Ch 6 Psychological Needs

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Due by Tuesday 

Read chapter 6. Summarize the chapter. What was the most surprising thing you learned? If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life? Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?

Provide a list of terms at the end of your post that you used from the chapter. 500 words

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Chapter 6 focused on our psychological needs. We have three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. When activities involve psychological needs we feel interest and when we satisfy our psychological needs we feel enjoyment. Psychological needs are viewed from an organismic theory saying that the environment affects us but we as humans also look to affect and change the environment. In other words psychological needs emerge through opportunities provided by the environment.

To begin, autonomy is the desire to experience self-direction and personal control of our own behaviors. Autonomy arises when our own interests, preferences, and wants guide our behavior. Our feeling of autonomy will be highest when our perceived locus of causality is internal instead of external, when we feel free and not pushed when doing an activity (volition), and we have a perceived choice and don’t feel coerced to pick one choice over another.

Competence, another psychological need, is the desire to be effective and optimize our interactions with the environment. Competence not only requires the opportunity to be challenged but also feedback. We feel the most enjoyment when our skill level and level of challenge are about equal creating a state known as flow. When a challenged is optimized we gain the most enjoyment from completion. It is important to remember though that at this level we are equally likely to fail and succeed so positive feedback and high failure tolerance are essential to support competence.

The last psychological need is relatedness. Relatedness is the desire to establish close emotional bonds and feelings of emotional connection. This is most seen in communal relationships where people genuinely care about the other person with no need for reciprocal attention. Forming a social bond and supporting relatedness is best when a person feels the other cares about and accepts their “authentic self”.

What I found most interesting about relatedness was it provides the scaffolding needed for internalization spoken about in chapter 5. When someone feels emotionally connected we truly believe the other person is looking out for our welfare and internalization will occur willingly. Along with high relatedness need satisfaction, clear rationale for the behavior increase the likelihood of the behavior being internalized. This made the most sense to me when thinking about my girlfriend and the impact she’s had on my dental hygiene. I never really flossed my teeth before I met my girlfriend but when I first met her she did it almost religiously. A strong sense of relatedness and a clear rationale for why flossing is important led to the internalization of the behavior as I now floss my teeth just as much as she does now.

The three psychological needs have manifested themselves in many ways throughout my life. The need for autonomy in one aspect has lead me to college and living in an apartment. I have had a strong desire to be on my own being a college and being in an apartment as made me feel happy. In an odd way I am excited to finally buy my own place and pay my own bills as it will be a sense of autonomy. Competence has lead me in my pursuit to be a collegiate runner. I want to score at the conference meet come May and run faster than I ever had. This is to satisfy my need to master optimal challenges. Relatedness has manifested itself in the relationships I have forged with my girlfriend and friends on the track team. I am come to count on them and believe they accept me for who I am.

As a final note, while the fish picture may have seemed arbitrary before reading chapter 6 I feel it makes perfect sense now. In terms of autonomy we want to be the one that determines our actions and not be confined by environmental constraints like the fish in the fish bowl. We want to have an internal perceived locus of causality instead of external. That is we want to feel like we are making the choices not someone or something else. That is exactly what the fish is doing. He is jumping out of the bowl in an attempt to be autonomous and not confined by anything.

Terms:
Autonomy, competence, flow, relatedness, psychological needs, volition, communal relationship, authentic self, internalization

Chapter 6 covered psychological needs and the organismic approach to motivation. Organismic approach is based on the premise how organisms initiate interactions in the environment. It also illustrates how an organism adapts, changes, and grows as a function of environmental transactions. This organismic approach has three areas of psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These provide natural motivation for learning, growing, and developing.
Autonomy is the psychological need for one to be self-directed and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. Autonomy has three experimental qualities that work contribute to make-up the subjective experience of autonomy: perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice.
Competence, the psychological need to have effective interactions with environmental factors. It reflects for one to exercise compacities and skills. When one this in order to discover and master optimal challenges. Often enjoyment can be discovered with the “flow experience.” Flow is a state of concentration that involves emersion and a deep involvement in an activity.
Relatedness is the psychological need for one to establish emotional bonds and attachments with others. It is a desire for emotional bonds and to be interpersonally connected in positive relationships.
What I found very interesting in this chapter was the concept of optimal challenge and flow. When one experiences flow, it is often such an enjoyable experience that it creates motivation to experience an activity again in hopes of reproducing that feeling. In order for flow to be realize, it has to challenge one and that individual must have the skills to complete the activity. If either the skills needed for the task are greater or lesser than one has, flow cannot occur. Likewise, if one is not challenged or is challenged too much, flow cannot happen. The text has points out that in general people want optimal challenges that involve the need for competence and set the conditions to experience flow.
I would rate my level of psychological needs as: competence is high, autonomy is medium/high, and relatedness has low. I have always been driven to accel and be competent in most of the activities that I purse. For physical activities, I train so that I can be competitive, accomplish what others could not, and challenged. I recognize that I am not a professional athlete, but I take these activities serious because it helps me deal with stress and I love the feeling of recognition that I get when I perform well at a race.
As I continue my education, I find that competence is one of the most impactful influence to my motivation. I had a 16-year break between my undergraduate studies and my pursuit of a master’s degree. It was very a very difficult transition for me when returned to the classroom. As time went by, I began to feel more comfortable and began to challenge myself. I found that as my ability to achieve in the classroom grew, the more competent I began to feel. I was soon able to find an optimal level of challenge. My motivation to complete my academic pursuits has given me more confidence to face challenges and achieve goals.
Terms: organismic approach, autonomy, competence, relatedness, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, emotional bonds, optimal challenge, flow

This chapter focuses on the psychological aspect of motivation. The three sections of psychological motivation include autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Autonomy is split into three sections itself: perceived locus of causality (PLOC), volition, and perceived choice. PLOC is the awareness of one's reasoning for motivation based on internal and external stimuli; the text labels these as internal PLOC and external PLOC. It's basically an awareness to if you are doing something based off a reward or because you truly want to do it. Volition is the level of influence being put on you to willingly do something. If someone is pressuring you to do something or if you are doing something freely is the overall context of this section of autonomy. Perceived choice is how much a person feels like they have a true choice in what they're doing.
Relatedness
Competence has to do with our need to feel like we're making a difference, having an effect on something. By taking on too big or difficult of tasks puts our emotional state and feeling of competence at risk. The flow theory in this section describes our need for competence being satisfied when we are challenged at the right level or pace rather than not being challenged at all; these challenges keep us engaged and motivated to prove our competence.

Something that was surprising was on the section of perceived choice in autonomy. The text explained how we might think that by giving someone options that we are giving them a choice (the interesting part I learned) is that we are STILL restraining them to whatever choices we are giving the person rather than giving them a full-blown option of direction in what they actually want.

I would rate myself as more on the medium-high end of the spectrum. I show build up a lot of tension and attitude when being asked to do really anything I wasn't up to doing first. (I try my best to regulate it for appropriateness in school and work settings). According to the text this has to do with my autonomy, making me an autonomy-supportive individual. An example, I have always felt like my mother's demands to do chores, common sense things with my life, etc. very similar to nails on a chalk board; It's not like I don't want to do the things she says I just have this peeve for people constantly telling me what I should be doing when I already am aware myself. As for competence I would rate myself as medium. I am most definitely someone who is motivated when I am feeling competent in my challenges but, I am that person who over-challenges herself, I do not give myself a chance at optimal challenges like the text discusses. I expect too much and sometimes I am left feeling less competent than from the beginning of the task; I lack the flow and pace I need sometimes in order to get the job done and to stay motivated. I also rated myself less than high on the spectrum because my failure tolerance is probably a little below average. I am too critical of myself so when failure comes my way I take it harshly but, my resilience is steady and I always bounce back eventually.


Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.

My need for autonomy has always been a strong influence in my life because my mother has always been an independent person in everything she does in life; with her being my number one role model I cannot think of anything else that could make me who I am today other than my own independence and her pushing to make me this way. It was sort of a tough love situation, as a child you want to feel secured always but, my mother knew that I could make big changes in my life that she didn't do in hers if I would start my autonomous behaviors earlier. I think with a lot of the failures I went through perfecting my balance of autonomy helped build my resilience to the things in life some might not experience until later on (i.e. a lot of kids in college are still depending on their parents for homework help, paper writing, financial situations, etc.)

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
I think the fish represents a high-scaled autonomous-supportive individual. This fish may have realized that although it has survived in the constraints of this fishing bowl, it has gave up the idea of settling for what it has been told to do and given. The fish jumping out of the bowl represents

Terms: Autonomy-supportive individual, autonomy, competence, PLOC, volition, relatedness, perceived choice, flow, motivation, psychological motivation, failure tolerance, optimal challenges

Hannah Meyers
The three psychological needs explained in the chapter are referred to as organismic needs. Organismic needs are aware the environment is constantly changing and that they need to be flexible. This chapter discussed the basic organismic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Autonomy is the desire to make decisions independent from influence by external forces. Our behavior is autonomous. We choose if we do our homework or go to class. Many people desire the ability to control their actions and typically are angry or discouraged when they feel that they are being controlled by their parents, professors, friends, boyfriend/girlfriend, etc. Also, people are very protective of their own volition. Volition is the lack of desire to do something. For example, if my friend invites me go to play football with them and I don’t like playing football then I that I have the volition to say not and not go. Personally, I hate feeling like I am doing something that I don’t like because then I usually have a bad attitude about it.
Everyone wants to be competent in most things in their life. The majority of people do want to feel incompetent or have to rely on others to get a job done. People seek out opportunities to become competent in something. Personally, while I am still in college, I am trying to become as competent as I can in the Spanish language before I move onto the real world. I am always seeking out opportunities to improve my Spanish like studying abroad (twice now) and going to a conversation group every week. I know that I won’t have the same opportunities to practice my Spanish like I do in class each day or with my friends in the conversation group.
The need for relatedness is very evident in society. People are constantly making new friendships and celebrating the long-lasting ones. As I read this section, I could really relate it back to my own life. I am usually very aware of who is reciprocating friendship and who actually cares about my well-being. Of course, I obviously enjoy spending time with the people that I know truly care about me and I truly care about them. Social interaction is very important to person's overall health. If someone doesn't feel supported and cared about then they likely develop low self-esteem; which can lead practice self harm and diagnosis of mental health disorders.
It was interesting to learn about autonomy support. I didn’t know that it was connected to so many different aspects of our lives. Autonomy affects our motivation, engagement, development, learning, performance, and psychological well-being. If you have a great amount of autonomy support you are more likely to put in more effort, have a positive attitude, achieve better grades, have higher conceptual understanding, and have greater vitality.
I would say that I would rate myself as high relatedness, medium competence, and medium-high autonomy. I really did enjoy this chapter. These basic needs are what drive most of my behaviors. I am constantly finding ways to hang out with my friends and strengthen our relationship. Or becoming better at speaking Spanish. Or begin aware of why I am doing something; is it for myself or am I doing only because someone else is.
At this time in my life I am very focused on satisfying the need for relatedness. I try to do my work homework when I know that my friends are busy too so we can hang out in our free time. If I have too much homework then I try to choose homework assignment (that doesn't need intense focus that I am not on a tight deadline for) to do when my friends and I decide to do homework together. I also prefer to get my homework down a couple of days before the due date because then I am not thinking about homework when I want to enjoy spending time with my friends.
I believe that the fish picture relates to the idea of autonomy. The fish feels forced by its owners to say inside the bowl. He decided to make his decision and jump out of the bowl to fulfill his own desires.

