When a person feels they belong, all three of the psychological needs are better balanced as each can have an affect on the other.

How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?

     I have had past experiences when I did not have much autonomy in a job. In those instances, I became bored and began to feel resentment at the lack of control I had towards my future. Competency is something that I experienced in all jobs, however, when a job is more cognitive in nature, without a clear wrong answer, my level of confidence in my competence suffers to a point. Relatedness is something that was very common in my previous jobs, my current employment does not offer much for interaction with others. This has led to feelings of lower levels of relatedness. I do not always feel I belong simply because I do not have interaction with others and my job is very solitaire. The text states that “Everyone desires social interaction. (Reeve, p. 161) This is very true. I am a social person by nature and at times when I do not have adequate social interactions, my feelings of self-worth decrease.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

     Relatedness is about a person’s desire for social interaction. As I do not have a great deal of this in my job, I rely on social interactions through school and home activities to satisfy this need. I have one night a week that I get to leave the house and participate in social interaction away from work and the house. This allows me to be the “social butterfly” as my husband calls it and connect with others in my social group or add to my social group. Connecting with individuals that have similar interests as I do is nice because we then build a relationship based on competence and autonomy. We chose what we like to do and sharing experiences enriches the social relationship we build. Knowing at the end of the week, if I have completed all my tasks for work and school that I will be able to engage in an activity of my own choosing (autonomy) is part of my extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is that I am using skills I know and learning how to polish those skills through work projects and homework. I seek social interaction because it satisfies my psychological need for relatedness.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

     The fish is jumping from the current bowl because of a personal choice (autonomy). The current bowl lacks an environment that would allow the fish to demonstrate competence other than simply swimming in circles. As the fish feels that it has mastered swimming in circles, it chooses to jump from the current bowl in search of new challenges and social interactions (relatedness). Hypothetically, there is another bowl the fish is jumping to that has other fish in which it can interact with. This new bowl also has decorations that allow the fish to demonstrate swimming skills (competence) to his/her new friends.

     The fish jumping is an example of what Chapter 6 talks about with psychological needs. Autonomy in our decision-making for our future allows us to feel control. The need for competence drives us to learn, refine, change skills to better interact within our environments. Relatedness is our need to interact with others. When all three are satisfied, we have a greater sense of well-being.

TERMS

Psychological Needs, Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, Organismic Theory Approach, Mechanistic Theory Approach, Dialectic, Intrinsic Motivation, Perceived Locus of Causality, Volition, Perceived Choice, Optimal Challenge, Structure, Failure Tolerance, Flow, Relatedness, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation

Chapter six is about our psychological needs and how they can be broken down into three basic categories. These are the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness.

Autonomy is the need to be able to make your own decision. Basically this is the need for your own personal freedom. Not in the sense that you are physically being held captive, but in the sense that you need to be able to decide certain things for yourself, instead of having someone making those decisions for you or someone limiting your decisions. Autonomy is a tricky need that we have. Many times, we appear to be autonomous, but in reality we are being limited. An example that the text provides is our friend having us choose the radio station. They could say “do you want to listen to country or rock?” While we appear to have the ability to choose, we are still limited by the options given by our friend and are not truly autonomous. Another term for this is perceived choice. Another problems that could interfere with our autonomy is the reason for our actions, or our perceived locus of causality. There are many reasons for why we do what we do. However, depending on the reason could affect our autonomy. For example, we could be doing exercise, however the reason for that could be different. We could be exercising because we simply enjoy the physical activity, or we could be training for a sport and the coach wants us to run fifty laps. Our autonomy is determined by whether someone is making us do something, or if we are doing the activity because we want to.

Another need is our need for competence. This is the need to be able to accomplish a task. Everyone wants to be good at what they do. However, they also want a certain amount of challenge to a task as well. Too much challenge can make people disinterested and frustrated. Too little challenge can make people bored with the activity. An optimal amount of challenge to which we are still able to complete the activity and we then feel good about our accomplishment is called a flow.

Finally, one other need is for relatedness. People inherently want to get along with one another. Humans are naturally social creatures and we will go to great lengths to be able to interact with one another. Because of this, we are quick to develop social bonds. These bonds can vary in strength. There are simple acquaintances and there are close partners. These close partners are known as communal relationships. These are the people who care about each other’s well-being.

Autonomy, competence, and relatedness all tie together in an individual’s psychological needs; this is call engagement. A person’s engagement is determined by how strong their autonomy, competence and relatedness are in each activity. If each need is well met, then the person has a high engagement in that task. However, if some or all of these needs are not met, then the person has a low engagement in said task.

For me, the most surprising thing that I learned was just how important relatedness is in our overall engagement. I knew that people are generally social, however there are those who prefer not to socialize with others. However, for the most part, how well we get along with other individuals can determine our level of engagement in a task.

If I had to rate myself high or low on any of these needs, I would say that I rate rather high in relatedness. I like to be in the presence of other people and I enjoy getting along with everyone. I would also say that I would rate more on a medium in autonomy. I can make many of my own choices, however there are some limitation to this. For example, I live on campus, therefore I do not have to ability to drink whenever I want to or to throw a party if I so choose. I would also rate myself as medium in competence as well. While I am good at many things, like everyone there are some subjects where I struggle in. These ratings can manifest themselves in my life in many different ways. For example, my level of competence can manifest itself in how well I do in class. Also, my autonomy can manifest itself in my everyday life as far as how I make my decisions. If I had to choose one trait I think I would choose autonomy. I often feel the need to be with other people. While I do not see myself as a party animal, I will usually prefer to be with someone, even if it is just one person, rather than being by myself. Because of this, I will usually choose to hang out with my friends rather than spend time alone playing video games. This can also affect how much time I set aside to do homework. I am much more motivated to being with my roommates rather than sitting alone doing homework. Therefore, I will often neglect it until the last minute because I was hanging out with friends.

If I had to take a guess as to why the picture with the fish was used in this assignment. I would guess that it is a representation of the three needs. The fish feels confined in his bowl and does not have the ability to socialize. He is being restricted in his relatedness. Also, while he is in his bowl, he does not have any ability to choose anything. He can choose whether to swim around, or to eat, however what choices he does have are there because someone else put them there for him. Also, the fish may have felt less challenged being in the bowl. He is just able to swim within the confines of the glass. He feels less competent in the bowl. Because of all these needs not being met, the fish chooses to leave to bowl and find a better place to meet his psychological needs.

autonomy, competence and relatedness, perceived choice, perceived locus of causality, flow, communal relationships, engagement, psychological needs


Read chapter 6. Summarize the chapter.

This chapter talked about psychological needs. The three that were noted and talked about were the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy was more or less defined as the feeling of being in control. In the chapter, this is the need that was discussed the most in depth. The experience of autonomy could be thought of in terms of its three subjective qualities: internal perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice of action. The second need that was discussed was competence. The need for competence may be satisfied by engaging in activities and performing well. The final need that we talked about was relatedness. This involves more the need to belong and interact with others that we care about and that we feel care about us. For each of these needs, we talked about ways that the needs could be satisfied and what would be beneficial or detrimental to the development of these growth needs.

What was the most surprising thing you learned?

I think the thing that I found most surprising in this chapter was the section about optimal challenge and flow. The book talked about how the essence of enjoyment could be traced to the ‘flow experience.’ The flow state is a state of deep concentration that involves deep absorption into an activity. To achieve this flow state, you must balance your competency with the challenge at hand. If your competency level is lower than the difficulty of the challenge, you will find yourself frustrated or anxious. If your competency level is higher than the difficulty of the challenge, you will find yourself bored or apathetic. If both the difficulty and competence levels are low, you will just simply not care about the task. The part that I found really surprising was the fact that success and failure should be equally likely outcomes for a task to be optimally challenging. This seemed surprising, because it meant that people functioned best when they were as likely to fail as they were to succeed.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?

I would say my autonomy is medium. I feel like I am generally in charge of whatever decisions I make, but those decisions are heavily influenced by obligatory routine schedules of work and class. I would also score myself as medium for competence and relatedness.

How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?
Well I would say that all of my needs are fairly taken care of, but I do notice when they are not being met as fully as I would like them to. For example, when I feel my autonomy needs are not being met, and sort of feel like I am just a pawn in a system, I get frustrated and care less about whatever it is that I may be doing. If I find myself overwhelmed at work, and feel as though I am not up to a specific task/deadline, I get a little anxious.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

My life right now is a result of the choices that I’ve made which were all influenced by the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Coming to college initially was a big step out on my own, satisfying autonomy. Although I didn’t know what I wanted to do with life, I still needed to learn and get smarter in my own eyes and satisfy my need for competence. I chose the college that I did in part because I had friends going there, conforming to my needs for relatedness. If I were to simply examine how one need affects my life right now, I would say that my need for competence drove my decision to take a physics class in my last semester rather than racquetball or something.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

If I had to guess, I would say that the fish is leaving the bowl because none of its psychological needs are being met in there. Initially I was going to say it was just trying to satisfy its need for autonomy. With no choices available to it aside from what direction to swim around the small glass bowl prison, its autonomy needs would not flourish. After reading the chapter, I acknowledged that its needs for competence and relatedness would also not be met. The fish has no challenges to face, and without challenges, there can be no satisfaction of competence. The fish also has no other fish with which to confide and relate to, so its relatedness needs are also not being met. Of course, it is probably worth noting that the fish is merely a fish, and is probably incapable of registering such needs.

Provide a list of terms at the end of your post that you used from the chapter.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, perceived locus of causality (PLOC), volition, perceived choice of action, growth needs, optimal challenge, flow experience,

Read chapter 6. Summarize the chapter. – This chapter was all about the psychological needs a person has in order to be motivated. When we are motivated through the psychological needs, we feel interest and enjoyment out of the behavior or activity. As human beings, we have the three most basic psychological needs which are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is our need to feel free in everyday life and activities. There are three different ways to experience autonomy in day to day activities which are perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choices. The best way to motivate a person is through providing them with a choice of what to do. When people aren’t feeling pressured into an activity, they find more enjoyment and pleasure from it. This also increases a person’s autonomy and intrinsic motivation. From the last chapter, we learned that extrinsic motivation tends to hinder people’s motivation and stops their intrinsic motivation. Another way to motivate people is through the use of competence for optimal challenge, structure, and high failure tolerance. People need to be in a state psychologist call flow where the task or activity is equally challenging as well as involves personal skills and competencies. People also liked to have feedback from their behaviors which is why teachers give back grades and comments. The last thing that motivates people is the need for social interaction. Everyone wants to be needed and have close intimate relationships. In return, we want these relationships to provide us with the same satisfaction that we give into them.
What was the most surprising thing you learned? – The most surprising thing I learned in this chapter was the different ways you can motivate people through the use of autonomy. The two ways a person can be a motivator for someone is by being an autonomy-supportive or controlling. I would want to use the approach of an autonomy-supportive since I will be trying to motivate high school students in my future job of a counselor. In my job shadowing experience, I already see the examples used in the book in everyday situations. When someone has a problem in school, home, or in social relationships, we listen to everything they have to say and tell them they have every right to feel that way. However, we give them the opposite side of the issue at hand and give them a variety of ways they can handle the situations. Although, we give people options, it is truly up to them on how they react to any situation. We are there to support them and listen to their feelings and thoughts on them as well as provide them with insight as well as options.
If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life? –If I had to rate myself, I would probably hate myself as high on the relatedness since I enjoy spending time with others as well as making new friends. I work hard to maintain relationships that I had in high school as well as past years here at college. I am very close to my family and have really good friends whom I stay in contact with through phone, texts, emails, and even letters. As far as competence, I would rate myself medium since I do have a need for structure as well as challenge. I have always strived for the best of myself and to advance in my schooling in order to be the best counselor I can be. I challenge myself by going the extra mile in gaining experience as well as seeing others side of things. I have a major need for structure as I keep a planner, need to plan out my day before it begins, and set time aside for friends and enjoyment. Lastly, I would rate my need for autonomy as medium since I do like to have options and find enjoyment in the little things. I like to have the option to do my homework when I want to and have flexibility in my everyday life. I also find enjoyment in reading novels for my pleasure but hate reading for class.
Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors. - My need for relatedness would be my biggest motivator since I also have a need to make a friend in every class I have. This need would motivate me to talk to someone the first day of class and establish a relationship with them right away. I also go out of my way to plan out my day out to spend time with friends. If someone asks me to hang out at night, I will literally plan on doing my homework, laundry, dinner before I go to hang out. Another way this need would affect my behaviors would be by my need to have my phone on at all times. I want to be able to talk to my family and friends through not only texting and phone calls but also social media. During my study breaks, I will scroll through various social media which allows me to stay connected to friends and family who are far way and stay updated on their lives. I also look at my phone before I go to sleep and before I wake up. I also need to have it on vibrate in the fear of missing a phone call or text.
If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter? – I believe there is a fish for this chapter because it is deprived of all its psychological needs. It is confined to the small bowl, no freedom of choice or new experiences. It is alone which is taking away its relatedness need since it has no one to “talk” to or interact with besides its reflection. The poor fish is also not allowed to interact with their surroundings and have desire to pursue challenges in everyday life. It has nothing in the bowl to interact with and find any enjoyment and excitement from. Sad fish. This is probably why he is jumping out of the bowl!

TERMS: psychological needs, behavior, autonomy, competence, relatedness, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choices, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, motivate, autonomy-supportive, controlling,

Summarize the chapter.

Chapter 6 involves almost everything you need to know about psychological needs including autonomy,competence, relatedness and the approach to motivation which involves two assumptions. The first assumption saying that people are inherently active, and the second assumption which says a person inherents their psychological needs to engage in the environment. The environment will either then neglect these inner resources or support them. It also talks about an engagement model of motivation, which shows how relationships and social contexts change depending on the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. It also talks about internalization where a person could actually transform something externally valued into an internal value as well. Another aspect talked about in chapter 6 is vitality which I found interesting because if a person experiences vitality, it could actually make their day. Vitality makes a person feel alive and actually allows them to experience that autonomy, competence, and relatedness.


What was the most surprising thing you learned?

The most surprising thing I learned in this chapter is the perception of a personal bond. I found this surprising because it really made me think how humans relate to one another and what personal needs they gain from having social bonds with others. In order to be satisfying the social bond needs to have both people feeling like they care about one anothers welfare and also they both need to feel like the other person likes them. This transitioned into talking about loneliness and how not engaging in a social bond can create a lonely atmosphere for a person because they lack close intimate relationships. Without that intimacy, they feel very alone and isolated. I also enjoy how the book says the quality of a relationship is more important that quantity which is soo very true.