Terms: psychological needs, organismic needs, autonomy, volition, competence, relatedness, autonomy support

What was the most surprising thing you learned? What I found most interesting is the concept of psychological needs. Psychological are rooted into our biological make-up, however, the influences of our social world change this. First of all, the fact that our psychology is rooted in our biology is not surprising. In previous chapters, I understood the influence one’s biology had on their behavior and motivation. Now, biology also plays an important part in our psychology. It is through biology we have the organismic approach to motivation. This approach states that our bodies maintain itself through bodily drives. These drives influence in how we think. However, this idea also incorporates the idea that the organism in which this drive arises from is an active actor in the environment. By having both of these key factors, we have the a sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Theories to explain the organismic approach to motivation states that these psychological factors arise naturally and continue to progress as we have this inherent drive. Not only, as humans, do we want to get water and will search to find it, but we will become curious about things/people we see along the way, what makes up water, etc. That feeling to satisfy those needs all comes down to our psychological need and its link to emotions and motivations.
Personally for me, I would conclude that most of my ratings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are pretty well satisfied. Here at UNI, I have had the chance to really get to know myself. Cedar Falls, as well as Evansdale and Waterloo, has provided me with many opportunities and choices. These choices were very well supported by my family, and were left up to me to decided. Through these choices that I have made here at UNI I feel I have gotten to know myself more than ever before. I continue to expand my horizons and continue to learn about myself. As well, for skill development and the work I do, I would say I’m pretty close to flow. Flow is this idea of having balance in the skills you known and the activity you are doing. If you have lots of skill but no challenge you would be bored, but if you had lots of work and no skill you would be anxious. Finding flow is the balance of the two. If not in balance,I do have a tendency to slightly vary into to boredom but quickly get to worried, due to procrastination. However, the workload, the organizations I’m involved in, and the work I do seem to match my ability to learn. Finally, my bonds here at UNI are pretty stable. I tend to keep myself pretty busy, enjoying time to myself. I am very happy with the friends I have, and the support they give me. I do wish to see them more, but managing my free time is challenging, but they are very supportive.
I believe the fish picture represents personal growth. “Big fish in a small pond” idea. This idea of curiosity and satisfying what is out there is a core to what makes up psychological needs.

Terms:
Relatedness
Flow
Competence
Organismic Approach to Motivation
Autonomy

Chapter six discussed in detail the three main types of psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is described as the need for choice and decision-making flexibility. This goes beyond just being given two options an individual can choose from. An individual must be given a full range of options in order for their autonomy needs to be satisfied. Competence is the need to be effective when interacting with the environment. Competence is a balance of challenge and skill. If a challenge is much higher than the skill level, an individual may develop anxiety. If the challenge is much lower than the skill level, an individual experiences boredom. When an individual experiences flow, challenge is slightly above skill level, and the individual satisfies their competence need. The final need, relatedness, is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with those around us. The text mentioned that this is a relatively easy process for us because people generally seek out positive interactions with those around them. In order to create these bonds, the other must truly care about the welfare of an individual as well as like them. Not only that, relatedness occurs when an individual is able to express their true and authentic self.

The most surprising thing to read about in this chapter was the explanation about the conundrum of choice. In order for an individual to truly satisfy their psychological need for autonomy, they must have a full range of options to choose from. It is more productive to ask “would you like to do this?” rather than “would you like to do either X or Y?” Rating myself on these three types of psychological needs, I would say I have achieved medium levels of satisfaction in autonomy and high levels of competence and relatedness. My autonomy levels are slightly lower than the other two needs because at this point in my life, there are not a lot of decisions I can make. I am rather restricted to go to class, go to work, and do my homework if I plan on achieving other goals in life. However, I would say I am given plenty of opportunities to make my own decisions, especially when it comes to choosing classes to take, when I can work, and which days I would like to present for classes. My competence need is high because I am currently in programs that both challenge and interest me. This description would suggest that I am experiencing flow. My relatedness need is also high because I have established quite a few close relationships with people around me. The book states that quality relationships mattered more than the quantity when it comes to relatedness, and I can attest that I have only a few communal relationships that matter a lot to me.

My competence need is one of my biggest behavior motivators. I have learned from past experiences and role models that doing well in school and constantly challenging myself would provide me with more career opportunities. With that in mind, I became both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to do well in school. I had a genuine interest in learning and challenging myself in school, but I also wanted to make sure I was setting myself up for success in the future. I knew that I needed to be competent, so I always worked hard both inside and outside of school to challenge my abilities. This helped me build a failure tolerance, and I found that each failure that I came across gave me a new challenge to overcome.

To me, the photo suggests that the fish is trying to satisfy all of its psychological needs. It is attempting to satisfy its autonomy need by making a decision to escape from the tank to have new opportunities to make choices. It is attempting to satisfy its competence need by overcoming a challenging task, which is escaping the bowl. Finally, the fish is alone in the bowl, so in order to satisfy its relatedness need, the fish escapes in the hopes of finding another fish or living thing to befriend.

Terms: Psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, challenge, skill, flow, conundrum of choice, communal relationships, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, failure tolerance

While reading through chapter six I thought it was interesting that autonomy was mentioned with the conundrum of choice. Autonomy is having the flexibility to make a choice or decision in a certain situation. We all want to have control of when, where, how, and why this decision will be made. We like to have control of our action and not have them controlled by an outside source. Autonomy can be broken down into three different qualities, those being perceived locus of causality, violation, and perceived choice. Perceived locus of causality is based on the individual and their source of motivation. The book uses a good example of a chess game and described the locus of causality and how the origin is our intentional behavior and the pawn is how we communicate without internal and external locus of control. Violation is our willingness to engage it certain activities without added pressure from an outside source. The violation is highest when the self chooses what they want to engage in. Perceived choice is the last quality of autonomy and is described as is the flexibility of choice in a different environment then what we are used to. The conundrum of choice is having a choice that is provided by persons and giving you freedom of choice. There is a differences between true choice and the environment of choice. Giving someone a choice increase intrinsic motivation if the choices are more engaged and no pressure is added to the situation.
Psychological needs are important to everyone and change as we grow and mature. The organismic approach to motivation is the first psychological need I will discuss. The organismic approach is the engagement with the environment such as water, food, social support, and intellectual stimulation. I would say that I score high in organismic approach because food and water is a essential part of my everyday life, as well as social support. I like the reassurance of others opinions to make sure that I’m making the right decision. The next approach is person-environment diabetic is emphasized that they have effects on one another besides the organismic which is a one way approach. The person-environment diabetic states that both the person and environment are constantly changing. This also explains that the environment provides feedback, makes demands, and offers need-satisfying relationships. I would say that I rank medium on this approach because I must admit I get frustrated sometimes, so saying that I’m high in this approach would be a lie. I try and deal with the normal obstacles that go on through the day, but some aren’t as easy and motives decrease. On the flip side somedays I can deal with it and make it into a positive situation, therefore I would say I rank medium in this category. The last approach is organismic psychological needs. This can be defined as the need to develop and mature. As these occur we want to learn and grow so these increase or decrease depending on the individual. I would say I score high on the approach because I love to learn and am planning to continue my education by attending graduate school. I think it’s important to learn and grow as we continue to get older.
Organismic psychological needs would be the approach that motivates me most. I think this describes me in lots of ways due to the fact that I always want to get better at whatever I’m doing. A good example of this is schooling. I want to continue to learn new things. School is very interesting to me, but I’m also learning how to push my body through a practice known as yoga. I think it is very hard to shut off your mind and focus on the task at hand and only the task at hand. Yoga is a new way of learning for me and I really enjoy it.
I would have to say that the fish picture has do deal with competence. Competence is the ability to do something successfully or efficiently. Everyone strives to be competent, but in doing so it has to occur in all aspects of your life. We can do that by improving our developmental skills. We work hard and when we get want we want we feel satisfied and proud of ourselves. The picture of the fish is a perfect representation of competence because he had clearly been working to get out of the bowl and he finally did. Therefore he had reached his goal and is proud of himself, until he hits the ground and realizes he needs water, but other than that he’s excited he headed his goal.

Terms: autonomy, the conundrum of choice, perceived locus of causality, violation, perceived, psychological needs, organismic approach to motivation, person-environment diabetic, organismic psychological needs, and competence.

Chapter six is about psychological needs and how that motivates individuals to do certain activities or pursue other interests. There are three main components of this type of need; they include: Autonomy, competence, and relatedness. “Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior” (Reeve, page 146). This helps guide an individual’s behavior and decision-making skills based on their own interests or preferences. Competence is the desire to interact effectively with their surroundings. Also, an interesting part of this is that competence extends into all aspects of life. Lastly, relatedness involves forming and maintaining relationships with others, and how everyone wants to be valued and accepted.

The most surprising piece of information I learned was the conundrum of choice found on page 147 of the textbook. I never really related this to autonomy before. Providing choices enhances people’s sense of autonomy and intrinsic motivation, which we learned about in a previous chapter. However, this isn’t true all of the time. This is only true when the individual has a true choice over their actions, and not forced or pressured into it. When the choice has a meaning behind it is when they will feel autonomy, which then can also lead that person into having intrinsic motivation since their choice reflects their values, goals, and interests.

If I had to rate myself on the different psychological needs. I would say that I am high for autonomy, medium for competence, and high for relatedness. For autonomy, I like to be independent and since coming to college, I have learned how to be on my own more, rather than relying on my parents. For competence, I like to be competent; however, when it comes to challenges, I like to take the easier path. I like challenges, but only to an extent. Lastly, I think relatedness would be the highest of the three psychological needs. My relationships with my friends and family are very important to me and I value them greatly.

If I had to choose one psychological need, I would choose relatedness. This involves our emotional bonds and attachments with other people. It also reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships (Reeves, page 162). We need relatedness because we need people to trust and to care for our well-being. People function better, are less stressed, and have less psychological difficulties with they relate to others. This personally motivates me because being apart of certain groups helps me grow as a person and has helped build confidence in some levels. However, is also comforts me because I know these people support me and encourages me. Small bonds have grown into great friendships.

In my opinion, the fish can be connected to autonomy and relatedness. Since the fish is alone in the bowl, it wants to be more “self-directed” and strives to be more independent. So, he makes the decision to jump out of the bowl where he was trapped and dependent on its owner. Also, since being in the bowl, he has no relationships. Everyone wants to be valued and accepted, and this is supported with relationships. If we relate the fish with this, then maybe he jumps out of the bowl to have the ability to build and maintain relationships.

Terms: Psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, conundrum of choice, intrinsic motivation

Chapter 6 discusses psychological needs. Psychological needs are growth needs, not deficit needs, and create proactive energy. They may be referred to as organismic, because people and the environment interact, and people adapt or grow as a result. Organismic needs motivate a person to use and develop skills during environmental opportunities.

Autonomy, competence, and relatedness are organismic needs. Autonomy is our need to be in charge of ourselves. Elements of autonomy are: locus of perceived causality (identifying either an external or internal cause of motivation), volition (willingness), and perceived choice (perceiving many opportunities without pressure). Autonomy is better achieved if locus of causality is internal, volition is present, and there is true and meaningful choice. However, choices do not increase autonomy if they are “either-or” or the person feels pressured, which is the conundrum of choice.

Two styles, autonomy-supportive motivating style and controlling motivating style, can be used to affect autonomy in someone else. Those who use autonomy-supportive style nurture the other person’s inner motivational resources, inform them of problems to be solved rather than using criticism, provide rationale for the importance of the task, and emphasize with the negative emotions of the other person. This style benefits autonomy, which in turn benefits well-being, development, performance, and learning.

Competence is our need to use our skills and master challenges. Elements of competence are: optimal challenge (balancing of skill levels and difficulty levels), structure (clear expectations), failure tolerance (failure viewed as a learning experience), and positive feedback (to examine one’s own level of competence). Positive feedback supports competence because it allows for this self-evaluation. Also, success in a moderate difficulty challenge is most fulfilling, rather than just mastery in general.

Relatedness is the need for intimate relationships. It is dependent on interaction with others. Communal relationships, rather than exchange relationships, fulfill the relatedness need because communal relationships offer genuine caring without expectation of reward; in communal relationships, we also accept people for who they truly are, not for what we can get from them. Other than social interaction, relatedness also concerns internalization, which is when a person sees the value in another person’s belief or action and therefore adopts the same belief or action.

Relatedness is an approach motivator for me that leads me to invite friends to study at the library, ask my boyfriend to watch a movie together before bed, and to call my parents. But more so it motivates me to share and receive self-disclosing information with people I want to become closer with. In regards to vitality, I do feel more alive and energized when I am with people I am close with.

I would rate myself high for both relatedness and competence and medium for autonomy. Because I have quality close relationships and because my classes are an appropriate level of difficulty for my skill level, relatedness and competence are pretty much fulfilled. I am high in relatedness because I seek out developing communal relationships and spending time with others, even if we aren’t engaging in a shared activity. I am high on competence because I look for academic opportunities that I can really learn from, such as research. My autonomy need is moderate because I am still concerned with the input of others so my autonomy can’t be fully fulfilled. I still sometimes feel like a pawn, or motivated and influenced by the requests of people with authority. As a student, much of what I do is assigned but professors and other college sources. These levels manifest in my life in the behavior choices I make.

My engagement in relatedness is high, so I am able to express myself (voice) and enjoy myself (emotional engagement) during social interaction. I also put a lot of effort into my schoolwork (behavioral engagement) and seek out academic opportunities (cognitive engagement). This is because involvement and structure increase engagement.

What I found most surprising in this chapter was that psychological need fulfillment composes the ‘good day’ criteria. I found this surprising not because it’s not believable but rather because I’ve never thought of what makes a day good before.
Finally, maybe the fish is leaving it’s bowl because 1) it is alone so relatedness is impossible, 2) there are no challenges in the bowl’s environment that it can achieve any skill competency in, and 3) it wants autonomy or control over its environment rather than being under the control of the owner of the bowl.


Terms: psychological needs, growth needs, organismic needs, autonomy, locus of perceived causality, volition, perceived choice, autonomy-supportive motivating style, controlling motivating style, competence, optimal challenge, structure, failure tolerance, positive feedback, relatedness, communal relationship, exchange relationship, internalization, vitality, engagement, pawn, conundrum of choice

This chapter highlighted psychological needs and broke it down into three subcategories. They broke down into autonomy, competence and relatedness these are the three frameworks of psychological needs. This chapter actually went in to a lot more detail about the three subcategories which made me help understand the material more. when they talked about autonomy they talked about how it has three qualities, perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice. With autonomy there are two different types of motivation, autonomy-supportive motivation and control motivation. In the autonomy supportive point of view people put the other person into consideration. This person is going to be nicer they are going to say it in a soft tone of voice and they will explain themselves on why they are asking you to do a certain task. Where on the other hand someone with control motivation is going to be controlling. They are going to straight up tell the person what they want them to do and kind of makes them feel pressured. This section also talked about the perceived locus of causality and how there is an internal and external PLOC. These refer to an individual’s understanding of the casual source of his or her motivated action. Competence is a desire to have good interactions with the environment and to master skills and overcome challenges. There is a unique balance between competence and satisfaction, in that highly challenging situations with low competence have little satisfaction, but low challenging situations with low competence also have little satisfaction. Relatedness was the next section, everyone needs to feel like they have their certain group of friends, that they are loved, and that they fit in.
The most surprising thing I learned was about the PLOC. It makes a lot of sense when I was readying it and I can’t believe I never thought of motivation working like that. Behavior is initiated by a personal or environmental source.
Autonomy: High
Competence: Medium
Relatedness: High
These varying levels of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are manifested in my life daily.
Starting out with autonomy there are many task in my daily life that I gladly have autonomy over. These include school work which is an external PLOC to something like playing basketball witch is an internal PLOC. For competence I hate when other people are better than me at anything that I try so this is seen every day in my life by making sure my homework is done, by going to shoot every day or simple things like reading every day. For relatedness I am one of those guys that likes to have a big friend group and even a big close friend circle. My family is very collectivist family so we all stay in touch and know everything about each other.
One psychological need
If I had to choose one psychological need that made me who I am more than the others, then it would have to be autonomy. I am one of those people that like doing things on my ow and doing it the way I choose to do it. I like having the freedom even with the external PLOC’s. Like school work I like the online classes because I get to do the work on my own pace and time.
For the fish picture the only thing I can think of is the ‘fish out of water” saying where the fish is maybe me and being out of the water is an environment that I don’t have control in which makes it dangerous and deadly.

Terms: Psychological need, autonomy, competence, relatedness, motivation, PLOC

This chapter covered psychological needs and their importance in our lives. Psychological needs are engaged when the individual seeks autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the feeling of freedom we feel when making our own decisions. It is the psychological need that creates the motivation to do things on our own terms. This can be reaches by participating in behaviors and activities we want to participate in. Volition is the freedom someone feels when then are willingly engaging in a behavior they feel is their choice. However our life is often made up of perceived choice. This comes from the notion that we have flexibility in our decisions.
Competence is the psychological need that is obtained by learning, growing or enhancing a skill. Competence is the ability to perform these actions. Competence is thought to be reached at a state of flow. Flow is the state at which a person is completely immersed in the given behavior of their skill matching the challenge. This brings a feeling of satisfaction and confidence in the individual.
Relatedness is the psychological need to create friendships and relationships with others. We want to be emotional tied and supported by others. The most basic way in satisfying this need is interacting with others. Forming lasting relationships that support the overall wellbeing of the other individual and vice versa gives stronger emotional support and in turn satisfy the relatedness need.
I would score high in the need of autonomy. I don’t often do things that I don’t want to and there for rate this needs as priority in dictating my behaviors. This can contradict with my psychological need of relatedness. Since relatedness often requires you to take care or help others, this can often contract with what you actually want to be doing. For example if I would rather engage in going to a movie but my friend wants to stay home my autonomy has been compromised. However, if I choose the movie over my need of relatedness, my relatedness need is compromised. In most cases my need for autonomy outweighs my need for relatedness. Being that my relatedness need is medium, it is still lower than my need for autonomy. This creates the stubborn personality I hear about often. My need in competence is often low. I do not seek out difficult situations or chances to grow. To many times it has been challenged and I have left with nothing but frustration.
Autonomy is the driving force behind most of my behaviors. If I want to do something I engage and if I don’t want to then I avoid that behavior. I am under the impression that it is my choice. The truth of the matter is that it is often perceived choice. I want the freedom to buy things so I got a job. I had the freedom to pick which job but I still had to have one. My low level in competence induces my emotion of not wanting a job. As talked about before my autonomy often gets me in unideal situations. I often engage in the behavior of shopping because the decision I make while doing it are my own. Meanwhile, I don’t have the real freedom to be spending money. Which in end hurts my overall autonomy in spending money and ironically increases my wanting to do so once it’s limited. My perceived locus of casualty becomes external instead of internal.
This can be related to the fish jumping out of the bowl. The fish’s need for autonomy is not met in the confines of its fish bowl. When it eats, where it’s at the interactions provided are all determined for it. It jump out is motivated by its autonomous need to have freedom in choosing. It could also be jumping out in reach of relatedness since there is no interaction happening where it is at now. It could even be jumping out of the blow just to see if it can rise to the challenge. This would satisfy its need in competence. All of these needs in the orgasmic approach explain the fish’s behavior and help us understand why we do the things that we do.

Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, volition, perceived choice, flow, locus of casualty, orgasmic approach

Chapter 6 was all about psychological needs that we have as humans. The three main psychological needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. We can know that activities involves these needs if we feel an interest to them, and if we feel enjoyment when we fulfill these needs. There are a few theories that can help guide psychological needs. Organismic theories state that the environments change around us and as organisms we need to be flexible and adjust to those changes. Mechanistic theory proposes that the environment works directly on the organism. Person-environment dialectic has a more symbiotic approach where both the environment and the organism are changing and acting on each other.
The first psychological need, autonomy, is an experience of self-direction and personal endorsement. We can achieve autonomy by getting an internal perceived locus of causality. This means that we have the choice and can choose to cause a behavior as opposed to an external perceived locus of causality. Volition is the feeling of being free to choose whatever you want to. This gets at the idea that there is a difference between having two choices and you are supposed to choose one based on the environment and actually having the freedom to make your own choice.
The second psychological need is competence. We all want to be effective when we perform a task and interact with the environment. For us to feel competence, we must master the optimal challenge that is laid in front of us. When we receive positive feedback, we are affirmed that we are competent in that area. When we reach our flow, we are absorbed and deeply involved in an activity. To feel competent, we must reach the optimal challenge. If we feel like we are being over challenged, it can feel like a threat to competence and we will worry about it. If we are being under challenged, we will be neglecting our competence and we could feel bored. However, if we are given the optimal challenge, then any activity can be enjoyed.
The final psychological need is relatedness. We all want to feel a close emotional bond with others that can help us in other times where we have needs. Relatedness can best be felt when we feel as though we have a quality social bond with someone or with others. This is seen in a communal relationship. Communal relationships satisfy this psychological need where people care for each other, whereas exchange relationships do not satisfy the need for relatedness.
The most surprising thing that I learned was learning about competence and the optimal challenge. I thought that if you were under challenged, you would feel competent because you would be able to perform the task extremely well instead of being bored. I believe that I have very high autonomy and high competence and relatedness. I am very independent and I love to make my own decisions and don’t think about how others will feel or react, even when I should be thinking about them. I like to think I am good at everything, or I at least could be with some practice and I love a challenge. I really connected with the thing in relatedness about the quality of relationships is more important than the quantity. I like to be around a lot of people, but I love the fact that I have a really strong relationship with just a few people. I think that the fish is demonstrating all of the psychological needs. He chose to jump out of his bowl (autonomy), he became competent and was challenged enough to learn how to jump (competence), and he wants to find other fish and build some deep relationships (relatedness).

Terms: Psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, communal and exchange relationships, optimal challenge, flow, person-environment dialectic, PLOC, volition

This chapter discusses the three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Psychological needs are based on a person-environment dialectic which states that a person’s needs are fulfilled by the environment and the environment produces in the person new forms of motivation. Basically, humans are constantly interacting with the environment to satisfy their needs. The first need discussed is autonomy which is the need to have self-directed experiences to direct one’s behavior. When a person develops in an autonomy-supported motivation style, then they often have an internal perceived locus of causality (PLOC), high volition, and perceived choice that isn’t forced upon them. Competence is the psychological need to exercise skill capacity and master optimal challenge. A person needs to find a balance between challenge and skill need to create an optimal challenge. If the challenge is too easy or too hard, competence is not satisfied. Competence also requires a form of structure and a tolerance for failure. To support competence it is important for a person to receive feedback, whether that feedback is from within themselves or from others. The last need is relatedness which is the need to establish close emotional bonds with others. Positive social bonds cause better function, creates resilience to stress, and decreases psychological differences. It is important to have communal relationships over exchange relationships because communal shows that the people in the relationship care about one another’s welfare. Additionally, it is important to take externally prescribed regulation into an internally endorsed one. This generates one’s beliefs and behaviors.
The most surprising thing I learned was that not all choices promote autonomy. I never took notice that when someone forces a decision on you, you don’t grow as an individual. After reading this chapter, I believe that it is important to use an autonomy-supportive motivating style, so people can make decisions for themselves and grow from their decisions. It was surprising to see how many factors are influenced by having an autonomy-supportive motivating style such as self-worth, conceptual understanding, grades, and psychological well-being.
I would rate myself with high autonomy and relatedness, and medium competence. My autonomy level manifests itself as being a college student in general. I like to try and learn new things on my own. I show my need for autonomy by living away from home, and following my own path of what I want to do for my education and career. Competence manifests itself when I am at work. I enjoy finding new tasks to try and sometimes figuring out those tasks requires trial and error. I also consistently seek feedback to figure out how to do tasks more efficiently. My relatedness shows in my everyday interactions with others. If I recognize a face in the hall, then I’ll wave and say hi. With my communal relationships, I try very hard to keep up with my close friends on a weekly, if not daily, basis.
Relatedness motivates me to connect with others and to maintain relationships. It motivates me to ask my roommate how her day was when she gets home. Relatedness also motivates me to call my mom once a week. I like hearing how my brothers are doing in school and what activities they are doing. Sometimes this need can have negative impacts on me because I would rather be with my friends than get ahead with my homework. I have to isolate myself while doing homework because if I know anyone around me, then I won’t focus.
This fish shows a it’s need for competence. It sees an optimal challenge of jumping out of the bowl, and recognizes that it is going to take a certain amount of skills. It must also recognize that the success and failure are equally likely, but it chooses to attempt the jump in hopes of success.
Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, person-environment dialectic, autonomy-supported motivation, PLOC, volition, perceived choice, optimal challenge, structure, failure tolerance, communal and exchange relationships, internalization

Chapter 6 Blog Post:

According to our book, we experience interest and enjoyment when engaging in an activity that satisfies or psychological needs. The three psychological needs this chapter discusses are autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. The three qualities that define our experience of autonomy are a perceived locus of causality (which can be internal or external), volition (willingness to engage), and perceived choice. Simply providing someone with a choice of “do this, or do that” does not constitute autonomy. A person has to have a feeling of complete freedom to engage in whatever activity they want in order to access their feelings of autonomy. The enabling conditions of an autonomy-supportive motivating style are 1) taking the other person’s perspective and 2) valuing personal growth opportunities. People who use this style are motivating others by nurturing their inner motivational resources.
Competence is a psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and it reflects the desire to exercise one’s capacities and skills and, in doing so, to seek out optimal challenges. Basically, we all want to feel competent, so we seek out tasks and interactions in life to demonstrate and improve on our personal skills. The book shows us how competence grows and is sustained through a flow of accomplishing tasks that align with (or challenge within reason) the skills we possess. Attempting tasks far beyond our skill level can leave us with feelings of anxiety, while tasks far below our skill level leave us feeling bored and uninterested. In order to feel competent after completely a task, some sort of feedback is required to really drive home that feeling of accomplishment.
Relatedness is the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people, and it reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. This is simply referring to everyone’s need to feel like they belong, and to feel like they are connected to others in a meaningful way. Our need for relatedness is why we interact with other people (for most of us, on a daily basis) even if we have to go out of our way to do so.
If I were to rate how important the three psychological needs are to me, I think I would put them in the order of competence, then autonomy, and then relatedness. This is because I really need to feel like I’m doing something correctly and get that feeling of accomplishment, otherwise I am HIGHLY likely to stop engaging in the behavior. Autonomy is second because it’s really important for me to be doing things I want to be doing. Although I do things everyday that I do not really want to be doing, I do not feel forced to do them and would be likely to avoid them if I did.
And while relatedness is important to me, I’ve never really felt like I had to go out of my way to achieve it.
The need for competence motivates me to do several things that I otherwise would not choose to be doing. For example, I study for tests so I can get a good grade on it and feel accomplished and more intelligent than I would if I were to fail the test. It’s my main source of motivation both at work and in school.
I would guess that the fish in the picture is jumping from the water bowl to demonstrate autonomy. It was never his choice to live in that bowl, and now he’s choosing to leave.

ME Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, PLOC, volition, perceived choice.

Chapter 6 discusses psychological needs (energy created by psychological need is proactive), which is one of the 4 “need” categories for someone to maintain the fundamentals of self-regulation. Psychological needs promote someone to obtain and engage in an environment that should ideally be able to cultivate one’s psychological needs. There are three types of psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness, that can also bed referred to as organismic psychological needs. There are organismic theories, that state the survival of any organism depends on its environment, because the environment offers physiological needs (food water, sex) along with intellectual stimulation. Organismic theories recognize that environments are constantly changing and organisms need flexibility to adjust to those changes.

I found the different types of motivating styles interesting and surprising. The first style, autonomy supporting motivating style, seeks to nurture the other person's inner motivational resources by valuing the other person's autonomy. When one practices this motivating style, they support the other person's environment and budding autonomy by offering problem solving opportunities, positive feedback, and empathy. Over time, this will lead to improved autonomy, competence, and psychological well-being. The second style, controlling motivating style, stands in stark contrast to this first style is when there is pressure from someone toward a potential outcome and the use social influence techniques to achieve the goal. This type of motivating style can be seen in some teachers, coaches, parents, and managers etc. If someone is being very controlling to someone, it can suppress certain behaviors.

If I had to rate myself as high, medium, low on the various psychological needs, my rating for autonomy, competence, and relatedness would be medium. I would consider myself ranked as medium for autonomy because even though I want to be the one who decides what to do, when to do it, how to do it, when to stop doing it, and overall whether to do it at all, I am still am can be influenced. Sometimes the determination of my actions is not always by just myself alone, but rather sometimes from other people or due to environmental restrictions.

I would consider myself ranked as medium for competence because even though I do have a desire to interact effectively with my soundings, it does not extend into all aspects in my life. Although I am always wanting to develop my skills and improve my potential for certains aspects in my life that I value most, such as school.

Lastly, I would consider myself medium in relatedness because I am not a person who need to belong to every social interaction in my life. I am someone who I want others to understand me for who I am as an individual, including my values, and I am not appalled when others don’t agree with me. That idea can be placed on the development of some of my friendships, and I have learned to go out of my way to form and maintain friendships that I value, which satisfies my social bond need. At the same time I learn to not put in effort to some friendships because they friendship is not recpirtacaied to me due to reasons untold. These various levels manifest themselves in my life by making and affecting the person I am today psychologically and through my actions.

One psychological need that motivates some of my specific behavior is competence because I am always wanting to strive effectivity with my surroundings and environment. There are some aspects in my life such as school and sports which I am constantly wanting to improve my potential and capabilities towards. There has been multiple optimal challenges that I have encountered in my life that have given me a chance to grow in my skills and create progress in the situation given. This usually ends with a feeling of a strong need satisfying sort of satisfaction. This feeling is obtained partly due to having positive feedback for my performance. With school, the feedback that I received was due to the task itself like an assignment. This differs from sports, due that the feedback I received was from comparison of my performance in the present compared to the past, showing that I have improved in a certain area than before.