If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?

I feel as if I am high in relatedness because I enjoy getting involved most of the time. It creates an atmosphere where I am able to gain social bonds with others and in turn it boots my self esteem and makes me a happier person all around. I am also fairly high in competence because I am very consistent and am always thinking of positive ways to help reduce stress in the future. I would rate myself low on autonomy because I really do not need that much autonomy in my life considering I do not get bothered when someone tells me what to do. Once in awhile I will enjoy autonomy but for the most part I would rather prefer having someone tell me the right way to do tasks and also make sure I am doing them correctly that way I know for a fact I did a good job.

How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?

These play a role in in my life because since I am low in autonomy, I would not want to be a manager at a business telling others what to do. I prefer to be the one who is getting told what to do and I like knowing if I am doing a great job at it or not by having someone else watch me. This affects my future career greatly because I feel as if I would not be a good manager in any situation. Competence and Related would also affect my future career as well as every day situations because I like being involved for example on campus which would be relatedness. I also competent in my every day life as well because I have clear expectations for what I want to accomplish and I set challenges for myself in order to accomplish them.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

Competence motivates my behaviors because I enjoy giving myself tips in order to progress in my everyday life. Setting goals and clear expectations for myself really help my behavior of being lazy because I enjoy challenging myself to do better than I had originally wanted. This creates more motivation because it changes my behavior to actually want to do certain tasks that I need to accomplish in my every day life for example this homework assignment.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

This fish picture is about jumping out of the bowl and being yourself. The fish will then have autonomy because there will be nothing controlling him and telling him where he can and cannot go. If he has a high level of competence, the challenge of jumping out of his bowl will help fit that. Also perhaps, if he has a high level of relatedness he will be able to meet other fish if he jumps out of his bowl that way he can form social bonds and become more involved with other fish.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, motivation, inherent, engagement model, internalization, vitality, perception, social bonds, intimacy, isolated, self esteem, behaviors

Chapter 6 discusses the three psychological needs using an organismic approach. The three psychological needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the need to experience self-direction and self-regulation of one’s behavior to live in a more independent manner. Basically what this is saying is that we want to be the one making choices and deciding our lifestyle. Competence is when one has the need to interact with the environment in an effective and active way. Competence also means to master optimal challenges. Last is relatedness which is the need to be emotionally connected to others and establish close personal bonds in a relationship. Among these three psychological needs, this chapter goes into details about the underlying messages behind positive emotions, optimal experiences, and heathy development. This chapter also talks about three separate approaches being organismic, the mechanistic approach, and the dialectic approach. The organismic approach says the environment goes through constant changes and organisms must be flexible. The mechanistic approach says that the environment acts on a person and the person reacts to that. Last is the dialectic approach which suggests a relationship that shows reciprocity between one and the environment.

This chapter presented a lot of ideas to me that I had never really thought of in the past. After reading the chapter I can put things together that never really crossed my mind because they didn’t make much sense. One of these examples would be the differences between the controlling motivating style and the autonomy supportive motivating style. The difference is obvious after reading into detail about the two but what I learned was that the autonomy supportive motivating style refers to a person’s willingness to allow things to happen that could involve personal growth in another. The controlling motivating style more so refers to a person trying to order certain things going on in another person’s life. Another thing that I found interesting and almost surprising is the factors behind have a good or bad day. I never really thought about why I have a good day but I just figured it was because something good happened like winning a close game, getting to see family and friends, doing well in school or work, etc. What having a good day really means is to have these psychological needs satisfied.

My ratings for psychological needs:
Autonomy- Medium to low
Competence- Medium to high
Relatedness- High

These levels manifest themselves in my lives many different ways. Autonomy has always been inconsistent with me. I do not always like to make my own decisions and be independent. I sometimes like to have directions given to me and hear other people’s opinions to help me make a decision. On the other hand, there are times when I like to have a lot of independence and make decisions for myself. Competence is medium to high because I am a very organized and routine set person. I do not like to have challenges come up because I was incompetent. I have high expectations for myself and I will do anything to be structured and I will motivate myself to accomplish these goals. I’d say my need for relatedness is very high because I like having close interpersonal relationships with others. I find joy and satisfaction knowing that I have so many close relationships and I feed off of this.

The psychological need that I have chosen is relatedness. Relationships are very important to me. I have many close and personal relationships among family members and friends. Having someone that I can confide in and knowing someone can confide in me gives me great satisfaction. I need to love and support of my friends and family to be happy and successful in life. Knowing there are people out there that would do anything for me makes me feel at ease when making decisions. On top of this, I always enjoy getting to know people. Being a psychology major, I like to observe people and why they do certain things and how they react in certain ways. When I learn more about people, I can put together why they do things and different habits that have developed over time. I consider knowing someone on a personal level a blessing.

The fish picture brings a lot of ideas to my mind. I believe the fish can relate to all three of the psychological needs presented in this chapter. The fish is showing autonomy by making a decision to take a risk and jump out of the bowl. He is deciding that he no longer wants to be in that bowl and is using the power it has to remove itself from the bowl. As for competence, the fish needed something new in its life and wanted to be presented with new challenges because it was not yet satisfied with itself and all that was given to it. Last it is in need of relationships. There were no other fish in that bowl causing loneliness and separation from other fish. The fish is looking for other fish to commit to and form an emotional, caring relationship.

Terms: Psychological Needs, Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, Behavior, Organismic Approach, Mechanistic Approach, Dialectic Approach, Controlling Motivating Style, Autonomy Supportive Motivating Style, Needs, Positive.

Summarize the chapter.
This chapter focuses on the psychological needs: autonomy (nurtures inner motivation), competence (need that involves an individual needing for interacting with the environment effectively), and relatedness (this need is when an individual develops attachment and close emotional connections with others). From these needs, two assumptions are formed. The first deals with people being active, inherently. The second is the language between person-environment and how it is used to interact with the environment and how supportive it is of these needs but also how it can cause tension and stress.

What was the most surprising thing you learned?
I honestly was a little surprised to learn about relatedness need. I did not know what exactly it dealt with. After reading it, that would be the one I find most interesting as well. I have never been the type of person to enjoy the company of many friends nor a variety of friends. I used to never filter my friends and assumed the ones I had, were the best ones out there. After various things happened, I realized none of the ones I called my friends were actually my friends. They were all pretending and never actually there for me when I needed them. I desired friends who would be there for me and support me through my life, ones I could be myself with and not feel judged. I had this need that was not filled until I moved here. I made new friends and my best friend is the one who has been there for me recently while I go through a few health issues. She has been amazing and I recently had a desire to fill that need by spending time with her and her family. I was afraid of sounding clingy but that need really needed to be met. I finally asked her about spending time with her this past weekend and she agreed and invited me to her house with her children and husband. I was finally able to meet this need. I believe that is why I found this most surprising and interesting because I just recently encountered how it felt when this need was not met then how it felt when it was met.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?
I believe I would rate myself as being high on autonomy. I am extremely in control of my life. I have to feel in control of my life and feel as though I am dictating it or I get stressed. Even when I realize something about my life is not in my control, I will react in a way and problem solve in order to feel in control of my life again. I would feel this way because I made decisions on how to react and solve my own problem. I want and desire to be independent; therefore my behavior often reflects it. I recently was not in control over my health, it decided to throw my entire semester off and I have been poorly in a couple of my classes. I cannot control my health but I am doing what I need to take care of it so I can better focus on my studies. This reaction causes me to feel a little more in control and pleasing my need to achieve my wants and desires.
I would rate myself as medium. I am highly motivated to learn and increase my knowledge of psychology. I am motivated to graduate in May and move on to graduate school. However, I am not very motivated to go out and seek challenges. I have not been very motivated to get everything together and filled out for grad school. I want to go to grad school but my life has been hectic recently and my motivation lies with focusing on my health. Until I can get my pain fixed and I am able to be pain-free again, I will not be able to focus on much else.
I would rate myself as high-low on relatedness. It really depends on my mood. If I am feeling a little down or stressed, I will want to see my friends and spend time with them. But sometimes even with those feelings, I want to be left alone. I recently was highly motivated to see my best friend and her family, so I did to meet this need. I would say a good portion of the time I like to be alone. I enjoy watching television or relaxing and reading my book. I like unwinding without anyone around. But I do get in moods where I need to have this need met and I have to spend time with someone or I am extremely unhappy until I do so. But it also depends on the person, I can spend time with other friends for an entire day and not have this need met, but spend time with my best friend for an hour or two and have it met. It depends on my mood and the person in question that I will be spending time with to meet this need.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
I like relatedness. I believe this motivates my behavior in many ways. I am the type of student who does better in a classroom setting than online. This is why I am taking in-person classes. I need that interaction with the professor and students. I may not care for a particular professor or classmates but I still need that interaction and I am able to meet this need with that interaction. I believe I am a little grumpier and upset if I am unable to see particular friends when I have the desire to see them. I may then behave in a rude manner or a less patient one with others. I almost have withdrawals if I am unable to see my one friend or talk to any of my three best friends. I can bring the mood down at work and other places if this need is not met. But at the same time I may be overly friendly and chipper at work because I am at least interacting with another human being, even if it isn't the one I was wanting. This need isn't fully met but it is partially met for the time being.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
It was motivated to find a bigger world to swim in and was able to jump out of the fish bowl to explore the world around it. You can achieve what you set your mind to achieve.

TERMS: psychological needs: autonomy, competence, relatedness

Chapter 6 explains human motivation and psychological needs through the organismic approach. The organismic approach is the combination of three psychological needs, autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and the interaction between people’s needs and the environment. The environments are constantly changing, so organisms need to be resilient to accommodate to these changes. People have a dialectic relationship with the environment, meaning, “the environment acts on the person and the person acts on the environment”. Because they affect each other, they are both constantly changing.

Something that I found most interesting, not really all that surprising though, is the section of the chapter about failure tolerance. I found this interesting because it explains how failure can motivate people in different ways. When some people fail it will cause them to try less challenging tasks which they are more likely to accomplish, but other people who fail will be motivated to try the same or equally difficult task until they are competent enough to accomplish said task.

If I had to rate myself for my psychological needs, I would say I have a high autonomy rating. I’m very self-determined. I like to make my own schedule and do things on my own time. I usually lack motivation if I’m told I have to do something within a certain amount of time. I would also give myself a high competence rating. It’s not necessarily important for me to be the smartest person in the room by any means, but it is important for me to exercise my skills to the best of my ability. In contrast from the first two psychological needs, I would rate my relatedness need as low. I have a few close friends, but that’s all I really need. I don’t actively seek new friends; in fact I tend to avoid social interactions occasionally. The book states that “everyone needs to belong”, but I actually like being different and being myself, and I don’t really care to be a follower and belong in a group.

These levels manifest themselves into my life mainly by my art. I’m a musician and graphic artist and I’m highly driven to make new pieces that people have never seen or heard before. I posses the skills to make what I want to make, but I’m still learning and becoming more competent every day so that I can make my work better. When I look back at my work from last year, I realize how much higher my standards are now that I’ve exercised my skills and I continue to challenge myself. My art also reflects my lack of need for relatedness. A lot of my music is experimental which is far from the norm. If I had a high need for relatedness and wanted to belong I would make pop music.

Autonomy one of the three psychological needs of the organismic approach. I’m a self-determined person and I like to do things on my own time. I’m usually willing to do certain tasks (such as reading or writing), but when I’m told I have to do something I lose all or most of my motivation to complete the task. I almost always procrastinate until the last minute, although I may have done it on my own if I wasn’t told to do it. I guess this is the opposite of motivation, but this is how autonomy affects some of my specific behaviors.

My guess as to why the fish is jumping out of the bowl is that it wanted a challenge. It has probably been swimming in circles for a long time and it was bored of the same, dull task. So, it wanted to explore and master the challenge of experiencing life outside of the bowl. This is what Chapter 6 refers to as “competence”.


Terms:
Motivation, psychological, need, organismic, autonomy, competence, relatedness, dialectic, failure tolerance, drive.

Summarize the chapter.
This chapter is about psychological needs. A psychological need arises when we need to grow. They motivate exploration and challenge seeking behaviors. There are two different approaches to motivation through needs and they are the organismic theory and the mechanistic theory. The mechanistic theory states that the environment acts on the person and the person reacts to the environment and the environment never changes due to the person. The organismic theory says that we adapt to our settings and we need the environment to grow. This also means that the reactions happen in a dialect rather than just one way. Some of these needs are autonomy, competence and relatedness. Autonomy is the desire of choice and decision-making flexibility, and the need to experience self-direction and control of your own behavior. A perceived locus of causality refers to a person’s understanding of the source of his or her motivated actions. So for example if I want to read a book because I think it is interesting, my PLOC is coming from me but if a teacher told me to do it my PLOC would be, as I understand it, coming from the teacher. Coming from this, volition is a willingness to engage in an activity without being pressured to do so. Later on in the chapter, they talk about how to support autonomy and mostly, it is all about making the decision a choice rather than a command. Another need is competence and this is the need to feel smart and accomplished and we seek challenges when we need to fulfill this need. To support competence, you need to provide feedback when someone makes progress. The last need is Relatedness which is a desire to belong and this comes from social interaction. To support this, there needs to be a social bond and that involves making the other person feel that you care about them, and you like them. The thing that links the needs together is engagement and that is the amount of intensity that a person shows when they are carrying out an activity. This can be emotional (is the person happy to be there?), behavioral (are they intent on the behavior?), and cognitive engagement (can you tell that they are putting their mind to it?).
What was the most surprising thing you learned?
I think the most interesting thing I learned are the ways to support the needs. I am a shift lead at work and a marching band section leader so I love finding different ways to motivate people without seeming mean and this chapter really helped me out.
If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be and how do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?
I feel that I have high relatedness, medium competence and low autonomy. I have a lot of friends and some of them are more of a family to me. I challenge myself a lot but I feel like my competence is lowered because I push myself into the area of high demand and low control which is why I have anxiety. I feel like I have no control over most of the choices that I am faced with.
Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
Competence is one of the needs that motivates a lot of my behaviors, but more specifically, doing my homework and getting good grades. When I get a high grade on an assignment, it fulfills that need, so I take a lot of extra steps to make sure that I do a good job on every graded thing I have to do.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture and how does it relate to this chapter?
I think this fish picture is saying that fulfilling psychological need is just as important as fulfilling physiological needs because the fish is ignoring his need to breath in order to fulfill his need to cho0se to be out of the water or jump as high as he can. It relates to the chapter because sometimes psychological needs are more important than physiological needs and we will do some pretty crazy things in order to fulfill them.
Terms: psychological needs, organismic theory, mechanistic theory, autonomy, competence and relatedness, perceived locus of causality, emotional engagement, cognitive engagement, behavioral engagement, physiological needs.

Summary

Chapter 6 is based on our psychological needs and the three that were most important. The first need that they go into is autonomy. Autonomy is the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in one's behavior. The person is guided by their interests and wants to make this decision of behavior. The second one is Competence, which is, the need to be effective in interactions with the environment and it reflects the desire to exercise ones capacities and skills, in doing so, to seek out and master challenges. The chapter brings up flow and how it can create enjoyment and change in behavior. Flow is when you’re skill level matches the challenge which creates flow. The chapter skims over feedback and how it relates to competence and talks about how people need that feedback and what kinds of feedback there are. The last need is Relatedness, which is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people, and it reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. Relatedness is important to us as humans because we need people around us that care for you and your well-being, rather than those who don’t.

What was the most surprising thing you learned?

I think the most surprising thing I learned is how much these three psychological needs really affect people each day. I think the fact that each day I see these needs occur to me and now I can recognize just what it means to me. I think another thing that is surprising to me is flow and how that is defined. This sparked a lot of examples of me loving to play a certain sport because I had the skills to overcome the other team and win and this forced me to want to keep playing and going after the challenges ahead.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?

I would say my need for autonomy is medium because of the need I have to control and make decisions for my life. I think it could be higher if I was in the real world and not in college. I am still getting help from the university, professors, and family. I think the real world will change this need to high due to people allowing you and setting you up to make those for yourself. In college I have motivation caused by an external perceived locus of control. Examples of this are reading the chapters that are assigned to do well in the class and to succeed in college. My need for competence is medium because I want to try to build up a skill to succeed past challenges in my life. I think I try when the time is needed to face a challenge and then build up my skills. I think of preseason workouts for sports and how my work ethic was not as good but on the week of a game I was building my skills for the challenge that is to come that week. I would then receive feedback the following day on my performance in the video room from my coaches. The last need Relatedness is high to me because I am always in need of people and relationships I have with people. I have to have people who understand me and who can relate to me and my life around me and that is why I have the friends group I have. The need for that will overpower the other three forever because of the power of people I need around me.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

Relatedness is one that motivates my behaviors most in my life. I think the fact that I will always have a need for the bonds that I have with people and this motivates me to be who I am. I am a very outgoing person due to the need to want to connect and share a social bond with people that I meet. The need for communal relationships with my friends is why I am the person I am and the reason I have behaved how I have in my life. They help me change into a person that cares for them and their well-being.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

I think the fish is trying to jump out of the bowl to feel free and because he wants to make his own choices. He may be trying to jump out of the bowl to meet new fish and build a social bond. I think this is showing us the concept of these three needs and how it can relate to the world. I think this could be a picture of a lot of animals showing us their psychological needs to be free and challenge the cage to with stand a gorilla or tiger.

Terms: Autonomy, Relatedness, Competence, Flow, External PLOC, Motivation, Psychological Needs, Social Bonds, Feedback

Summarize the Chapter.

Chapter 6 discusses our psychological needs, which are broken down into three categories—autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is our psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of our behaviors. There are three qualities that work together to define the subjective experience of autonomy: an internal perceived locus of causality (the source of motivated behavior is a personal one rather than an environmental one); volition (the ability to freely do something, unpressured to engage in an activity); and perceived choice (decision-making flexibility). Besides these, autonomy is described in terms of autonomy-supporting styles motivational and controlling motivational styles. Styles that promote autonomy include nurturing inner motivational resources (e.g. increasing intrinsic motivation); relying on informational language (e.g. a teacher saying, “I see your grades are slipping. Do you know why this is?” instead of saying, “You need to do better.”); providing explanatory rationales (explain why certain behaviors are important instead of simply saying that have to do it because you said so); and acknowledging and accepting negative affect (understanding not everyone will immediately enjoy every activity so they may be resistant, so find out the underlying cause for this resistance and help them move past that). Controlling motivational styles involves pressuring people into behaving or acting in a certain manner. It has been shown that autonomy-supporting styles are much better for people, especially when considering development, learning, performance, and psychological well-being. Next, the book discusses competence. This psychological need is the desire to be effective in interactions with the environment, and it refers to the desire to exercise our capacities and skills, and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges. Even though we have a desire to be challenged, we need to be careful to not have the challenge be too high or us to be too overskilled for the challenge because it can create emotional problems (e.g. worry, anxiety, and boredom). Because of this, we need to ensure that skills and challenges are more fairly matched (these concepts are referred to as “flow”). The last concept the book introduces is relatedness. This term refers to our psychological need to create close, emotional bonds and attachments with other people. To form these bonds with people, we need to 1) feel as if the other people care about our welfare and 2) feel as if they like us. Without these, it is hard to form quality relationships. Also, for the relationships to fulfill our need for relatedness, we need to ensure that they are communal rather than exchange relationships. Communal relationships are those where people monitor and keep track of the others’ needs, regardless of any forthcoming material gain. These are the types of relationships we need to cultivate to fulfill our psychological need.

What was the most surprising thing you learned?

For me, what was interesting was the part of the text that discussed the autonomy-supporting motivational styles and the controlling motivational styles. In most of my classes and for most of my teachers, they utilize controlling motivational styles, which are not truly beneficial for students. We have very little choice in the matter of our homework or what we can read or the type of testing we will experience. All of these things are decided by the school or are teacher-specific. Even though this is the norm, it has been shown that autonomy-supporting motivational styles are actually more conducive to learning and development. If this is true, why are controlling motivational styles still so popular in the education spectrum? If we did not have these type of styles implemented into our schools, we may be able to improve students’ overall learning throughout their years in the educational system.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?

I would rate my autonomy as low to medium. Most of the activities are participate in at this time are school-related, and I truly have no choice in doing them. Besides this, I find no enjoyment in doing most of these activities. It can be a struggle at times to force myself to do all of my homework or complete all of my reading assignments because of my lack of choice and enjoyment in the matter. My competence I would rate medium to high. I enjoy challenges and testing myself to see how much better I can become at some activity. School is a good example of this. I feel the need to get really good grades because I love the feeling I get of accomplishing this. I feel as if I have done really well and overcame the challenge/goal I have set for myself to do well in my schooling. Because of these good grades, I get great positive feedback from my professors but also from my family, which makes the accomplishment seem even greater. Lastly, I would say my need for relatedness is high. I try as much as I can to set aside time to spend with my friends or to talk to my family because I like to feel as if I am giving them the friendly support they need, as well as receiving the support I need in return. I truly enjoy listening to my friends talk and helping them and advising them through their problems, which allows me to have fairly strong emotional bonds and attachments with my friends and family.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

My need for relatedness, as I stated above, is fairly high. I enjoy feeling as if I have people I can go to with my problems or people I can go to just to have fun with them. This goes for them too—I want my friends and family to feel as if they can rely on me and talk to me about anything. Because of this, I am extremely motivated to set aside time to talk with them on the phone or in person. Unfortunately, sometimes this does get in the way of me getting my work done. An example of this would be a couple of weeks ago. One of my friends was going through a breakup and she really needed someone to talk to, so I made myself available pretty much anytime that she needed me. This led me to get fairly behind in my readings for my classes, which is something I normally would not do. But I wanted this friend to know that I was there to support her and give her any of the help or advice that she needed. This shows to me, then, that relatedness certainly rates high on my list of priorities.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

The very first thing I thought of when I saw this picture when relating it to the text material was that the fish was trying to reach beyond what others have before, that it wanted to challenge itself to jump farther or higher. This would show the fishes need for competence. However, I could also see it as the fish needing autonomy. It wants to leave the rest of the fish in the bowl (or sea) and become its own fish. It wants to be free to do what it wishes and not feel forced to conform.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, internal perceived locus of causality, volition, flow, communal relationships, exchange relationships, positive feedback

Chapter Six focuses on the psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The chapter explains that psychological needs motivate exploration and challenge seeking. The chapter then explains the organismic approach to motivation. Organismic theories of motivation acknowledge that environments constantly change and organisms need flexibility to adjust to and accommodate those changes.

Autonomy is defined as the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one's behavior. The book next explains that behavior is autonomous when our interests, preferences, and want guide the decision making process to engage or not to engage in a particular activity. Autonomy can be broken down into three parts: internal perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice over one's actions. Internal perceived locus of causality refers to an individual's understanding of the causal source of his or her motivated actions. Volition is an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity. Perceived choice refers to the sense of choice we experience when we find ourselves in environments that provide us with decision-making flexibility that affords us many opportunities from which to choses.

Next, several aspects of autonomy is discussed. First, the conundrum of choice is examined. This section explains that there is a difference between the environmental event of being offered a choice and the personal experience of true choice. The section then moves on to supporting autonomy. It talks about autonomy-supportive motivating style. This section explains that any approach can be an autonomy-supportive one if one person is willing to take the other's perspective and to value personal growth opportunities during an activity. Next controlling motivating style is discussed. A controlling style is one that pressures the other toward a prescribed outcome and uses social influence to achieve that targeted socialization outcome. Motivating syles that are autonomy-supportive motivate others by nurturing their inner motivation resources. People with a controlling style motivate others by using outer motivational resources. Autonomy relies on informational language, provides explanatory rationales, and acknowledges and accepts negative affect.

Next, the chapter moves on to discussing competence. Competence is defined as the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and it reflects the desire to exercise one's capacities and skills and in doing so to seek out and master optimal challenges. The key environmental conditions that involves our need for competence are optimal challenge, clear and helpful structure, and high failure tolerance from others. The key environmental condition that satisfies our need for competence is positive feedback and the perception of progress. The chapter next moves on to discussing flow. This topic is one which I am very familiar with, as over the summer I took the course Creativity and the Evolution of Culture. During this class, I read Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's book titled “Creativity”.

The section regarding psychological needs concluded by discussing relatedness. Relatedness is defined as the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people, and it reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. The chapter continues by explaining that interactions must promise the possibility of warmth, care and mutual concern to fulfill the relatedness need. For a social bond to be fulfilling, the other person must care about my welfare and like me.

The chapter concludes by discussing social contexts that support psychological needs. This includes engagement (intensity and emotional quality individuals demonstrate when initiate or carry out activities).

I found the most suprising part of the chapter to be the section titled, “What Makes for a Good Day?”. I had not previously considered the role that psychological needs play on our moods. While after reading this section, the influence these needs has makes sense. Individuals report that they experience their best days when they experienced higher levels if daily competence and daily autonomy. I thought the section on incorporating psychological needs in exercise activities to be interesting and I plan on trying out for myself.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life? Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
Autonomy- High
I believe autonomy plays a very large role in my daily life. I try to allow myself to have as much free time as possible so I have the choice on what task I am going to devote my time on. In previous semesters, I have shown my autonomy by attempting to create a class schedule that is as personalized to my wants as possible.

Competence- Medium
I believe that competence plays a rather large role in my daily life. I believe that through activities such as puzzles, reading for pleasure, and learning new activities, that I am attempting to grow my skills and talents.

Relatedness- High
I believe my psychological need for relatedness plays the largest role in my daily life. I am an individual who has a very high capacity for interacting with others and I do not enjoy large amounts of time by myself. I also highly value relationships, and even at a young age have been in a committed relationship for almost 4 years.

I believe the fish picture is related to the topic of relatedness. I believe the fish is leaving the comfort of its environment to peruse a relationship. Without social interaction, the fish lacks relationships that are warm, close, and affectionate.

Motivation, Psychological Needs, Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, Environmental Factors, Engagement

This chapter is all about decision making and drive. It discusses the various types of drive and specifically choices. Chapter six talks about the different kinds of decision making, and different motivations for certain types of decision making.
The most interesting thing that I learned from this chapter was on competence. I know that we all want to be as competent as we can be, but what I didn't know was that we actually seek out situations where we can test our competence. When we feel bored, for lack of a better word, we may attempt to find activities that challenge us just as much as our current skills allow, and when we are successful at these activities we form a strong interest in them, but we also experience great feelings of accomplishment.
If I had to rate myself as either high, medium, or low on the various psychological needs I would say that I am high in autonomy, and medium on relatedness. One of the easiest areas of my life to see my dependence on autonomy is at work. I'm a server, but my bosses aren't often present. They have a general structure, but otherwise it's up to us to keep the place running. Since I've been there since the restaurant opened, there are a lot of decisions that I've made because they make sense. We are currently in the process of training new people, and I am have made the decision to set up a new floor map and general process for table take overs when we cut. This is a good example of an autonomous action because I've decided that who gets what tables (and some table are better than others) is important to me. However, I also want to be fair, so I've decided on what terms we change tables, and exactly what tables we change to.
The other area I chose to rate myself on was relatedness, and I gave myself a medium. I think anyone who would rate themselves lower than a medium is lying, and that's because, as the book states, everyone want to belong. I rated myself a medium, because like everyone else in the world I was people to like me, and I want people to want to be around me. However, and again I'll use a work example, I am more than willing to give up relatedness when something more important is on the line. For example, I work with only a handful of people, so naturally I want to get along with all of them at least a little bit. However, they are all women, and as we all know that of course won't work. So in this case, I would rather be disliked by my coworkers and have a job that pays my bills, than have a bunch of new friends and no job.
One of the major psychological needs that motivates many of my specific behaviors is competence. One easy specific behavior that was motivated by my need for competence was deciding to come college in the first place. High school was an unfortunately easy experience for me classroom wise. So, feeding my need for competence I decided to come to college and it turns out that it was pretty well matched for my skills. I'm also a pretty hard studier for tests. My grades are highly important to me, even though they've become steadily less so in recent years, and because of this I feel the need to prove to myself and to my professors that I'm competent.
If I had to make a guess about the fish picture I would say that it is indeed related to this class, mostly because I've taken a Kim and an Otto MacLin class before I learned quickly that there isn't much that goes on that isn't important, even if it isn't apparent at first. My guess would be that the fish feels a need for autonomy, and he is leaping out of his restraining fish bowl on his own terms in order to explore the outside surroundings. Unfortunately for the fish, I'm sure he won't last long outside of his confinement.