If I had to make a guess with the picture of the fish is that its psychological need of relatedness is unattainable due to being in a bowl of water alone. While relatedness is the desire for social interaction which the fish does not have, ideally those social interaction can one help someone understand who they are as an individual and help them grow as a person. The fish is also lacking competence because the fish can not effectively interact with its surroundings. The fish needs environmental optimal challenges, like work, relationship, etc. to ideally develop skills, improve talents and potential. Lastly, the fish could be jumping out of the water because it could have higher autonomy outside of the bowl. Meaning it wants to decide what to do, and in this case it could be inferred as jumping out of the bowl is what it wants to do. The fish potentially has a goal, and wants the freedom to decide and control how to get to the goal. The analogies applied to the fish can be seen as example even with people.

Terms: Psychological Needs, Organismic Needs, Physiological Needs, Autonomy supportive motivating styles, Competence, Relatedness, Social Bond Need, Controlling Motivating Style, Positive Feedback, Optimal Challenges

The chapter was about the three psychological needs, which are autonomy, relatedness, and competence. The first section that it talked about is autonomy. The book definition of autonomy is, “the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior.” This is another way of saying that it’s the freedom that people have when making their own motivational decisions on what they want to do throughout a day. Underneath this were some discussions about three subtopics of autonomy which are internal perceived locus of causality, which is a person’s understanding of the cause of why they were motivated to do a certain thing. Another subtopic is volition which is “an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity.” This is expressed when people say that they want to do something rather than that they have to do something. The final subtopic of autonomy is perceived choice over one’s actions. This is the choices that we make when we are stuck having to make a decision between things.
The next psychological need is competence. Competence is, “the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment and it reflects the desire to exercise one’s capacities and skills and in doing so, to seek out and master challenges.” This is used when one wants to enhance their skills. An example of this might be wanting to become physically active to get in shape.
The last psychological need is relatedness. This is the need to form close emotional ties with certain people and to form relationships. This could either be beneficial to a person, or harmful, depending on who they choose to interact with.
If I had to relate myself, I would rate myself high on competence and relatedness, and medium on autonomy. I like to do things that can better my skills, for example, I do like to go to school because I like learning new things. I plan on getting my doctorate so I will be having to attend school for awhile, however it will enhance my skills and knowledge into the field that I am going into. I am high in relatedness because I am good at forming those close and emotional bonds with people. For my job, I work customer service so I have to know how to connect with people. However, when it comes to autonomy, I am a medium at that because it does take my awhile to talk myself into doing something, although I am fully aware that I will do it. An example of this would be going to a class that I’m not interested in, but have to take. I know that I will go to class because I don’t like skipping class, however it takes me a while to motivate myself into going to it.
I feel as though the fish in the picture is relating to competence. It is jumping out of the bowl which is a new challenge that it is facing, but it also relates to autonomy because it is doing it on it’s own free will.
Words: Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice over one’s actions.

Chapter 6 was all about psychological needs and how they are involved in motivation. We are able to be interested in certain things or do things because they are fun, but our main source of motivation when it comes to interacting with the environment is to satisfy our psychological needs. These needs encourage us to seek out certain things within our environment that are able to fulfill our psychological needs. They help us grow as people and are seen as needs that help and grow us rather than needs that cause of to not grow. There are three main psychological needs that are considered organismic psychological needs. This comes from the organismic approach to motivation which says that we are all organisms that interact with our environment. They believe that there is a person-environment dialect that means that the person interacts with the environment as well as the environment acting on the person, so it is a two way street. The opposite of this approach is the mechanistic theories ideas which say that the environment is the one acting on a person and then the person reacts to their environment, rather than both interacting with each other.
The three main psychological needs from the organismic approach are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These needs allow people to grow and develop based on trying to fulfill these needs. Autonomy is the want to have choices and make our own decisions. We do not want to constantly have someone else making our decisions for us, we want to have free will and do what we choose to do. It is the want to express ourselves and have our own regulation over our behavior and choices. PLOC stands for perceived locus of causality. This is the idea of a person's understanding of where their source of motivation comes from. If someone has an internal PLOC this means that they are doing something or initiating behavior based on their own choice. If there is an external PLOC this means that it is being motivated by an environmental source.
The second psychological need discussed is competence. This i the idea that people want to have effective interactions with their environment and use their skills or capabilities and seek out challenges or goals they have. The main thing in the environment that fulfills this need for competence is getting positive feedback and experiences progress. One of the main things involved in competence is flow. Flow is a certain level of concentration that involves being extremely involved and absorbed in an activity. It is a good experience that makes the person want to repeat it so that they experience the same positive feeling. This is something where the challenge is high but the skill level is also high so the person feels like they are being challenged but are also succeeding. Having too high of a level of challenge can be very defeating when it comes to competence, because the person may not have a high enough level of skill to complete the task, and then feel defeated. Low challenges are also not good because then the person does not feel like they are achieving anything since their skill level greatly exceeds the challenge level. Having the perfect balance of skill and challenge is what creates flow. Another thing that helps fulfill the need for competence is having a level of structure. Having structure allows for clear, set goals and ideas of what one is doing. Positive feedback greatly increases competence because it lets a person know they are doing well and helps a person cognitively assess their level of competence.
The final psychological need is relatedness. This is our desire to have relationships with others or organizations and our community. We want to have emotional bonds with people and be interpersonally connected to others. There are a few things that need to be imbedded in these social bonds in order for the relatedness need to be filled. This would be that the person within the bond cares about the other person, likes them, and feeling like they are able to be their true self around that person. There can often be relationships that do not fulfill this need or are not emotionally satisfying because one or more of these criteria are not met.
Overall, all of these aspects combine in order to motivate us to fulfill these three psychological needs. Having days where a person is able to fulfill all of these needs tends to lead them to having a good day or life. When we are able to fulfill all these needs we have a higher level of well being and feel more positive overall.

The thing that I found most interesting in this chapter was the idea of choice. I thought it was interesting how there is a difference in being offered a choice rather than actually experiencing a "true choice." This means that if there is a choice between one thing or another, we often do not feel like we truly made a choice. In this situation it is more of a pressured situation in which you get to make a choice, but it is not a true choice. In a true choice situation a person is able to freely decide something that they either want to or do not want to do that it makes them feel like they have a sense of autonomy.

For me in terms of autonomy I would say that I am in the middle. I think that I am pretty autonomous and make my own choices, but at the same time I tend to prefer in school in work that choices are made for me or that there is a set list of choices to choose from. I think growing up and having most decisions made for us in school and at home really makes it hard to become an adult because so much of it is having to make your own decisions and major choices that will impact your whole life when you have never had to do that before. When it comes to competence I also think that I am in the middle also but a little higher. I tend to try very hard to succeed at things and like to have a lot of positive feedback to feel like I am growing and doing well in this area. When it comes to relatedness I feel like I am fairly high as well. I like to have friends and family that I really am able to open up to and feel strongly bonded with and it is a very important part of my life. This need for relatedness is a big part of my life because I am constantly making sure to stay connected with my friends and family and open up to them as well as having them open up to me.

I think that the fish picture may be related to the need of autonomy. I think the fish feels that it is stuck in the bowl and is trying to make its own choices and have its own free will by jumping out of the bowl. It is stuck in an environment it did not choose and wants to make it's own choices by getting out of that situation and freeing itself.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, internal PLOC, external PLOC, organismic, mechanistic, person-environment dialect, positive feedback, flow, social bonds, choice

Chapter 6 is about people's psychological needs. The chapter focuses on three psychological needs autonomy, competence, and relatedness. What their motivational significance is on the person. These three needs can be effected by the environment a person is in. When a person surrounds themselves with a positive environment it leads to positive emotions, and ultimately a healthy development.
When a person partakes in an activity they enjoy they feel interest. This interest is because the activity gives them a sense of enjoyment thus supporting their psychological needs. This is why when people enjoy a certain activity they keep doing it.
People like to make their own decisions about what they do, how they do it, and when they do it. When people make decisions for another person it puts constraints on their decision making process. This damages a person need of feeling autonomos. To get an answer or get someone to partake in an action without hurting their autonomy offering choices with no strings attached allows people to feels their choice was a reflection of their values, goals and interest.
When people engage in activities such as relationships, or sports they use personal skills to accomplish a task. Using these personal skills and talents to achieve a goal is the psychological need of competence. Competence like all other needs can be either increased or decreased by surroundings. When rechallenged a person will feel anxiety their competence is threatened, when someone is under challenged they feel boredom. When challenge matches skill a feeling of flow happening rising the feeling of concentration, involvement and enjoyment.
The third psychological need is relatedness. This need is the wanting of close emotional bonds with other people. People engage in many different activities to feel the relatedness to others like joining clubs community events and going out with friends. To maintain these social bonds people have to continue to spend time with others. This need is also affected by the environment. To feel that closeness to another person you care about their well-being, if this is not reciprocated then the bond is broken.
If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?
I have a high need for autonomy and always have. I don’t like it when people tell me what to do or how to do it. I especially hate when people try and change my mind on something or question my decision making. I also would rate myself high on the relatedness scale. My friendships and family are the most important thing in the world to me. I try and always keep in close contact with all my friends even though we live in other places to let them know I still care about them. When these emotional bonds are threatened I will do everything in my power to fix them. I would give myself a low-medium rating on competence. Once I being an activity or do something I enjoy I don't really care if I do bad and usually don't go the extra mile to get better.
If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
The fish picture I think signifies the need for autonomy. A fish in a small bowl shows how environmental constraints would want to make someone try to escape or leave it.

Chapter six was about the three types of psychological needs, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These needs are also referred to as organismic needs. Organismic theories are dialectic in that the relationship between person and environment are reciprocal; they act on each other. The three needs help the organisms and environment interact with one another, and they provide people with a natural motivation for learning, growing, and developing, depending on if the environment supports or frustrates the expression of the needs.

“Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation of one’s behavior” (146¬¬). In other words, people want to make their own decisions about their behavior: when they start, when they stop, what they use, or if they even engage in the behavior at all. People want to have the freedom to decide what they do and do not do. There are three qualities that describe the experience of autonomy: perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice. Perceived locus of causality is a person’s understanding of the source of their motivation (if it is internal or external). If they are reading a book because they find the book interesting or of value, then it would be an internal source; if they are reading it because they have a test coming up, then it is an external source. Volition is an unpressured willingness to engage in an activity. If a person feels pressure to do something, or if they feel they have to do something, then they have low volition. If they feel like they freely made the decision, then they have high volition. Lastly, perceived choice occurs when a person feels that they are in a flexible decision-making environment. I was most interested by the three things that make up autonomy; I never thought of it as being more complex than simply feeling that you have freedom in your decision-making.

“Competence is the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and it reflects the desire to exercise one’s capacities and skills and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges” (155). People want to feel efficient in what they do. We want to feel challenged enough to feel good about completing something, but not so challenged that we cannot do it at all. We also do not want to do things that are under our skill levels, as it creates boredom. When the level of challenge matches the level of our skills, our performance is optimized. Flow is a state of concentration that involves deep involvement in an activity, and occurs when a person uses their skills to overcome a challenge. Flow helps us satisfy our need for competence.

“Relatedness is the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people, and it reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships” (162). People need to socialize with others who they trust to care for their well-being. When people’s relationships satisfy their need for relatedness, they function better, are more resilient to stress, and have fewer psychological difficulties. If a relationship does not involve caring, liking, accepting, or valuing, it does not satisfy the need for relatedness.

I would say that I am medium in autonomy, high in competence, and high in relatedness. I think I am always doing things that I do not necessarily want to do; I know that I have to do them, so I get them done. I do want to do them well, however, because I know how important it is to do well, whether it is for a grade or for the personal satisfaction of getting it done. Relationships are very important to me and I spend a lot of my time calling my family members or hanging out with friends. I know what it is like to lack relatedness, and it is not something that I want to deal with again, so I make sure that I spend enough time with people to satisfy my need.

I think the fish picture is about autonomy. The fish feels like it is confined and does not have the freedom to do what it wants, so it is making its own decision by attempting to leave the confined space so it can finally have its freedom.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, organismic needs/theories, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, flow

The three main psychological needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy involves PLOC, volition, and perceived choice. There are different variations in the amount of support a person needs/has for autonomy. Competence can either be supported or neglected, depending on the situations we are in. There are ways of increasing or decreasing competence, also based on the situation. Relatedness involves interactions with others, social bonds, communal/exchange relationships, and internalization. Engagement supports all three psychological needs.

I found it interesting that the book describes internalization as always positive; it did not give any downsides of internalization, like a chance in society after internalization occurs. For example, institutionalization is a form of internalization. When an individual is in prison for a long time, they internalize the behaviors that go along with prison life; following directions, staying out of peoples’ way, being tough, whatever it may be. However, once the setting chances, like being released from prison, those internalized feelings or values no longer apply, and the process must begin again in order to feel the relatedness. The book does not mention what happens to an individual after they internalize and then the social context changes.

I would rate myself high on autonomy, high on competence, and medium on relatedness. For autonomy, I have a mostly internal PLOC, typically high volition, and typically feel a sense of choice. I read and bike because I enjoy them; I receive benefits from both of them, but I engage in those behaviors because I choose to, not because of the benefits I receive. However, I bike more in the summer to prepare for RAGBRAI, and I read books that are assigned for classes. When I am doing things like that, I still feel a sense of autonomy, though; I choose to participate in RAGRBAI and I chose to take that particular class, so it is still my choice that brought about the experience of lower autonomy. I feel a high sense of competence; I set goals for myself in different aspects of my life, and I have achieved most of them. Of course, there are some that I have failed to achieve, but I pay closer attention to the ones that I have achieved, and it gives me a sense of competence with my life. If I fail to achieve one, I alter the goal or reset the goal, and give it another try. As for relatedness, I have a medium rating. I have many interactions with people, from school to work to family. However, I have not formed very many bonds with the people I interact with. I have a few communal relationships, but most of them are exchange relationships; I have many acquaintances, but there are not many people in my life that I share feelings with.

I enjoy the feeling of competence I get from reading or working out. When I finish a book, I feel like I achieved an internal goal. I learn a lot from books that I read; sometimes I learn new words, other times I learn new concepts or ways of thinking about the world around me. Reading can also increase my feeling of relatedness, sometimes; I am currently reading a book that one of my close friends really likes. As for working out, I set goals for myself every time I go. Currently, I have many short-term goals that will add up to my long-time goal; my short-term goal is to ride the bike often, so that I will be able to ride every mile of RAGBRAI this summer. Once I ride every mile, I will have a very high feeling of competence in that area.

The fish is alone in the bowl. It may feel autonomy because it is alone; it makes its choices for itself, not for others. However, the fish decides that is no longer enough. It wants to feel competence and relatedness. The fish jumps out of the bowl in search of other fish, in order to feel the relatedness. It will achieve a sense of competence if it finds another fish.

Terms
• Autonomy
• Competence
• Relatedness
• PLOC
• Volition
• Perceived choice
• Social bonds
• Communal/exchange relationships
• Internalization
• Engagement

This chapter was all about psychological needs. They were touched on briefly before in previous chapters, but this gives us an in depth look at what each of the psychological needs mean. There is autonomy, which means the desire to be able to make our own choices. Next is competence, which is the need to develop skills and improve our talents. The final psychological need is relatedness, which is the need to establish emotional bonds and form relationships with others.
One of the things I found most interesting in this chapter was the idea of the conundrum of choice. Autonomy is the need for being able to make our own choices, but that doesn’t mean that anything with a choice will satisfy the need for autonomy. If there are limited options available we are still being forced to pick something and autonomy cannot truly be satisfied. For example, when given a class schedule being forced to choose between algebra and biology does not satisfy the need for autonomy, even though you are making a choice. To be truly autonomous the student would be asked what class they want to take and not be given restrictive options. It wasn’t necessarily surprising but it was something I would not have thought about before reading this chapter.
It would be hard to rate myself on autonomy because it would depend on the situation. During a regular day most of my actions would come from an external perceived locus of causality, which means there is something externally driving my decisions. Yes I am technically the one who decides to do my homework, but my choices are either do my homework or get a zero on the homework, which would lead to getting a bad grade in class. There is very little perceived choice in the matter. As discussed above, that does not satisfy the need for autonomy. But there are other situations where my autonomy would be high, because there would be more of an internal perceived locus of causality. I truly make my own decisions in some cases. What do I want to do before I go to bed? I could watch Netflix, read a book, write, color, etc. I am completely in control of that choice, which makes for a higher level of autonomy. Then there are situations that are somewhere in the middle. I could do my laundry now, or I could have dirty clothes, or I could live with dirty clothes for only a little while and do my laundry in a few days. I am sort of forced into a choice - especially if I leave my laundry until I run out of clean clothes completely - but there is a broader choice that allows for the internal perceived locus of causality. So my autonomy rating would be somewhere in the middle, because it fluctuates depending on the situation.
Overall I would probably rate my competence somewhere on the high end, but it also fluctuates depending on the situation of course. In order to fully meet the need for competence, the activity should meet flow, which is a deep state of concentration when you are completely involved in the activity. Flow is what can make time pass so quickly because you are so immersed in what you are doing. Usually it’s something enjoyable, but it can be anything you are completely focused on. The biggest point the book made was that in order to truly reach proper flow, challenge and skill should be evenly matched, both relatively high. Flow can come from doing homework if challenge and skill match. But this semester a few of my classes are the opposite. They are not challenging enough and I’m just bored. So my need for competence is not being properly met because I am not being challenged and given a chance to improve my skills. Other things and other classes, like this one, are more enjoyable because challenge and skill are more evenly matched.
As for relatedness, I would rate myself somewhere in the middle and toward the higher end. While I do not have a lot of emotional connections, the ones that I do have are close bonds and very special to me. So interacting with them satisfies that need for relatedness. The close bonds are communal relationships, where I care about them and they care about me, instead of exchange relationships, which is much more casual like between coworkers. Both are important to have but communal relationships are more significant and help satisfy the need for relatedness a lot more. The need for relatedness drives my social interactions. I get pretty anxious around people, but I also grave interaction. I will go out with a group after training on Monday nights, even if I’m really tired, because my of my need for relatedness and my desire to form stronger emotional bonds with those people.
As for the fish, it makes most sense to me related to the autonomy need. He was forced to live in the fishbowl and didn’t have any choice in the matter so his need for autonomy was not being met. He wants to be able to make his own choices, so he chooses to jump out. This is not really a good idea because he’s going to die but it did meet his autonomy need.

Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, conundrum of choice, internal/external perceived locus of causality, perceived choice, flow, communal relationships, exchange relationships, psychological needs

Chapter 6 discusses the study of three main psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These needs rely on a more natural approach to motivation. This approach assumes two main ideas: 1) people are inherently active and 2) in the person-environment dialectic, the person uses inherent psychological needs to engage in the environment and the environment sometimes supports but other times neglects and frustrates these inner resources. In short, this approach to motivation supports the view that humans have natural motivation to learn, grow, and develop that is healthy when the environment is supportive of the core psychological needs. The chapter continues with the individual discussion of the core psychological needs. First is autonomy which is the need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one's behavior. Autonomy reflects that an individual's actions are motivated by the inner resources rather than extrinsic environmental events. The extent to how autonomous one feels is determinate upon whether or not relationships and the environment are perceived as supportive or neglecting and frustrating. Autonomy-supportive motivation is one that nurtures inner motivational resources, relies on informational language, promotes valuing, and acknowledges and accepts negative affect as okay. Those who are autonomous compared to those who are more controlled by others, show gains in motivation, engagement, development, learning, performance, and psychological well-being. The next core psychological need is competence which is the need to interact effectively with the environment. This need encompasses the desire to exercise an individual's skills and capabilities and to seek out and conquer challenges. A need for competence generates motivation to develop, improve and refine personal skills. The environmental event that satisfies competence is perception of progress and positive feedback. The more that the environment satisfies an individual's need for competence, the more willing that individual is to seek out and and attempt to master challenges that will help them to develop and grow. The final psychological need is relatedness. This need establishes close emotional bonds and attachments with other people and reflects the desire to be emotionally connected and interpersonally involved with others in relationships. To satisfy relatedness, a person has to believe that the emerging social bond is backed by liking and caring. Relatedness is an important internal need because it provides a social context that supports the idea of internalization which the process of an individual that takes another's beliefs or ways of thinking and behaving, and makes them their own. The last main idea of the chapter is the engagement model of motivation. This model demonstrates how relationships and social interactions involve and satisfy psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. When people experience the satisfaction of psychological needs, they experience the psychological sustenance necessary for active engagement and personal experiences of vitality and well-being.