Terms: competence, psychological needs, autonomy, relatedness

I was surprised that our psychological needs are nurtured by out desire to engage with the environment. I was really interested in autonomy because I never really thought about how important it was for people to make decisions. Humans are typically into taking control and autonomy is basically saying that control makes people happy. I just found that really interesting.
I feel like I have medium autonomy. I think this because I typically hate making decisions that involve me having strong commitment to something. I hate having the pressure of a lot of decisions, but I also hate when people tell me what to do, or if I am forced to do certain things. I think that it my autonomy really depends on the situation or who is telling me to do something.
I feel like my competence is high. I am capable of doing a lot of things. I feel like I can interact with my surrounding and if I focus or set my mind to things, I will be able to get the job done. I may have to work at things harder than others, but I can usually accomplish things if I continue to work and try at it.
I would say I have high relatedness. I have a strong desire to want to have friends and constantly be with people. I hate being alone, and I love and value all of my relationships. The people I care about play an important role in what I do or how I act. I care the world about what they think, and I would do anything for them.
My engagement is medium. I sometimes struggle with showing a lot of emotion, and I can lack ambition depending on my day or the amount of sleep I get.
I think all the aspects of psychological needs are important. They determine our actions and our level of enjoyment while doing the action. Humans are very complex and I feel like are extremely moody. We all typically like to be in control of our lives and the things that occur in them. We also strive off of our relationships and our emotions involved in our relationships and actions. I feel like my levels in each category determine my level of happiness and satifcation. I find myself getting stressed out when I am doing things I don’t want to do, or if I am lacking in competence. If I have strong engagement and relatedness during the day I typically find myself in a better mood. I think this is because I value the people in my life and I enjoy being around others.
Relatedness really plays a role in my life because I enjoy being around other people. I recharge by interacting with others, and I am a happier person when the people I care about are around and happy. I am someone who cares a lot about what my family and friends think. Their happiness effects me, and my relationships determine my happiness. I wouldn’t be where I am today, if I didn’t have strong relationships with my family and friends. This really effects my life and my willingness to do a lot of things.
I think the picture of the fish really demonstrates perceived choice. The fish doesn’t get to choose where it lives. It is forced to swim around in a small bowl all day. This picture shows a fish taking control and leaving the bowl he was forced to live in!.
Vocab: Psychological need, autonomy, perceived choice, control, competence, relatedness, engagement

Chapter 6 covers the three psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness as well as their effect on behavior. These aspects give people a natural motivation for learning, growing, and developing into a well-rounded, mature person Autonomy is the need to have self-direction and personal endorsement in the start and continuation of one’s behaviors; this reflects the want of inner resources that determine one’s behaviors, rather than environmental events controlling behavior. Autonomy can appear in anything from relationships and work, to how to spend one’s time. We, as people, want to feel in control of something, especially if concerns our person. Competence is the need to interact effectively with our environment by exercising our skills and capacities, and finding and conquering challenges. This psychological need gives birth to the motivation that leads us to develop, improve, and refine individual skills and talents. Competence is the source of the phenomenon called flow, which is a state of concentration that incorporates comprehensive consumption and deep engagement in a particular activity. Flow is a positive emotion that creates confidence, among other things, and increases the likelihood of repeating the activity. The third and final psychological need is relatedness which is the need to create close emotional bonds and attachments with others. It represents the desire to be emotionally tied to people as well as be interpersonally involved with other persons in warm, caring relationships. Humans are social creatures, for the most part, so it is understandable that we want to experience these relationships as well as social acceptance from others. When combined, these needs gives us satisfaction and are necessary to growth and well-being.
The most interesting thing, to me, from this chapter is the science behind having a good day. I always thought good days were based on luck or having a happy mood all day, but Chapter 6 explained that good days are based on satisfaction from psychological needs. Autonomy, competence and relatedness give psychological nutriments required for good days and a happy well-being. My general happy mood during the day is actually due to satisfaction in my need for relatedness; I never even realized merely being in the presence of my friends would satisfy my relatedness need.
My ratings would be:
Autonomy - low because I really like having instructions and getting direction from professors, though I prefer deciding what to do with my time.
Competence - medium because while I like showing my skills and improving my knowledge in my major, overall it is not that important to me.
Relatedness - high because I love being around my friends and family. While I do need some time to myself periodically, being with my friends always improves my mood and makes my day better.
Relatedness motivates my behavior by engaging friends and even acquaintances in conversation to relieve boredom. I do not like being bored, nor can I stand awkward silences so I will try and start up conversation, not only to end the silence but to talk and catch up with my friends. This is probably the source for many of my deep and meaningful conversations with friends, as well all of my small talk episodes.
If I had to make a guess, the picture is resembling all three psychological needs for the fish. Autonomy because this is the fish’s decision that is affecting its life, no one else is making it leave. Competence to show that it can conquer the challenge of leaving its former life and make it on its own in the big bad world, versus staying safe in its bowl. Relatedness is shown because the fish is leaving its lonely bowl for, presumably, a more social life with other fish in the pond, river, or ocean, assuming it survives.
Psychological need, autonomy, competence, flow, relatedness, psychological nutriments

The focus of this chapter is on three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The organismic theory supports that the relationship between person and environment is reciprocal. Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self-direction and independence and can be broken down into internal perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice. Autonomy levels can be measured on a continuum scale that ranges from highly controlling to highly autonomy supportive. Autonomy-supportive environment motivating styles include nurturing one’s inner motivational resources, relying on informational language, providing explanatory rationales, and acknowledging and accepting negative affect. Autonomy support enhances engagement, development, learning, performance, and psychological well-being. Competence is the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment and generates the willingness to seek out optimal challenges. One supports competence by offering positive informational feedback. Relatedness is the psychological need to have close emotional bonds and attachments with other people and involves internalization. Communal relationships satisfy the need for relatedness while exchange relationships do not. Engagement is enhanced when autonomy, structure (competence), and involvement (relatedness) are involved.

The most surprising thing I learned was when the chapter was wrapping up each concept of psychological needs in the "what makes a good day good" section. I never considered how much our basic psychological needs effect our mood and behavior every single day. It's not like every day I think to myself "what are my levels of relatedness, competence, and autonomy today?" when really these three needs directly impact mood and determine which days we consider good and which days we consider bad. The good days are when all our psychological needs are met.

I would rate myself high on competence, medium on autonomy, and medium on relatedness. I completed a challenging workout not long ago, feel well prepared for a big exam I have tomorrow, and received positive feedback from my boss at work this afternoon which results in feeling a high level of competence. At work I'm the head of my site, but my boss in Waterloo still makes me follow pretty strict guidelines. In school I'm taking classes I chose going towards a major I chose, but some of my classes I'm just taking to fulfill the requirements of the university (Capstone). Living on my own I choose what I do in my free time with occasional influence of feeling compelled to do something because my roommate wants to do. This is why my autonomy level is medium. I go home most weekends and spend time with my family and neighbors. There I feel an extremely high level of relatedness. At school, as the week goes on, I feel a lower and lower level of relatedness because I'm surrounded by people who I don't really fit in or connect with. Once I go back home on Friday my relatedness level will go right back up. All three of these psychological needs are continuously changing in me depending on the environment and people I'm around.

Relatedness definitely motivates my specific behaviors. I go home every weekend to feel loved and valued because I don't feel a strong level of this at school. I have a group of friends here who I enjoy spending time with, but I don't connect with them on a deep level like I do with my family and my friends in California. I don't fit in with the average college student because I don't enjoy partying, drinking, or going out. I know I should keep trying to meet new people on campus who I can have deep friendship with, but after leaving California and having to say goodbye to my best friends in the world, I don't want to make super close friends here then have to move away from them once I head to graduate school in May. Since I try not to get too attached to people at school, I have noticed I enjoy alone time a lot and the sense of autonomy that comes with alone time. On Wednesdays and Thursdays when my level of relatedness starts to decrease, I spent more time on the phone or skyping with my friends in California and my family to avoid feeling lonely.

The fish picture could potentially depict any of the three psychological needs discussed in this chapter. The fish could be feeling lonely, trying to jump to somewhere where other fish are so it can make friends or be reunited with friends (relatedness). The fish could be pursuing an optimal challenge of seeing how high it can jump out of the fish bowl (competence). The fish could be escaping the bowl for independence or simply because it wanted to (autonomy). These three examples explain the three psychological needs explained in this chapter.

Psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, organismic theory,

Summarize the chapter:
Autonomy, competence, and relatedness, better known as our psychological needs, was the topic of chapter six. All three of these psychological needs rely on the organismic approach to motivation. The organismic approach says that humans have a natural motivation to learn, grow, and develop in a mature, healthy manner; however they are more motivated to do so when their environment supports psychological needs. This approach also assumes that first, people are inherently active and second, in the person-environment dialectic, the person uses inherent psychological needs to engage in the environment and the environment either supports or exhausts these inner resources. Since our main focus in on these needs the book discussed them in more detail.

Autonomy is the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. Actions of autonomy are brought on by a desire to have inner resources, not environmental events. Our need for autonomy is based largely on the type of relationships we engage in and how we perceive the environment. These relationships may either be supporting or neglecting and the person is directly affected by these relationships. For instance, autonomous behavior, instead of being controlled by others, has shown positive outcomes such as a motivation boost, development, better performance, etc.

Competence is the need to interact effectively with the environment. This is a challenge seeking characteristic. This is affected by one’s desire to practice skills and abilities and overcome challenges along the way. A need for competence brings about a motivation to want to develop and improve upon personal skills and talents. The most important aspect of competence is experiencing flow, which, as defined by the book, is a psychological state people experience when personal challenge and environmental skills are both relatively high. It can be characterized by maximal enjoyment, intense concentration, and full absorption in a task. The more an environment brings about this flow and need for competence, the more willing people are to develop and grow by reaching out and mastering new challenges.

Our final psychological need is relatedness. This is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. This fulfills our need to be in a caring relationship with others and feel this type of bond with one another. For relatedness to be satisfied a person needs to feel that the bond with one another brings about two characteristics: caring and liking. Overall relatedness is very important as it supports internalization, which is the process leading someone to accept their own values and beliefs through the social aspect of relatedness to another person who is caring and liking of them.

What was the most surprising thing you learned?
There was not much that surprised me while reading this chapter. These needs have all been clearly identified in my own life. Also, all of the processes and models were easy to follow and relate back to my own personal experiences and instances.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?
Autonomy: medium
Competence: high
Relatedness: high

How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?
I believe my need for autonomy is pretty neutral. I do value my opportunity of choice; however I do not get extremely frustrated when being instructed what to do, if it is handled in the right manner. I do enjoy making my own rules and being the one in charge but after working in retail for my first job and being under others for so long I have learned to take orders and deal with the position. It is what it is and I can’t do much about it. Plus, one day I will hopefully have the reversed role and be in charge of others. Being the underdog now will help me to realize how to correctly give orders and handle situations later on in life. I would consider myself a competence needy person. I am constantly taking criticism and also criticizing myself to be a better person on a daily basis. I am most definitely a perfectionist, which keeps me on my toes and ready for improvement. My current job has allowed for plenty of positive feedback, encouragement, and mastery of tasks. This gives me a confidence boost and continuous motivation to become better. I believe I have experienced flow hundreds of times both on the job and completing school work and my high need for competence is what keeps me going. Lastly, I would also say my need for relatedness is high. Actually, I would say my need for relatedness is the highest of the group. I have always enjoyed being around people, and having a strong bond between myself and another person is one of the best feelings. Sometimes it is all I need on a rainy, depressing Monday. To feel this type of bond with someone and having them truly understand and relate to what you may be going through helps me feel like I’m not alone and I am encouraged by this bond that I can get through my struggles. There are days (especially during the winter) when I experience depression and the only thing getting me through the bad days is the motivation and encouragement from my relationships and interactions with others who like and care about me.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors:
I find a reoccurring need for competence motivating my specific behaviors. Some of these behaviors include obtaining credit card sign-ups at work and studying for tests. Competence helps motivate my work goals and credit card sign-ups because it is something I am good at and although it took a couple years, I have it mastered. I can confidently answer any questions a customer may have and could fill out the application in my sleep. I am also good at selling the card and convincing customers to take advantage of its benefits. Since I feel confident in this task I tend to set high goals for myself each shift and the positive feedback from my managers doesn’t hurt either. Although I have mastered the task it is still something I am always looking to improve upon and develop new skills for. Studying for tests also brings about my high level of need for competence. I find myself searching for new ways to study to improve my test scores and I am aware of how much studying and points I will have to receive to reach my goal. I am the type of person who always wants to be the best I can be. I get annoyed of myself if I miss a class discussion or opportunity for improvement. In turn, good test grades reflect my high challenge and expectations of myself, as well as my ability to make it to class and take good notes.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
If I had to make a guess, I would guess that the fish picture could take many concepts from the chapter into consideration. First, the fish is escaping because he/she is sick of the owner deciding how he/she lives. The fish wants to make these types of decisions itself and not be bossed around or forced into action. Second, the fish has noticed that he/she is a good swimmer and wants to prove the abilities he/she has in a bigger place where skills can be improved with more space and positive feedback from other fish. Lastly, the fish is lonely and needs out of the tiny little fish bowl. He/she has no friends and is going to go search for a friend to bond with and share fishy life with. Whichever path it is, there is a need to be met and this fish is motivated to meet that need within.

Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, motivation, behavior, psychological needs, organismic approach, emotion, caring, liking, beliefs, values

Chapter six is about psychological needs. Psychological needs are different from physiological needs. Psychological needs come from doing things we enjoy. Our psychological needs provide us satisfaction and enjoyment. The chapter talked about three different psychological needs or organismic needs, they are; autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Autonomy is how we make our decisions and why. The motivation from autonomy is for interests, preferences, and wants. We experience autonomy every day. Volition is a type of autonomy. It is our willingness to do something without being pressured or feel held back about doing it. Another type of autonomy is PLOC, or perceived locus of causality. This has two components to it, internal and external. Internal meaning the motivation comes from satisfaction for yourself, and external meaning the motivation is toward satisfying someone else. Competence is our motivation for challenges, using skills, and interacting with the environment. Our motivation for competence is not always positive, sometimes could be more negative than positive. Some people struggle with challenges put in their life. Relatedness is our need to belong. It is our motivation to have and handle relationships, and how we do so.

I was surprised to learn that psychological needs could be broken down into three categories, autonomy, relatedness, and competence. I have heard these terms prior to reading this chapter, but I never really understood what they meant or how they played a role in our lives. I learned a lot about these three components of physiological needs after reading the chapter. I was able to think about how these things play a part in my own life, and think about how to rate myself for each of the categories. The way you rate yourself within the categories are easily changeable, by choice or not by choice. But either way, you don't have to stay within that range for long.

Autonomy: Medium to High

I am a full time college student, as well as a CNA working 30+ hours a week. I would say the level of decision making in my life right now is pretty high within my school life and work life. I have to really decide how to spend my extra time outside of school and work and find time to work on school whenever I can. I would say I am a pretty determined person and that I balance all the components of my life pretty well.

Competency: High

I have a lot of challenges in my life, especially at this point in time. I feel like I take these challenges pretty well and manage to get through them. I feel satisfied after being able to get through the challenges that are put in front of me. I guess I would say I enjoy a good challenge. My job gives me many challenges that can be super hard physically and emotionally, but when I manage to overcome the challenge I am extremely happy and satisfied.

Relatedness: High

I would say I have a high need to feel satisfied in my relationships. I always want to fix problems within relationships and make them the best they can be. I have attachments with many different people in many different ways. I have a close relationship with my parents and my sister. We are a very close family and have an awesome relationship. I also have very good relationships with the close friends that I have. I am always going a step further to make my relationships better.

I think this fish picture relates to the chapter because it was all about doing things for our enjoyment and satisfaction. Maybe it felt trapped inside the fish bowl and wanted to get out. This would lead him to do something to fix that feeling of being trapped. It would be motivated to jump out of the bowl to feel satisfied and take itself to a more positive place that would make it more happy.

Psychological Needs, Physiological Needs, Organismic Needs, Autonomy, Relatedness, Competence, Motivation, Volition, PLOC

Chapter six talks about the different types of psychological needs. It begins by explaining organismic theories. These theories talk about how every organism has specific needs that need to be fulfilled. It discusses how organisms have three main organismic psychological needs that need to be fulfilled in some aspect.

Autonomy or the freedom to choose our own actions and consequences is one of the three organismic psychological needs that humans have to fulfill. Another way to explain autonomy is to be independent. Humans do not want to rely on others to make decisions for them. They want to be able to be in control of their lives and decide their future through their actions. With these choices that we make, we want to be able to have our interests fulfilled and in return have our behavior match those interests. To me this need is an obvious need that has to be fulfilled. I consider myself a very independent person and do not like asking many people for help, let alone have them make choices for me.

The second psychological need is that of competence. Competence is the ability to learn and understand our surroundings. This enables us to adapt and to develop skills that enable us to accomplish challenges. According to the book, competence allows us to be effective in interactions with the environment in order to optimize one’s skill to meet and master challenges. Many times when individuals seek our certain challenges, they have a general interest in what the challenge is about. Once this challenge has been accomplished, there is a general acceptance and feeling of pleasure that occurs after accomplishing this task.

The third and final psychological need that Reeve talks about is relatedness. This need talks about how everyone wants to feel like they belong. Reeve explains that we want others to acknowledge and be responsive to our needs, especially those that honestly care for our personal well-being. We constantly have the need to establish emotional bonds with people and become attached to them through relationships. I feel I am in high demand for this need. The book explains otherwise, but I am constantly in some sort of wanting for a social interaction. I start to feel extremely uncomfortable whenever I go too long with some sort of human interaction. Granted, the book disclaims this and says that in order for there to be relatedness, there needs to have a creation of a social bond. Though I am always wanting a social interaction, I still feel a high need to make social bonds with individuals. I am constantly striving to have a social bond with the people I meet. As Reeve explains this, he makes two specific bullet points that stand out to me. One is that the individual needs to care about the welfare of the other person and the other is that they have to genuinely like that individual.

In regards to rating myself as being high, medium, or low over the terms I believe that I would be rated high on autonomy, medium on competence, and high on relatedness. The reason I feel I would be so high on autonomy is due to the fact that I dislike having to have others make my choices for me. As stated above, I dislike asking for help on certain things, so the thought of having others make choices for me just sets me off. The book explains that often times, people with high autonomy- supportive motivation style treat poor performance and inappropriate behavior as problems to be solves rather than targets for criticism. This explains me to a “t” as I often catch myself trying to figure out subjective material as math problems and treat them with one answer. I often try to use autonomy to try and figure things out on my own, rather than having others tell me.

For my competence, I figure myself to be fairly average in those regards. I understand that I don’t know everything and that I might not have every skill there is, but I am one that will work hard try to find a way to do things. This is when my high autonomy comes in. If there is a challenge that is set before me, I do my best to try to find the most optimal ways to perform a task and to solve such a challenge.

Finally, in regards to my relatedness, I would rate myself high on the scale. As stated above, I am always looking for ways to increase my social outreach and to create new bonds with people. I always try to do my best to make people respect and like me.

Terms: Psychological needs, organismic theories, organismic psychological needs, autonomy, autonomy-supportive motivation, competence, relatedness, social bond.

This weeks assigned reading was chapter six on psychological needs. The book defines a psychological need as a human need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness that affect behavior. There are three approaches that the book talks about in terms of psychological needs and interactions between individuals and the environment. The organismic approach states that the environment is constantly changing and the organism needs to be flexible. The mechanistic approach involves the environment acting on the individual and the individual reacts. The last approach, the dialectic approach, suggests a reciprocal relationship in that the environment acts on the individual and the individual, in turn, acts on the environment.
Autonomy is the need for an experience of self-direction and personal endorsement. In other words, people need to be able to decide things for themselves. One concept of autonomy is the perceived locus of causality, which is an individual's understanding of the casual sources of motivated action. Another concept related to autonomy is violation, which is an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity. Perceived choice, or a sense of choice experienced when we find ourselves in environments that offer us decision making ability, is another related concept.
The book defines competence as the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment. Everyone wants to be competent in what they do otherwise they just feel lost. It is hard to be emotional and motivated towards a task or goal when you are not competent in it. The book also talks about flow, which is a pleasant feeling that involves confidence and reassurance of doing something right. When a person feels flow during a task or behavior they are more likely to repeat it.
Relatedness is the desire to belong and establish emotional bonds with other individuals. We all share a psychological need to be close and connected through family and friends. The book goes on to write about communal relationships, or relationships between people who care about the welfare of each other, such as friendships, family and romantic relationships.

The most surprising thing I learned from this week's chapter was that most of our psychological needs can be broken down into three categories. Autonomy, competence, and relatedness serve as the figureheads of our psychological needs. I would have thought that they would have been much more complex than that.

Autonomy: High
Competence: High
Relatedness: Medium

I chose to rate myself high in autonomy because I feel a strong need for self-direction and to decide things for myself. I always feel like I should be accomplishing something and hate wasting time. My job now allows me to make my own decisions as well, which has motivated me to stay there as long as I have. I rated myself high in competence as well. I need to be effective in what I do and demonstrate my capacity and skill. I am an extremely competitive person and hate losing. I like to show off my skill in anything that I do, whether that be sports, games, or even school. I always try to do tasks to the best of my ability. I chose to rate myself a medium in relatedness. I have a strong desire to belong and share emotion/related bonds with others, however I do like to spend time alone as well. I probably don't call home enough either and that is a behavior of mine that I would like to change.

I feel like the fish in the picture relates to the chapter by having a strong psychological need for autonomy. It wants to be able to decide for itself where it is instead of being confined to the small bowl. Like a person in prison, autonomy would be a strong psychological need because you have many of your choices taken away from you. The fish may have also wanted to demonstrate its competence in its swimming ability by propelling itself out of the bowel. It may have done this because it felt a low sense of relatedness by being the only fish in the bowel. It lacked communal relationships and chose to leave.

Terms: Motivation, Emotion, Psychological Needs, Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, Flow, Organismic Approach, Mechanistic Approach, Dialectic Approach, Perceived Locus of Causality, Violation, Perceived Choice, Communal Relationships

Previously in the text, we learned about the physiological needs and the basics of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In Chapter 6, we moved from the reactive, biologically-based needs such as hunger and thirst to the proactive, growth-based psychological needs. Autonomy, competence, and relatedness are not essential for moment-to-moment physical survival, but they are necessary for personal development and a sense of psychological well-being.
The need for autonomy is the need to self-determine. An internal perceived locus of causality (PLOC), volition (free will and desire to do something), and perceived choice all contribute to the experience of autonomy. Autonomy can be fostered with an autonomy-supportive motivating style, or quashed with a controlling motivating style. Autonomy-supportive motivation of others requires one to nurture another person’s inner motivational resources, use flexible language, explain why things are happening or why something is important, and be accepting when the other person expresses negative affect. Consistent autonomy support can provide several benefits to motivation, engagement, development, learning, performance, and psychological well-being.
Competence is the need to feel as though one is interacting effectively with the environment--that one’s efforts are successful. Optimal challenge paired with a similarly moderate to high skill level can lead to flow, a pleasurable experience in which one is completely absorbed in an activity while working to meet a challenge and receiving useful feedback. A high skill level paired with low challenge breeds boredom; low skill and high challenge generate worry or anxiety; and low skill combined with low challenge leads to apathy. Flow arrives in the “sweet spot” where a true challenge is met with an appropriate level of skill. The challenge or the skill level can be adjusted to create a better experience that may or may not lead to flow.
Relatedness is the need to feel close to others. It is not enough to have a certain number of relationships, but rather these relationships must be high in quality and produce a close, emotional bond. Interacting with others involves the relatedness need, and becoming close to someone satisfies the need. It is important for the person to feel that s/he can display his/her genuine self without fear of sudden judgment or rejection; when another person accepts one’s “real” self, this is integral to feelings of true relatedness. Communal relationships involve the give and take necessary for relatedness; exchange relationships are based around some sort of transaction or temporary requirement and do not satisfy the need.
When psychological needs are satisfied, engagement tends to occur. When we feel close to others, autonomous, and competent, we often display behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, cognitive engagement, and we express our personal preferences (voice).
A couple of items in the section about competence jumped out at me. On page 158, the text discusses adjusting the level of the challenge or the level of the skill to change one’s experience of a situation. One example of this is when someone with a high skill level will engage in a task that is relatively easy for them despite the fact that it provides little or no challenge.
Easy victories could help assuage a person’s feelings of incompetence or reassure someone before moving on to a bigger challenge. I occasionally play a word game that I generally excel at, but I begin on a lower skill level than is challenging for me, especially if I haven’t played in a while. This helps me get into the rhythm of playing again, but I can also see how this creates a “relief-based type of enjoyment” as the text puts it. As in: “Phew! I’m still good at this!” This idea makes sense, but it took me by surprise as I read it.
As a perfectionist, I found the section on failure tolerance to be interesting. For many perfectionists, the fear of failure is crippling and can lead to highly unproductive avoidance behaviors. In other words, the perfectionist shies away from the task for fear of facing his or her inadequacy, however temporary. The text says that, in general, people do prefer optimal challenge, but optimal challenge very often involves failure. To take on an optimal challenge, one must accept that failure is possible if not likely. I guess when I imagined this type of situation, I had thought, “Optimal challenge + high skill= guaranteed success!”
But that is not the case. If the challenge is truly optimal, success is possible but not guaranteed. Failure can be disappointing, but ultimately it provides valuable feedback on one’s performance. If the perfectionist cannot tolerate the possibility of failure, he or she may be tempted to seek those easy victories to create a false sense of competence instead of pursuing the real thing.
As for psychological needs in my own life: I think all three of the needs are moderately satisfied. In other words, I feel autonomous, competent, and related to others to a certain extent, but each of these areas could be better. Autonomy is probably the most well-satisfied need; I have a great deal of personal independence and generally have some latitude at work as well, though maybe not as much as I’d like at times. My feelings of competence have only grown this semester as I have improved my work in this class, but in other areas of life, my need for competence is frustrated by a lack of opportunities for optimal challenges.
Since I have been living in a new city away from my established friendships, my need for relatedness has been frustrated a bit as I attempt to connect on a meaningful level with new people. (My need for relatedness seems particularly salient right now as I am beginning to plan a wedding next summer, and weddings almost inevitably involve connecting with family and friends.)
In my day-to-day life, my need for relatedness manifests itself in a number of behaviors. I correspond with loved ones via email and Facebook. My friends and I share personal developments and stories when we meet in person. My fiance and I continually express emotional support, kindness, and affection to each other and we alter our schedules to spend more time together when possible, despite both of us being so busy.
The fish picture could illustrate any of the three psychological needs. The autonomous fish could be exercising its ability to self-determine (and deprive itself of water). The competent fish could be chasing the challenge of jumping high enough to escape the fishbowl. And the relatedness-seeking fish could be leaving its solitary confinement to find others.
Terms: growth based need, psychological need, autonomy, competence, relatedness, well-being, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, autonomy-supportive motivational style, controlling motivational style, autonomy support, feedback, engagement, learning, optimal challenge, flow, apathy, communal relationships, exchange relationships, behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, cognitive engagement, voice, failure tolerance

Human beings are capable of more than just base behaviors. Biological and physiological motivations deal directly with biological deficits. People also have psychological needs that are proactive and promote growth of the person. These activities are pursued because they interest us and we enjoy them.

The psychological are broken into three needs and can be referred to as organismic psychological needs. Organismic theories are based off of the ideals that as organisms engage and interact in exchanges with its environment which are necessary for life. They do this because they possess the skills and in response to the changing environment and a need for growth the organism they use these skills to replace outdated ones. Conversely in a mechanistic theory the environment changes and the person reacts accordingly.
There is no exchange it is a one way street.

Autonomy is one of the psychological needs and relates to an individual’s desire for self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. Autonomous behavior is behavior guided by an individual’s interests, preferences, and wants. Autonomy is however subjective and is based off of three experiential qualities. These three are the perceived locus of causality, volition and perceived choice.

Competence is another of the psychological needs. It is the need to be effective in interactions with the environment and reflects one’s desire to exercise skills and capacities and in doing so seeking out and mastering optimal challenges. Flow is the state of concentration that produces a holistic absorption and deep involvement in the activity. Flow is pleasurable and people will seek out the same activities to re-experience flow. Often it occurs when overcoming some challenge.