I think that the concept of internalization is not the most surprising thing that I learned, but one of the most interesting. In the chapter, it uses the example of the internalization of your parent's beliefs. The more positive relationship with a parents figure, the more beliefs and behaviors that are internalized. I think that this is interesting because if you think about it, it's not a conscious process. I realized the other day that I do some things the exact same way my mother does. I didn't decide that I'm going to remember this particular behavior and practice it; it was process of being around that behavior and over time, adopting that behavior as my own. Granted there are other characteristics that need to happen in order for internalization to occur such as the satisfaction of psychological need of relatedness and one must see value and meaning in the other individual's behaviors.

If I were to rate myself on the psychological needs, I would rate autonomy and competence high and medium with relatedness. These levels of psychological needs are evident in my life through the examination of my schoolwork and work performed in the professional environment. I am quite autonomous when it comes to school. I like that I get to choose what classes I take and when to take them. When it comes to work, I function and perform much more efficiently when I am in an autonomous environment. If I am given a list of tasks or something that I don't quite know how to do, I am more than happy to figure it out on my own rather than to immediately ask for help. This coincides with competence as well. These tasks that challenge me also help me to develop and grow my competence. These tasks are exercising my knowledge and experiences in solving the problem and mastering the challenge while developing my skills and capabilities. I rated myself a medium on relatedness because I enjoy social interaction and being around friends, but I don't need everyone I meet to accept or like me. I think that those high on relatedness would be individuals that are always around people and interacting in social situations. Occasionally, I like my alone time. I need time to myself to refocus and recharge which is why I rated myself medium.

I think that competence motivates my behavior the most. I associate competence with competitiveness. Competence is someone whose skills and capabilities are being challenged and need to rise to the challenge to succeed. This is quite similar to competition. I am quite competitive and the though of it being a challenge or if someone else is also trying the same task I am, I would be more motivated to perform better and more thorough than the other individual.

As for the fish bowl, I think its an arbitrary picture that you are challenging us to adopt to some psychological idea. It could just be that someone accidentally bumped the fish bowl and fish got knocked out of the bowl.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, and relatedness, motivation, person-environment, self-direction, Autonomy-supportive motivation, internalization, engagement model of motivation

Chapter 6: Psychological Needs

This chapter covers the three psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness and their approach to motivation. Autonomy is when you experience the need to have inner resources rather than environmental resources that determine one’s actions. Competence is when one has the desire to develop or refine personal skills. Relatedness is the need to form close and emotional bonds with other people. When you have satisfied all three of these psychological needs you experience vitality and well-being.

One thing that I found to be the most surprising to learn about was “What makes for a Good Day?” We have all used the phrase “today is a good day” or “today is a bad day” but this puts it into a better perspective on what that actually means. When our psychological needs are satisfied they generate positive emotions and on good days the events of our lives work to satisfy those needs. On bad days the events in our lives work against each other and frustrate those needs. Doing something that we enjoy doing like playing a sport or dancing will promote positive emotions and then satisfy our psychological needs and leads to more good days than bad days.

I would have to rate myself medium competence, high relatedness and medium to high autonomy. I have grown up with my parents telling me over and over again to do well in school and now I have the desire and drive to challenge myself to do the best I can. It also helps that I am genuinely interested in my studies and that helps push me through. Now my competence is medium. I have a high relatedness due to sharing a close bond with my fiancé. My relationship with him is very important to me and our bond continues to grow. He pushes me to be the best I can be and I value that. For autonomy I am medium to high because I like a good challenge but I pick and choose my battles. If I do not feel that I will excel at the challenge I usually choose to take the easier way out.

If I had to choose one of the psychological needs I would choose relatedness. My relationship with my family and friends has always been very important to me and I would do anything for them. Relatedness helps us form trust with one another and to genuinely care about each other’s well-being. Having a close bond with my family and friends is a way that I can stay motivated to finish a challenge. They are always right there encouraging me onto the finish.

If you would have asked before I read this chapter I would have no idea as to what to say. Now after reading chapter 6 I can make sense of it. The fish is probably experiencing autonomy by the environmental constraints of the fish bowl. By the fish jumping out of the bowl this says that it wants to make decisions for them instead of feeling like someone is making them for them. They fish wants to escape and become autonomous and not be confined.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, motivation, vitality, well-being, emotional bonds

This chapter focused on psychological needs; autonomy, competence, and relatedness. When we engage in an activity that involves our psychological needs, we feel interest. When that activity satisfies our psychological needs, we feel enjoyment. This means that the underlying motivational cause for engaging in our environment, is to involve and satisfy our psychological needs. Organismic Theories of motivation acknowledge that environments are constantly changing, and therefore organisms need flexibility to adjust to, and accommodate to, those changes. Organisms also need environmental resources in order to grow, and unlock their potentials. The organismic approach concerns how organisms initiate interactions with the environment and adapt, change, and grow as a function of those environmental transactions. This is in contrast to mechanistic theories, where the environment acts on the person and the person reacts. In reality, as shown in person environment dialect, the relationship between person and environment is reciprocal. The environment acts on the person and the person acts on the environment.
The first of the organismic psychological needs is autonomy. Autonomy is the need to experience self-direction, and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one's behavior. Behavior is self-determined when our interests, preferences, and wants are able to guide the decision-making process to engage, or not engage, in any particular activity. Three qualities work together to define the subjective experience of autonomy. First, an individual's understanding of the causal source of his or her motivated actions; the perceived locus of causality. Next, volition, or the unpressured willingness to engage in an activity. Finally, perceived choice refers to the sense of choice we experience when we find ourselves in environments that provide us with decision-making flexibility which affords a variety of opportunities from which to choose. However, there is a difference between the environmental event of being offered a choice and the personal experience of true choice. Not all choices are the same, and they do not all promote autonomy. Only when people have a true choice over their actions, and when they are offered choices that are meaningful to them, do they experience a sense of autonomy rather than obligation. When the environment imposes a deadline, it interferes with autonomy, but when it provides opportunities for self-direction, it supports autonomy. When it comes to motivational style, one person's willingness to take the other's perspective, and to value personal growth opportunities during an activity, will support autonomy (know as autonomy supportive motivating style). On the other hand, one person pressuring another towards a prescribed outcome will decrease one’s sense of autonomy. Having the ability to nurture another's inner motivational resources, and being able to identify their interests, preferences, and psychological needs will help inspire intrinsic motivation rather than simple compliance. Another thing that can help solve motivational problems, is relying on flexible, non-controlling, informational language that helps people understand why they're being asked to do something. Communicating the value, worth, meaning, utility and importance of engaging in any sort of behavior will increase the likelihood internalization and voluntarily acceptance of externally imposed rules, constraints, and limits. Additionally, moment-to-moment behaviors (being flexible in your motivational behaviors) increases autonomy support. Autonomy support nurtures not only the psychological need of autonomy, but also the needs for competence and relatedness, as well as additional motivations such as intrinsic motivation and Mastery motivation. Being able to support one's autonomy results in higher effort and more positive emotion. It also enhances important aspects of development, learning, performance, and psychological well-being.
Another innate psychological need is the need for competence. Competence is the need to be effective in interactions with the environment. It reflects the desire to exercise one's capacities and skills, and in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges. The key environmental condition that satisfies our need for competence is positive feedback. When we engage in a task with a level of difficulty and complexity that is exactly right for our current skills and talents, we feel strong interest. This is called optimal challenge and flow. Flow is a state of concentration that has holistic absorption and deep involvement in an activity. It occurs when a person uses his or her skills to overcome some challenge, but being over-challenged threatens competency, in the same way that being underchallenged creates boredom. When challenge matches skill, concentration, involvement, and enjoyment rise. Challenge and feedback are interdependent, people do not report the psychological experience of being challenged unless they receive initial performance feedback. Performance feedback (especially positive feedback) supplies the information individual's need to form a cognitive evaluation of their perceived level of competence. People also require some amount of structure when it comes to challenges. Structure refers to the amount and clarity of information about what the environment expects the person to do to achieve desired outcomes. In order for the environment to support competence, there must also be some level of failure tolerance. One hallmark of an optimal challenge is the notion that success and failure are equally likely, therefore, being provided an optimal challenge implies that considerable error making is essential for optimizing motivation. Being in a failure-tolerant (rather than controlling, failure-intolerant) environment allows people to experience an emotional green light towards stretching one’s self. In a general sense, mastery is what satisfies the competency need.
The third psychological need that is innate to humans is relatedness. Relatedness is the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. It reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to, and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. Essentially, what satisfies the relatedness need is the opportunity to relate the self authentically to another person in a caring, and emotionally meaningful, way. Having one’s relatedness need filled allows people to function better, be more resilient to stress, and experience fewer psychological difficulties. Interaction with others is the primary condition that involves the relatedness need, but relatedness-need satisfaction requires the creation of a social bond between the true self and another. Our relationships with others can be separated into two categories, exchange relationships (acquaintances, people who do business together) and communal relationships (people who care about each other; friends, family, romantic partners). In essence, we need to feel that others (1.) care about us and (2.) like us. Those who feel lonely are those who lack close intimate relationships. When we feel we are part of a communal relationships, we are more likely to internalize the values of those around us. Internalization reflects the individual's tendency to voluntarily adopt and integrate into the self the values and regulations of other people. For internalisation to occur, the individual must also see the value, meaning, and utility of the others prescriptions and proscriptions. Overall, a satisfied relatedness need promotes vitality and wellbeing, as well as lessens loneliness and depression. The motivational model of Engagement illustrates, in a comprehensive way, the contribution that relationships and social context have on the stated psychological needs. Engagement is a term that captures the intensity and emotional quality people show when they initiate and carry out activities. Basically, people show high and/or low engagement based on the origin of their engagement via psychological needs. In conclusion, these psychological needs are what give us our “psychological nutriments,” which are necessary for feeling good. When you experience events that involve and satisfy psychological needs, they generate positive emotion and psychological well-being, promoting development and making you feel vital.
If I had to rate myself on each of the three psychological needs in this chapter, I would say my competence level is high, my relatedness level is medium, and my autonomy level is high. For competence, I enjoy feeling like I know what I'm doing. I like to be in control, and when I don't feel in control or I don't feel like I truly understand what I'm doing, it makes me anxious. I think my relatedness level is medium because I enjoy interacting and feeling close to other people, but I don't feel a need to have a lot of super close friends. I am very close with my family, so that is where I believe those needs are met (at least most of the time). I also feel my autonomy level is high because I am not one who enjoys having people tell me what to do. I like instruction, but then I want to be able to do it by myself. I don't particularly enjoy working with others. I want to be able to do it by myself, and I want to completely understand the process. Competency is definitely something that motivates specific behaviors within my life. In particular, I prefer to try a new task on my own several times, and get it wrong several times, before asking for help. In addition to that, when learning a new skill I put in a great deal of persistence and effort before accepting help from someone, or showing someone else my progress. Generally, I won't show anyone until I feel that I have mastered it (the skill).
If I had to guess the fish picture relates to this chapter because the fish is having a good day. He's escaping from the bowl, so everything appears (at least for now) to be going his way. The environments interactions he is currently receiving are satisfying his psychological needs (at least autonomy and competency) and, therefore, he seems happy.