Relatedness is the third psychological need. It can be defined as the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people and it reflects the desire to be emotionally connect to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. Because of the need for relatedness people tend to form social bonds easily. These bonds however need to fulfill the requirement of one’s true self being important and having the other person genuinely care.

On a good day our psychological needs are met and fulfilled. This is due in part to the psychological needs provide psychological nutriment necessary for good days and positive ell being. Often people experiencing high levels of engagement and feelings of autonomy, competency and relatedness report high levels of vitality.

Prior to reading this chapter I had/have used the terms of autonomy, competency and relatedness before. The words specifically where not new terms to me. I was surprised however to learn about the very specific and various aspects that go into each area. As an example the fact that for an individual to feel relatedness satisfied they cannot simply talk to a group of people. In order to receive that satisfaction they need to for that special bond with another individual under certain conditions.

I also was surprised by things like he importance of performance feedback in helping an individual to feel psychologically challenged. It is through the use of challenges and performance feedback individuals feel psychologically challenged. Not only that the individual also needs structure and failure tolerance present as well.

Structure allows the individual to receive information about pathways to desired outcomes and support and guidance for pursuing these pathways. Similarly since the fear of failure and extinguish competence motivation the environment also provide an environment rich in “error tolerance” or “failure tolerance”. Without these elements present an activity doesn’t motivate or fulfil psychological needs.

In all honesty I think it is impossible for me to pin down my levels of psychological needs. As we have all learned motivation is simply an ebb and flow. So as I have learned my levels will vary day to day task to task because there must be certain elements present for me to experience a given level of need.

As an example one day in a skills task I might rate my autonomy as high, competence as medium and relatedness as medium. I might actually enjoy sitting in class and find that the time limit flies by and is over before I know it.

The next week in the same class my autonomy might be medium, competence low and relatedness high, so time seems to slug along. I am not really enjoying what I am doing and it all feels forced and fake. It all seems to fluctuate based upon the conditions. I now am able to recognize that it changes because there will be elements that shift week to week that alter the conditions that are conducive for producing optimal levels of each psychological need.

If I had to pick one need for me it would definitely be relatedness. This is a psychological need that has become very evident to me over the past few years. I currently live in a small town and don’t know very many people.

As a result in my quest to satisfy my need for relatedness I find that I am more motivated to go to work because my co-workers serve as a way to help satisfy relatedness for me. In fact the social aspect has been a big part in what has prevented me from leaving that job even though I was unhappy there.

I find over the past few years my cell phone usage has increased. Due to the rural area of my home it is far easier to pick up a phone and call someone than it is to organize seeing them face to face. Those I speak to on the phone have a much stronger bond with me and I need less time with them to feel satisfied. We tend to share quite a lot of personal information and have an understanding of each other.

Interestingly I find my feelings of bonding with people can be over a singular area. For example I feel pretty bonded with my co-workers over our respective children. There is still a great many things I wouldn’t and don’t discuss with them but that doesn’t prevent me from feelings bonded to them. From my work to friends to family. I think the wide variety of people I am bonded too are all for various reasons but don’t make the bond in my yes any less special.

I think the fish in the picture represents someone whose needs are psychologically met. The beginning of the chapter talked about our psychological needs promoting growth and development. To me that’s what the fish jumping out of the fishbowl symbolizes. An individual’s need to grow and develop by challenging themselves and moving beyond what they know and are comfortable with. In other words perhaps specifically in some ways autonomy. Otherwise the desire to grow psychologically as a whole.

Terms used: Psychological, autonomy, competence, relatedness, flow, organismic theories, mechanist theories, biological needs, physiological needs, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, structure, failure tolerance

Summary:
Chapter 6 was all about psychological needs. Autonomy, competence, and relatedness are the three categories psychological needs are broken down into. Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one's behavior. There are three things that work together to define the subjective experience of autonomy: An internal perceived locus of causality, violation, and perceived choice. Internal perceived deals with the source of your motivated behavior. There are both internal and external sources of PLOC. Volition is a willingness to participate in an activity without being forced. Perceived choice is basically the feeling you get when you feel like you have the flexibility to make your own decisions.
Competence is the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment. It is the desire to want to thrive at everything you do. Relatedness is the psychological need to establish close emotional connections with other people. Everyone wants to feel like they belong right where they are.

Most surprising thing you learned:
The thing that surprised me the most was just how easy it was to break down psychological needs into three categories. At first when you think about trying to define psychological needs it seems like a big daunting tasks and we want to make it a lot harder than it is. It can easily be broken down into just three parts that encompass everything though. Knowing this really helped me think about my life and the importance I put on each of the three categories.

Autonomy: Low
Competence:High
Relatedness: High

How do these manifest in your life?
I don't feel like I have a super high need from autonomy. I usually don't mind being told what to do as long as the person telling me what to do has some sort of authority. I would say I have a fairly high need for competence. It is easy for me to become overwhelmed and want to give up if I don't feel like I'm capable of accomplishing the task I am working on. I love the feeling I get after I am able to press through and accomplish something I really had to work for. I have a very high need for relatedness. I love to be included and spend as much time with my friends as possible. Knowing people want to spend time with you is one of the best feelings in the world.

Choose one psychology need and how it motivates your behavior:
My need for relatedness is easily my highest. The way I feel most loved is when someone wants to spend time with me, quality time means way more than someone who just wants to spend money on you. One way this motivates my behavior is I'm very motivated to hang out with my friends a lot. I'm motivated to check in and see how their day was, I'm very willing to talk to them about anything they need to talk about and help them out in any way I can. It also motivates my behavior to call my family frequently.

What's the deal with the fish picture and how does it relate to this chapter?
In my opinion the deal with the fish is that it he looking for autonomy. He doesn't want to be told it has to stay in his tiny, ordinary bowl. He wants to be able to accomplish bigger and better things and go out on his own.

Terms used:
psychological needs, perceived loss of causality, volition, perceived choice, autonomy, competence, relatedness, motivation

Chapter six discusses the psychological need of a person which include; autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These three psychological needs all rely on the core assumption that people are one, inherently active and second, the person possess a natural motivation.
Autonomy would be described as a need to experience self-direction. That person would need to determine their own actions rather than have environmental events determine them for them. So basically we want to be the ones who decides what to do, when to do it, how to do it, when to stop doing it, and whether or not to do it at all. Three qualities work together to determine the subjective experience of autonomy. Perceived locus of causality which is and individual’s understanding of the causal source of his or her motivated actions. Volition refers to an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity. And finally perceived choice is when we find ourselves in environments that provide us with decision-making flexibility that affords us many different opportunities that allows us to choose from.
Competence is when you would want to interact effectively with your surroundings. Your need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and so you can reflect the desire to exercise your capacity and skills. Flow is a state of concentration that involves a holistic absorption and deep involvement in an activity, which is pleasurable for the person. It happens whenever a person uses their skills to overcome some challenge and if challenges and skills are perfectly matched, the experience is one of flow.
Relatedness is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. Everyone has some need to belong, have social interactions, wants friends. It is an important motivational construct because people function better, are more resilient to stress, and report fewer psychological difficulties when their interpersonal relationships support their need for relatedness. Since we need forms of relatedness this is why we form social bonds easily. It is important for an individual to be their true-self and for that person to be valued. This is why communal relationship are more important to an individual, rather an exchange relationships. Communal relationships are those between people who care about the welfare of the other like; friendships, family and romantic relationships. Exchange relationships are those between acquaintances or between people who do business together.
I found it to be interesting that with relatedness you have so many more benefits to you. How to book discussed the person in going to overall function better and not stress as much really intrigued me. I would have thought that having to worry about other people in your life would cause you more stress not help you fight it in a way.
If I had to rate myself on the psychological needs I would consider myself to be pretty average I would think. For autonomy I would be at about a medium. I work a lot and I go to class. So it’s not like I do much for pleasure. Except I love kids and I get to hang out with them at work and on weekends I do get to hang out with friends. For competence I would say I am medium high. I pick up on new skills pretty quickly and I put in the work if a new skill is a little more difficult for me. I like to be able to adapt to my surroundings. As for relatedness I would consider myself low. I don’t hang out with a lot of people. I consider myself pretty A social. I don’t go out of my way to strike up conversation with random people or make new friends. I keep to myself a lot. It’s not that I can’t, I just typically chose not to. I’m a home body and a family person. I stick with the people that I know. Many times I put those that I care about before myself which gets me into trouble. My mom even says since I was little I’ve had the white knight syndrome that I can’t ever let my friends or family fight their own battles that I have to be the one who does it. Which motivates my behaviors to be the best that I can be for my family and not disappoint them in anything that I do.
I think the little fish it demonstrating autonomy and competence. He is like I can do what I want when I want. You are trying to keep my confined to this bowl well guess what not happening. I am making the decision to jump out of this here bowl. Which is a great challenge for the little fish.

Terms: Psychological needs, organismic theory, mechanistic approach, autonomy, competence, environment, relatedness, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, flow, communal relationships, exchange relationship.

Summarize the chapter.
Chapter 6 explained psychological needs. These needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are based on an organismic approach to motivation. An organismic approach notes that the environment is ever changing and that those within the environment much change and adapt with it. Also within this approach is the acknowledgement that the environment can either sate our needs, or exacerbate our needs. All in all, this approach illustrates that humans are very capable of inner motivation to expand themselves when the environment is supportive of doing so.
The first organismic psychological need is autonomy. This is the need for freedom, and the ability to make one’s own choices from within. A perceived locus of causality (Where the need comes from) is vital to whether or not something will satisfy the need for autonomy. Internal locus would, whereas an external locus would not. Simply having choices is not enough to sate our autonomy need. We need to be able to have freedom of choices, not just a “Choose this or choose that” situation. When motivating another, using an autonomy-supporting method can be beneficial rather than a strict, controlling method.
The next need is competence. This is the need to be successful within our environment. One aspect of competence is “flow.” This is the sort of zen a person can reach when skill and challenge are equally matched and high. This state is one of balance however, because if either skill or challenge becomes too high, too low, off-balance with each other, this can lead to stress, boredom, or apathy. Structure in an environment is important to support competence because it provides clear goals, guidance, and good feedback. Also, being tolerant of failure (Failure Tolerance) is supportive of one’s need for competence. Another method to support the need for competence is positive feedback. This makes us feel like we are doing a good job, and thus satisfies our need for competence.
The last need is relatedness. This is the need for social interaction and close relationships. Although simply interacting with others involves relatedness, satisfaction of this need involves caring and liking between people. Some relationships are more beneficial than others. Exchange relationships (this for that/calculated/business) are less satisfactory than communal relationships (free/giving/friendship). In fact, communal relationships are the only ones that can satisfy the need completely. Another part of relatedness is internalization (taking a another’s value/belief as your own). Internalization occurs most when the relationships are satisfactory of the need for relatedness.
Putting this all together into the engagement model of motivation, we see that relationships and environment act to aid or exacerbate our needs. Engagement is a term used to describe when a person is truly motivation to do an activity and very much a part of that activity. When a person is supplying one of their psychological needs, engagement is usually the endgame. Also, supplying all those needs is part of what creates a “good day.” People generally feel as it had been a good day when they are able to satisfy all of their psychological needs. They feel a sense of vitality (feeling alive and vital) when those needs are met.
What was the most surprising thing you learned?
The most surprising thing I learned was that we seem to be so picky with how our psychological needs are fulfilled. For example, only certain kinds of choices satisfy our need for autonomy. We need to have a full freedom of choices before that need is met. Aside from that, only a communal relationship will fully satisfy our need for relatedness. It just seems odd that while people usually are quite flexible and adaptive to our environment, we specialize in these areas. One would think we would want to generalize in these areas and take what we can get to keep going.
If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?
I would rate myself as medium-high on autonomy because while I feel a strong need to be able to make my own choices and have a lot a freedom, I still am very willing to accept help if need-be from others in my life. In competence, I would rate myself as a high need. I feel a lot of pressure from within to do incredibly well in all I do, and find myself very discouraged if I do not do near-perfectly. Lastly, I would give myself a medium need for relatedness. I need a few close relationships in my life, but I often find myself overwhelmed and stretched thin if I have too many people in my inner circle.
How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?
For example, autonomy presents itself in my life when I feel a strong desire to not live with my parents and to rarely ask for monetary help. I like the feeling of being able to do “life” on my own. Competence manifests itself in my life during schoolwork. I often feel unable to function in other areas of my life until my grades are as good as I could possible get them. I feel my best and am able to look at other aspects when I am satisfied with my schoolwork. Finally, I feel the need for relatedness most when I am alone inside on a really nice day in summer. I know that people are at the pool or hanging out at the ice cream place. I feel lonely when I am not doing those things, but know that I could be.
Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
My need for competence has motivated many of my behaviors. When I am not feeling competent in an activity at all, my motivation hits a low and often quit that activity. This happened with volleyball in high school. I wasn’t terrible, but I wasn’t as good as I thought I should be. Other times, I may feel not competent enough, but see potential to improve, so I try harder. This happens in school a lot. I may not understand a topic, yet I know I usually understand after lots of studying, so I want to try much harder.
If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
I think the fish may have something to do with the challenge vs. skill concept. The fish out of water represents when the skill is very low with the challenge very high. This leads to feeling over-challenged, which leads to the emotion of worry or anxiety. Obviously the fish doesn’t have any skill for breathing air, so it relates in that fashion.
Terms: Organismic; Environment; Psychological Needs; Autonomy; Competence; Relatedness; Locus of Causality; Failure Tolerance; Vitality; Engagement; Flow; Communal Relationship; Exchange Relationship

Chapter 6 covered psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. They can also be called organismic psychological needs (the survival of an organism depends on its environment). Organismic psychological needs are what provide the motivation that supports our initiative and learning. According to the book, psychological needs differ from physiological needs in that the energy created by psychological needs is proactive. Psychological needs are what give us a willingness to seek out and engage in a behavior that we think will nurture our psychological needs. Organismic theories focus on how organisms initiate interactions with the environment and how they then adapt and grow. Mechanistic theories are opposite: the environment acts on a person and the person reacts. As mentioned before, the three psychological needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is our desire for choice and decision making flexibility. It is the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of behavior. Volition is an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity. Competence is the need to be effective in interactions with the environment. It reflects our desire to exercise one’s capacities and sills and to seek out as well as master optimal challenges. Flow is a state of concentration that involves an absorption and deep involvement in the activity at hand, and it occurs when a person uses his or her skills to overcome the challenge. It does not occur if the challenge outweighs our skill or if our skills outweigh the challenge. Relatedness is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. According to the chapter, on our good days, the events in our lives work to involve and satisfy our psychological needs. The chapter goes into further detail about each of these topics.
The most surprising thing I learned was the concept of flow. I have experienced flow before, but never really thought about why it was happening. One example is when I read a good long book. I sit down to read for five minutes and the next thing I know, it’s been five hours and the book is finished. I never knew that it was called flow, or that it only happens when my skills match the activity. It was really interesting to read about.
I would rate myself as high for relatedness. I love being with friends and family, and I hate being alone for more than a certain period of time. My desire for social bonds is very high. I love to meet new people and make new friends. More importantly, I love to deepen the bonds I already have with people. I would rate myself as medium for autonomy. I like to be in charge of my own decisions, but sometimes I don’t get to be. My schedule and daily activities affect the decisions I make; I don’t really have a choice about what I do until the weekend. During the week I have class, homework, volunteer hours, meetings, and more. I would rate myself as a medium for competence as well. I like to challenge myself and I have a need for a structured schedule.
The psychological need for relatedness motivates a lot of my behaviors. My strong desire to be close to people is what motivates me to hang out with my friends a lot as well as keep in contact with a few close friends from back home. I also talk to my mom and my grandma a lot. I like to have close bonds with people. My need for relatedness is what makes me so outgoing and talkative with everyone, especially my close friends and family. It also is what motivates me to be involved on campus. I am apart of many organizations on campus as well as off campus. I love to be around people and to work with them.
The fish jumping out of the bowl could absolutely relate to this chapter and psychological needs. Specifically, it could relate to the psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The fish could have jumped out of the bowl because he wanted to. He could have had self-direction and high volition so he jumped out of the bowl to satisfy his need for autonomy. He could have also been lonely in the bowl so he may have been jumping out of his bowl to join other fish in another bowl. Being alone may not have been meeting his need for relatedness, so he could’ve jumped out of the bowl in order to fulfill the need and be with others. The fish could have been motivated to try something difficult and challenge himself in order to fulfill his need for competence, so he jumped out of the bowl.

Terms used: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, organismic psychological needs, initiative, physiological needs, behavior, mechanistic theories, volition, flow

Summarize:

Chapter 6 deals with psychological needs. Psychological needs are an important addition to our analysis of motivated behavior. When an activity involves our psychological needs, we feel interest. When an activity satisfies our psychological needs, we feel enjoyment. Psychological needs motivate exploration and challenge seeking and therefore it is understood as growth needs. The chapter then talks about autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one's behavior. Competence is the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and it reflects the desire to exercise one's capacities and skills to seek out and master optimal challenges. Relatedness is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. The chapter concludes with when people experience the psychological needs necessary for active engagement, having a good day and subjective experiences of vitality and well being, then people experience satisfaction.

Most surprising thing you learned?

The whole part about what makes a good day surprised me. I thought it just broke down to having a good attitude and maybe a little big of good luck. I did't really think that there was an actual science behind it. Psychological needs provide the psychological nutriments necessary for good day and positive well being.

Autonomy: High
Competence: High
Relatedness: High

I am a full time college student and also work about 20 hours. I would say the level of decision making in my life right now is pretty high within my school life and work life. I have to really decide how to spend my extra time outside of school and work and find time to work on school whenever I can. I would say I am a pretty determined person and that I balance all the components of my life pretty well. For my high level of competency I have a lot of challenges in my life. I feel like I take these challenges pretty well and manage to get through them. I feel satisfied after being able to get through the challenges that are put in front of me. I would say I have a high need to feel satisfied in my relationships. I always want to fix problems within relationships and make them the best they can be. I have attachments with many different people in many different ways. I have a close relationship with my parents and talk to them on the phone every day just about random things. We are a very close family and have a really good relationship. I also have very good relationships with the close friends that I have. I would like to think that I would do anything to keep my relationships with others strong.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

The need for relatedness is easily my highest because the quality time that is spent with my family and friends means the most to me. One way this motivates my behavior is I'm very motivated to hang out with my friends a lot. Some of my close friends have graduated and I am motivated to call them up and see how they are doing. I am super close with my family. I talk to both parents at least once everyday on the phone with them to tell them how my day was and ask how their day was. I just feel that having strong relationships with people will help you be able to over come many obstacle in life.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

I believe that the fish is demonstrating autonomy and competence. The fish wants to make it out of that tiny bowl and into hopefully something a lot bigger with water. He sees jumping out of this little bowl as a challenge and if he can make a big enough jump into something bigger than that tiny bowl, then the fish will feel satisfied with itself for making the decision to jump.

Terms:

psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, vitality.

Summarize the chapter:
This chapter dealt with the concept of Psychological needs. The three psychological needs that the book covers are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the need for control over your own life and decisions, feeling like you determine your own path in life. When a human has an environment and relationships that they feel are supportive (whether ‘supportive’ means giving reasonable guidelines or giving a person complete freedom), they are able to indulge this need. When a person performs a task from an internal perceived locus of causality, as opposed to feeling compelled to perform the task by an outside source, the task will not seem so burdensome. In addition, they are more likely to have increased motivation, higher engagement, they learn more thoroughly, and they become more absorbed in the task. Autonomy is also associated with an increase in psychological well-being.
Competence is the next psychological need the book covers. This one is pretty straightforward, people need to win some of the time. Humans have a drive to use their talents and skills, and when we are good at something we tend to seek out tougher and tougher challenges in that area. This psychological need is what drives us to practice, and it is mainly satisfied by our own perception of progress. Positive feedback is also an important part of feeling competent.
The final psychological need the chapter discusses is relatedness. Most humans feel a strong drive to connect to other humans, to bond emotionally and intellectually with them. Not just romantic connections, but simply friendly, caring connections.

What was surprising?
I had never considered the distinction between caring and liking in a relationship. But it made me think of people in my past who I’ve been friendly with because I kind of pitied them, but I rarely genuinely enjoyed spending time with them. Having it split into ‘caring’ and ‘liking’ made me feel really bad, because hanging out with someone who cared about me as a human being but didn’t like me personally would SUCK. I would not get any satisfaction out of a relationship like that, and it really underlined the importance of both of those things for me.

Rate yourself on the various psychological needs. How do they manifest in your life? How do they motivate you?
I would probably rate autonomy as my least pressing psychological need. I do get more enjoyment out of a project or task if I chose to do it myself, and somehow fulfilling goals I set myself always feels better than other people’s goals. However, in general I have an external locus of control and so I can understand the value of doing things for other people’s reasons. I have noticed that my need for autonomy grows as I get older, so presumably this will drive a larger percentage of my choices as I age. Right now, I have two jobs. One gives me a lot of autonomy, and having that job allows me to put up with my second job in which I have no autonomy at all.
Competence is important to me, but I would say it is still second to relatedness. I grew up with 5 older siblings, so I got used to being around people who are more competent than me. I do know what I’m good at and what I’m not, and I recognize that it feels much better to work on projects I know i’ll be good at than ones where I am unsure of myself. For instance, being around a certain friend of mine makes me feel incompetent because she manages to be extremely involved in clubs while still working and going to school. However i can always make myself feel better by practicing my music or working on a sewing project, things I am relatively good at. When I am feeling down about almost anything actually, working on those things can make me feel better.
Relatedness is the most urgent psychological need I feel on a daily basis. I will quickly get down in the dumps if I am denied contact with friends, family, or my significant other. I will start to reach out to strangers more if it has been too long since I’ve talked to someone I care about. I put my social life on equal footing with my schooling and my work, even though the logical part of my brain tells me that that is a stupid thing to do. That doesn’t stop me from going out with my friends on Saturday nights, despite having to work Sunday morning. It also doesn’t stop me from skipping Friday afternoon classes to leave town and see my family that much earlier when I’m going home. My need for relatedness is just too strong.

I don’t think i’m creative enough to get the fish picture, because I don’t think any psychological need could be a strong enough motivation to overcome my physiological need for oxygen.

Terms used: Psychological needs, autonomy, internal PLOC, competence, relatedness

Read chapter 6. Summarize the chapter.

Chapter 6 discusses the psychological needs that we have and its affect toward motivation. The chapter examines the motivational significance of three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The chapter starts out by discussing the psychological needs that we all have and the feeling that we get when we do something that fulfills those psychological needs. Organismic psychological needs are then discussed and how they provide us with the motivation that supports learning. One of the most important things discussed in the chapter would be when it talks about how we want to be the one who decides what to do, when to do it, how to do it, and when to stop doing it. This is extremely true we all want to be in power of what is going on in our lives.

Choice is the next section in the chapter, providing a person with a choice may be the most obvious and widely used way to support a person's need for autonomy, which is the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one's behavior.
Competence is next discussed in the chapter, everyone wants and strives to be competent. We all want to be able to accomplish the things that we need to get done and when we can make progress on developing our skills, and feel a strong need-satisfying sort of satisfaction. When competence is discussed it is stated that we are tested every day both mentally and physically but we do the tings we do because we are looking to be challenged, to overcome those challenges and to receive feedback from the situation. The problem with our challenged situations in the terms of motivation is that sometimes we fail which can be very frustrating but at the same time we often are successful and experience satisfaction and enjoyment. Overall competence is largely a function of offering informational feedback when people make progress and creating opportunities for people to enjoy the pleasure of optimal challenge.
The next section discussed in the chapter is relatedness, which can be categorized as part of everyone's need to belong. Everyone wants to have friends, be social, and interact with other people in a positive way making relatedness the very important third psychological need. We all have a desire to be wanted by others and accepted by others and we will do basically whatever it takes to make that happen. Overall relatedness can be defined as the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people.

Experiences that satisfy all of the needs summarized above that were in chapter 6 make for a positive feeling and your typical "good day".


What was the most surprising thing you learned?
I found it very interesting to read about how important social bonds are too people. It makes sense because whenever we have a bad day and we isolate ourselves from others our day just seems to get worse and there is nothing we can do about it. We don't realize just how important our social bonds are with other people but they really have a huge affect on our lives and our emotions.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?

Relatedness: HIGH
Competence: MEDIUM
Autonomy: MEDIUM

How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?

It depends on what is going on that day, there are certain days that I chose not to be extremely social. Sometimes in my life I am moody and I just need to be left alone so on those days I would have a low level of relatedness because I don't care to associate with anyone or make anyone like me. Other days I am extremely happy and in a good mood and I want to get along with everyone. My friends often make fun of me and tell me I care way too much what other people think so overall I think these psychological needs affect me much more then I ever realized, whether I want to admit it or not.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
Relatedness: Motivates my behavior because I will often change my behavior in order to fit this psychological need. I have a large group of friends here in college and often when I am with specific friends they like to do different things then my other groups of friends. In order to fit in and be socially desirable by whoever I am with I often have to change my behavior to focus more toward the things that they like to do. It isn't a huge change and it isn't really a big deal but for example when I got out on the weekends I have a group of friends who always want to go to the "athletes party" and I have a group of friends who always want to go to their "high school group of friends party" so depending on who I am with I will change who I suggest we go out with.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
To me I would assume that the fish picture has to do with us feeling like a "fish out of water" if we don't fit all of these psychological needs. In order to fit in and feel happy with ourselves it is necessary to try to fulfill all of these needs and when we don't we sort of feel "left out to dry" so to speak like a fish out of its tank with no water.


Terms: psychological needs, perceived loss of causality, volition, perceived choice, autonomy, competence, relatedness, motivation

The assigned reading for this week was chapter six. Chapter six is about psychological needs, which are different from our physiological needs. Doing things such that we enjoy are psychological needs. Psychological need is defined as a human need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness that affect behavior. Psychological needs provide enjoyment as well as satisfaction, too. The three different psychological needs are autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Autonomy is how we make our decisions and why we do them, meaning that we experience this each and every day. One of the types of autonomy is volition. Volition refers to our willingness to do something without being pressured or feel held back about doing that something. The organismic approach refers to the environment that is constantly changing and that the organism needs to be flexible. The dialectic approach is one that suggests a reciprocal relationship in that the environment acts on the individual, as well as the individual acting on the environment. The last approach, the mechanistic approach, refers to the environment acting on the individual with the individual reacting. One of the other types of autonomy is perceived locus of causality. Perceived locus of causality has an internal component (satisfies yourself) as well as an external component (satisfying someone other than yourself). What the term “competence” refers to is the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment. I firmly believe that everyone needs/wants to be competent in just about everything they do in life that matters to them. Relatedness is defined as the desired to belong and establish emotional bonds with other individuals. It is our need to belong, most all of us need to be close with our family and friends. The last thing that this chapter talked about was the term “flow”. Flow refers to a good feeling that is involved with confidence and reassurance of doing something correctly. The feeling of flow during some behavior or task leaves a person more likely to repeat that task or behavior.

One of the surprising things to me in this week’s reading was that somehow, most if not all of our psychological needs can be broken down by placing them in only 3 categories: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. It’s kind of crazy to think about and analyze that it’s broken down and condensed into 3, simple categories. I guess I had heard of these terms before this chapter, but didn’t think about them the way I do now. I now realize how all of them play a role in my own life, and realize I’ve already started saying the terms more when I talk to people in everyday conversations!

Autonomy: High
Competency: High
Relatedness: Medium

Reasoning behind high autonomy: I’m just going to go ahead and say it. My life is the craziest it’s ever been. From working 100-120 hours a week in coaching football at UNI from July until December on top of 12 hours of classwork to get my Master’s Degree this semester, I think I could be the definition of time management. The decision making in my life is extremely quick and has to be efficient. I have no extra time for anything outside of football, and when I do get extra time, I devote it to schoolwork. I can sleep when I die, apparently.

Reasoning behind high competency: As stated previously, my life is crazy as shit. I have about 1,241,324,123 new challenges every day in my life that I have to get done as quick as possible, even if it’s something that I know nothing about or don’t know where to start. I’ve never been late to work, and I’ve never not gotten something done that I was given to do. It is a good feeling when I finish a challenge. I can say with confidence that if I make it out of UNI alive after this semester/football season, everything else for the rest of my life will be a breeze compared to the shambles my life is in now.

Reasoning behind high relatedness: I chose to rate myself high in relatedness because I feel like, while I don’t mind spending time alone and having “me” time, there’s nothing I love more than being with friends and family. Those two are extremely important to me, and every chance I get to see my family, I’m there.

When it comes to the fish out of the bowl of water picture, I feel like it was a sign. That’s going to be me in a few months when I graduate with my Master’s Degree and walk away with a national championship ring from the football season. Possibly, it felt trapped and wanted to get out. The motivation to make the jump out of the bowl and feeling of satisfaction are hopefully taking the fish to a better place. I just hope there is water wherever that guy is going.

TERMS: Psychological Needs, Physiological Needs, Organismic Approach, Mechanistic Approach, Dialectic Approach, Autonomy, Relatedness, Competence, Motivation, Volition, Perceived Locus of Control, Flow

Summarize chapter 6
Psychological needs, promote a willingness to seek out to engage in an environment that we expect will be able to nurture our psychological needs, the organismic theories of motivation talks about the environments, changing constantly and that they need flexibility to adapt to those changes, the opposite of this approach will be the mechanistic one, in this one the environment acts on the person and the person reacts. The person-Environment dialect talks about the relationship between person and environment being reciprocal, and they are in constant change.

Autonomy
we all want to decide, make decisions, we want freedom to decide, and all this shows our need for autonomy. Autonomy is defined by the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. Children’s way to experiment the world is a great example of the autonomy need. Perceived locus of casualty refers when we understand why we are acting in this motivated way, volition is an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity, an example of this could be when we engage in volunteering opportunities without actually being part of a group or an association; Perceived choice refers to a situation in which we are given options to choose, Everyone likes to have choices, this generally enhance people’s sense of autonomy and intrinsic motivation. Autonomy-Supportive Motivation Style people that have this kind of style motivates others by nurturing their inner motivational resources, for example, if there is a specific task that needs to be done, you might try to identify your interest in that task, whereas people with a Controlling Style motivate others by using outer motivational resources such as incentives, rewards, deadlines or threats of punishment. We need to be able to give a “because” when they are tasks that are not very appealing to us, if we explain why the activity is important, it is more likely that they might achieve it logically this is explained by providing explanatory rationales when trying to motivate others. There are a lot of benefits in the Autonomy-Supportive Motivational style they support and nurture our psychological needs for autonomy, competence, relatedness, intrinsic motivation, therefore enhancing in engagement, positive emotions, supporting important aspects of development, learning, performance, pleasure for optimal challenges and overall psychological well-being.

Competence
we all want to be able to perform well and be competent, we want to develop skills and improve our talents ad potentials. Competence is defined as the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment and in reflects the desire to one’s capacities and skills in doing so, to seek out master optimal challenges. We need to somehow satisfy this need, the key environmental conditions involve, optimal challenge, velar and helpful structure and high failure to tolerance from others, and the condition that satisfies our need for competence is positive feedback. Flow is a state of concentration in which we are deeply involved in an activity, the challenge is important, it sets up the conditions for flow to occur but there are also people that enjoy being over challenged. Feeling overwhelmed by challenge threats competence and that’s when we worry, but when challenge matches our skills we get a flow, as an opposite when we are being under challenged we neglect competence and we feel bored. A performer needs feedback and this comes from Task itself, comparison of one’s current performance with one’s own past performances, comparisons of one’s current performance with the performance of others and evaluation of others.

Relatedness
we all need to belong, to have social interactions, we want friends, and we do all sorts of “fun” things to spend time with friends this to maintain a warm and close relationship with them, we want relationships to be reciprocal. Relatedness are defined as the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people, relatedness is important because it can improve your overall psychological well-being. For a social bond to be satisfying it needs to be characterized by 1. - That person cares about my welfare 2. - That person likes me. Exchange relationships are those where people do business together, whereas communal relationships care about the social fact of being together not because of what they will get of that social event, For example my husband and I went out with some friends that we like a lot and we enjoy passing time together, we had such a wonderful time and by the time the bill came up there was 1 complication because the bill was put together and no one had cash on them, not even us so we decided to pay the bill our friends were grateful to us for paying dinner but I know they were way more grateful for all of us being there enjoying some time together.
Social Contexts that support psychological needs: 1. - engagement, when people are highly engaged people show behavioral engagement such as attention, effort, persistence, likewise when they have emotional engagement they will show interest, enjoyment and when they have cognitive engagement they have self-regulation of What they are doing and voice expressed as our preferences and interests. Psychological needs (Autonomy, competence and relatedness) provide the psychological nutriments necessary for good days and positive well-being, and when people feel autonomous, competent and interpersonal related they feel alive and vital, such as a spark of vitality is a rather clear signal that our psychological needs are functioning as growth, rather than a deficit, needs.

What was the most surprising thing you learned?
At first I was surprised by how difficult I thought the reading was, I know we have all experienced our psychological needs being fulfilled or not satisfied, but to find out here is a whole chapter on trying to explain this things you know from personal experience and putting it into formal writing, while doing the summary I realized that this summary was probably the quickest one of all, probably because I can personally relate to most of the terms described and I have a lot of examples to it. To be more specific, the most surprising thing I learned is that you need to have your psychological needs fulfill in order to have a good day, I thought it was all about the attitude you have towards life and challenges, but it makes a lot of sense now.

If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, how do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?

Autonomy: High, It feels very good to be able to make your own decisions!

Competence: Medium/High
I think this is probably the one that I am having more difficulty on right now, I would rate myself as medium because this is actually the first time I am attending college in English language , and when I compare myself to my performance in college in my native language I am rather low than high. At the same time, I would rate myself as High competence when I am studying in English being a non-native English speaker, because when I think about reading, learning and to be able to do my assignments without help I realize I am doing very well and that keeps me happy and encouraged to achieve my goals.

Relatedness: High, It feels good to be interpersonally related and close to friends.
I am the kind of person that takes over challenging as an opportunity, maybe because as soon as moved here I realize there is no turning back, is either I find the courage and do it, or I stay home unhappy because I am not fulfilling my need of autonomy and competence. I also think that having my competence rated as medium helps me to set up that mind of keep trying, keep working hard until you fulfill your goals.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
Relatedness, Being away from everything I know, country, friends, and specially coming from a very busy, active and big family has made me realize how important is to me to be interpersonally related, and I keep in touch with my friends and parents back in my hometown but, what’s app, skype and Facebook does not replace the closeness and the joy you feel when being around people. I have realized that even I love spending time with my husband, and even I love the freedom in being autonomous and making my own decisions or a decision between my husband and I that it will only affect us as a family, it is also important for me to have more people to share a meal, or the joy of good news, and our friends now are like our family too. It is important to me because I just realized how much work I get done before I know there will be a gathering with our friends, I enjoy spending time with them so much that the actual event is enough to motivate me into finishing my assignment’s , finish my readings, etc.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
When I look at the picture I think that the fish is tired of being alone,(interpersonally unrelated) being feed at the time the owner wants(no autonomy), and have low competence in that little small tank, the fish does not want to be a big fish in a small tank, that’s why he is jumping because now he wants to be a small fish in a big tank, hopefully there is a big thank with other fishes so he can relate and other things to do, this will make him feel autonomous, competent and feeling interpersonally related

Provide a list of terms at the end of your post that you used from the chapter.
Autonomy, competence, relatedness, intrinsic motivation, interest, psychological needs, volition, need, motivation, feedback, engagement challenge, flow, social bond, vitality.


Ch. 6

Summarize the chapter.
This chapter discusses the three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness and why these three are important in our motivation and personal well-being. Psychological needs are based around what intrinsically motivates us, or in other words what we find interesting or enjoyable. That’s why we as humans seek these psychological needs in our environment through sports, hobbies, school, work, and many others because they provide a natural motivation for learning, growing, and developing (organismic psychological need). Environments may support or frustrate these needs. This interaction is explained by the person-environment dialectic, the environment acts on the person and the person acts on the environment. Breaking these three needs down, autonomy is our natural desire for being able to make our own choices. To encourage this there must be an internal perceived locus of causality, an unpressured willingness to engage in an action(volition), and the idea that you have total choice. Competence is the need to be effective in interactions with the environment. This is reflected by how our personal skills match up with the opportunities for a challenge (flow). In order for there to be competence there needs to be structure of how to receive a desired outcome, and support and guidance to reach this goal. A person must also have failure tolerance, otherwise people might run away from anything that challenges us. The last one of these needs in relatedness, which is having people in our lives who care about and likes our authentic selves. The degree in which we achieve these three needs usually relates to whether or not our days were “good” or “bad”
What was the most surprising thing you learned?
The most surprising thing I learned was that most teachers and coaches do not have a good system of supporting autonomy needs in their students. To start, most teaching curriculums do not provide choice for the students, by telling them what they need to read and write actually removes autonomy and intrinsic motivation in their students. Giving them more choices would bring out their inner values and goals and would contribute to higher motivation, effort, creativity, and performance. Another thing teachers and coaches do is try to control their students behavior, rather than take into consideration their perspective of what should be learned or practiced. Ways to provide an autonomy supportive motivational style is to look at poor performance as something that can be solved, rather than criticized. This is because it encourages the student or athlete to continue to be self-motivated to achieve competence, rather losing interest due to extrinsic motivators. Another way to support autonomy is giving reasons why the students or athletes should be behaving in a certain way. This allows students to internalize these behaviors into individual values, encouraging them to keep doing wanted activities because they want to rather then have to. This will intrinsically encourage students and athletes to achieve better grades, have a desire to perform better, and be overall more satisfied with themselves.
If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?
How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?
If I had to rate myself on the three psychological needs, currently it would be high for competence, high for relatedness, and low for autonomy. I rated competence high because I am a very competitive person. I think this relates to competence because I have a very strong desire to be effective in every situation I am in whether it being in school, sports, or in a social setting. I also like being over challenged, which motivates me to achieve a higher level of gain, growth, and personal achievement. When I reach these challenges I get a lot of joy from this level of competence.
I rated myself high for relatedness because my need for social bonds is very strong and highly valued. I really like to go out and meet new people, and I still have strong ties to my high school friends. Without these social bonds, I really do not know what I would do with my life.
I rated myself low on autonomy because currently my life’s decisions are pretty much made by my professors and schedule. I study constantly, which is something I would not decide to do without an external locus of control, being getting good grades.
Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
One psychological need that particularly motivates my behavior currently is relatedness. Like the reading says, relatedness is the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. This is particularly hard for me because I live by myself, which means I have to leave my apartment every time I need social bonding in my life. This encourages me to play basketball and lift to be around people. It also encourages me to go out every weekend, to make new friends leading to people I would get closer to down the road. I also think the need for relatedness leads to most of the drunk heart to hearts I have with people, because people are trying to show who their true selves are and get that gratification of being accepted and liked by someone.
If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
If I had to guess this picture has a lot to do with all three of the psychological needs. I think it has a lot to do with autonomy because when in a fish bowl, you do not make many of your own decisions because of how limited you are to where you can swim and when you can eat. I think it has to do with relatedness because he was the only fish in the bowl, so maybe he wants some genuine social interactions. Lastly, I think it has to do with competence because the fish saw leaving the bowl as a challenge, that he might have had to work up to. Through working on his jumping out of the water, and his ability to swim faster.
Terms:

Autonomy, competence, relatedness, psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, organismic psychological need, person-environment dialectic, internal perceived locus of causality, volition, flow, failure tolerance, autonomy supportive motivational style, extrinsic motivators, internalization, external locus of control

Summarize the chapter:
Chapter six discussed our psychological needs and how that all works. It started with the emphasizing the three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the need to experience self direction, personal endorsement, and determining one's actions. It is proven that people with autonomy-supporting personalities (usually viewed as more desirable) are viewed as more understanding, intrinsically motivating, and uses more informal language, and are easier going and easier to talk to. On the other side is a controlling personality (usually viewed as less desirable) are usually negative and do not relate with most people. After discussing this the chapter went into detail about competence or the need to interact effectively with the environment. This generates the motivation to want to develop, improve, and refine personal skills. Here is also were Flow was discussed. Flow is basically the balance between how hard a skill/activity is and the skill level an individual. Also, here is where feedback is explained (positive feedback mainly) and how affective it is. Lastly, the chapter discusses relatedness and ability to related to others. It explains that satisfying relativeness is important on both communal relationships (friends) and exchange relationships (acquaintances).
What was the most surprising thing you learned?
I was surprised to learn exactly what our psychological needs, and how they are so complex. I was taken with the fact that there are so many different levels people are on with the environment and how to react with the environment. I was surprised to explore different persons' theories and actually how other people view the environment in the organismic approach to motivation, and the mechanistic approach. I was especially surprised with the mechanistic approach and that people actually theorize that the people do not have an affect on the environment.
If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life? Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
Rating myself on the three psychological needs starting with high in competence because I always feel the need to participate or make a difference. I want to do well and probably I am striving to be the best at it. I am always looking for the next challenge and want to be able to overcome with ease. I have recently been dealt a relatively hard challenge for this time of year. My uncle recently died and I have to juggle that with school and activities. Most people would put lives on hold due to the fact a close family member or a communal relationship has ended, but I see it as the next challenge. Beyond that I usually come out of my "flow" and usually have too high of a challenge. My "flow experience" is usually in a state of worry or even anxiety. With my job (coaching) I try to inflict challenge on the girls I coach and I try to have them experience the challenges with positive feedback right away and satisfy their need for competence.
Rating myself on relativeness is a medium I believe. I understand the book says we all need to relate but I find it hard to relate to some people. I usually do not relate with people that do not have the same personality as me and I usually do not even try to put up with it. There for I do not feel the satisfaction as much as the normal person I believe. I also do not think I rationale will benefit myself as much as the average.
Rating myself in autonomy I would rate myself high. I have a desire to experience self direction. I also do not feel pressure when engaging in activities, volition.
If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
I think the fish is showing something that does not have psychological needs and wants and by putting him in this chapter if makes him humanized. If the fish is humanized he realizes that he is receiving his physiological needs but not his psychological needs. He is jumping out of the bowl to find what he is missing and stepping out of his comfort zone. He is representing the three psychological needs: competence by challenging himself and being out of the flow, relatedness he realizes that he is alone and wants to receive that relatedness, and autonomy by making the choice to jump out of the fishbowl.
TERMS:
flow, autonomy, competence, relatedness, psychological needs, volition, positive feedback, flow experience, communal relationship, self direction, personal endorsement, intrinsically motivating, exchange relationships, motivation,

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