TERMS: psychological needs; autonomy, competence, relatedness, interest, enjoyment, organismic theories, mechanistic theories, person environment dialect, behavior, perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived chose, true choice, motivation style, autonomy supportive, intrinsic motivation, informational language, moment-to-moment behaviors, internalization, mastery motivation, effort, emotion, positive feedback, optimal challenge, flow, structure, success, failure, failure tolerance, mastery, exchange relationships, communal relationships, integrate, vitality, motivational model of engagement, relationship, social context, engagement, psychological nutriments

Chapter six is about the psychological needs and how they affect our motivation. The three main psychological needs that are discussed in the chapter are autonomy, competence and relatedness. These three main needs can be called organismic psychological needs because of all organisms need environmental resources to grow. Another important feature is the person-environment dialect which states that both the person and the environment act on each other which are both ever changing. The environment provides the opportunities for people to act on and these actions affect the environment.
The chapter then goes on to discuss autonomy. Autonomy is the need of being able to choose and make decisions based on your own wants instead of being forced to choose by another person or the environment. There are three main factors that contribute to one’s autonomy. If a person has an internal perceived locus of control, high volition, and a perceived choice over the action, then they will have high perceived autonomy and vice versa. However, choice can be tricky. Choice can’t be pressured or choose between a limited option of this or that. It has to be give the person a clear sense that the choice is actually theirs. The book then goes on to talk about how to support one’s autonomy and not control their motivation. In order to support one’s autonomy, you need to see things from their perspective, nurture their interests, provide all necessary information, give a rational for why they are doing something and listen to their negative comments. People who use a controlling motivation style use external motives, tell people to do something without giving reason and force them to do the task when they provide negative comments. People with higher autonomy have higher motivation, engagement, development, learning, performance and psychological well-being than those with low autonomy.
Secondly, the chapter discusses competence which is interacting effectively in our environment while still being adequately challenged. The main part of competence is that our challenges in life need to be just right for our talent level and they need to have good flow to them. Flow is characterized by someone being deeply involved in an activity. In other words, our talent level needs to match the level of the challenge. If the challenge is too hard for a person’s skills, then the person will fell anxious and worried. On the other hand, if a person takes part in a challenge that is too easy for their given set of skills then they will be bored. In both cases, the person will not enjoy the challenge and not satisfy their need for competence. In order for the challenge to work one needs to be able to fail and needs to be provided with feedback on how they did on their challenge.
Finally, the chapter talks about relatedness which is the need to belong and have relationships with others. Everyone wants to have good relationships with other people. A good relationship is one where the people you hang out with trust and truly care about your well-being. We need to know that the people we hang out with care about our welfare and like us for who we truly are. We also want communal relationships which means we do stuff for others just because we like them and can tell what they need so we try to fix it. The opposite is an exchange relationship where we only partake in the relationship if we get something out of it which are not good relationships to increase relatedness. When all three of the needs are met a person will have lots of engagement in their activity and be very interested in it. They will also feel like they are having a good day and that they have good vitality.
The most surprising thing in the chapter for me is the importance of autonomy and how to support it. Because I am in many activities that basically have a controlling motivational style, it surprises me knowing this knowledge now that they don’t use an autonomy-supportive motivational style. I would say that I am medium on autonomy because as I said I am in a lot of controlling situations and I do fine but I would like more autonomy in those activities. I would say that I am high on competence because I am always looking for that next challenge and I love to complete challenges. This motivates me to play basketball because there is always a new challenge to face there and it also helps me try and achieve good grades. Finally, I would say that I am relatively low on relatedness compared to other people. I really only have one maybe two friends in which I am very close with and even then I don’t always get to see them all the time.
I would say that the fish is jumping out of the bowl to potentially fulfill all three of the needs. First he is being controlled by being kept in a bowl so he wants to leave so that he can control his own life fulfilling autonomy. Secondly, he could be seeking new challenges in life instead of just chilling in a fish bowl and being bored fulfilling competence. Finally, he could be jumping out of the bowl to find more fish friends in order to fulfill his need for relatedness.
Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, organismic psychological needs, person-environment dialect, perceived locus of control, volition, perceived choice, flow, communal relationships, exchange relationship, engagement, controlling motivational style, autonomy-supportive motivational style.

Jarye Bah
Chapter 6: Psychological Needs
Chapter 6 covers the topics of what we need psychologically. Psychological needs underlie interest and enjoyment of activities. When and activity involves our psychological needs, we feel interest. When an activity satisfies our psychological need, we feel enjoyment. Energy generated by psychological needs is proactive. Psychological needs promote a willingness to seek out and to engage an environment that we expect will be to nurture our psychological needs, because psychological needs motivate exploration, it is seen as growth. Experiences involving psychological needs generate positive emotion and psychological well-being, as well as vitality
The most surprising thing when I read this chapter was that the three psychological needs are sometimes referred to as organismic psychological needs. Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in initiation and regulating one’s behavior; which is also defined as internal perceived locus of causality (PLOC). Autonomy also talks about volition and perceived choice. Volition is the willingness to engage in an activity and perceived refers to the sense of choice we experience when we find ourselves in environments that provides us with decision making flexibility. Competence is the second psychological need, it is the need to be affective in interactions with the environment, and it reflects the desire to exercise one’s skills and seek out and master optimal challenges. There are two optimal conditions to competence, optimal challenge and flow, they determine the conditions that create enjoyment. Environmental conditions that satisfy need for competence are positive feedback and the perception of progress. Relatedness is the third psychological need, it the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people, it reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. Primary conditions for relatedness is interaction with others, but need satisfaction is requires creation of social bond between the self and another that involves, caring, liking, accepting, and valuing. These characteristics are evident in communal relationships (those between people that who care about the welfare of the other), rather than exchange relationships.
If I was to rate myself between the psychological needs, I would be very high on relatedness because I have the need to establish close bonds with others. I internalize to other by adopting and intergrading values and regulations of others unto myself. I rage myself high on relatedness because I show engagement when I initiate and carry out activities. Engagement is enhanced by autonomy support, clear and helpful structure, and involvement. I would rate medium on autonomy because I do have self-control over what I do sometimes. I would rate low on competence because sometimes I am not very active and it takes me a while to do a goal.
Competence motivates by behavior often because sometimes I find myself in situations that is very neglectful and frustrating. Sometimes I need a clear and helpful structure like feedback when I am doing something very challenging. Getting informational feedback when making progress and creating opportunities for me to enjoy the optimal challenge that I am facing.
The deal with the fish picture would be it want relatedness. It wants a close bond with another fish.
Terms:
Psychological needs, autonomy, internal locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, competence, optimal challenge, flow, structure, positive feedback, perception of progress, relatedness, interactions with others, social bond. Communal and exchange relationships, internalization, engagement, vitality.


The needs that we have discussed in previous chapters have been, for the most part, centered on deficits and fulfilling them. Chapter six discusses our needs based on growth. Solving mysteries, playing games, and reading a book are all psychological needs. These activities are all fundamentally interesting and enjoyable things to do. Our psychological needs provide us with positive energy to seek out and engage in a nature that we pursue as a positive outcome. We have three psychological needs, which are as follows: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the freedom and choice to construct our own goals and the complexity or simplicity behind the decision-making process towards our specific goals. We, as humans, need to experience self-direction and have a personal confirmation towards our behaviors. Competence is the need to interact effectively and efficiently with your surroundings. Our desire should be to develop while seeking out optimal challenged and skills. Relatedness is the need for feeling like you belong to a group that is larger than just yourself. We want to feel wanted, valued, important, and understood and this is all derived from relatedness.

One subject I found interesting in this chapter was the autonomy section. There is much more that goes into nurturing and destroying autonomy than meets the eye. Specifically, I found interesting was the conundrum of choice theory. There are two different types of perceived choice. There is the personal true choice and then the environmental event of being offered a choice. Before reading a section I had never realized a difference between the two types. This section showed how not all choices promote the growth of autonomy. Being given a choice between two events or courses of behavior by others does not tap into the autonomous feeling we require. This only does not provide any growth for autonomy, but also does not provide a boost in performance or engagement. Autonomy is only acquired when a person feels like they have a true choice over their actions and the direction their life is heading. True choices should be intrinsically motivated by the person.

Autonomy, relatedness, and competence are all highly relevant in my day-to-day life. If I were to rate what level of autonomy I have in my life, I would rate myself as high. I have always been very autonomous through my childhood and now into my adulthood. I have always had the desire to be in total control of my decision and the paths I take in life. This autonomous behavior has lead me to where I am in life today. I am in college, buying a house this spring, and seeking a graduate degree next year. These are all examples of my psychological need for autonomy. I would rate my competence level to be medium/high. I feel overall my level of competence is high, but there are periods in time where it may be lower than normal. I have always strived to do well in school and further my education as much as I can. Going into psychology, something, I have so much passion for has helped me to develop more skills than I have had before. Although most of the time I am high in competence there are the few times I choose the easier way out of things. I would say I have a high level of relatedness in my everyday life. My close friends and family are very important to me. I make a lot of time for them and for their needs as well as mine.

I feel as if the picture of the fish leaping out of the bowl resembles the psychological need for autonomy. He wants to be free from the barriers that surround him. He needs to feel as if he has a choice and the freedom to construct his own goals and behavior.

Terms: Psychological Needs, Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, Conundrum of Choice, Perceived Choice, Intrinsic Motivation

Chapter six is about psychological needs and how to satisfy them. Unlike physiological or biological needs from previous chapters, psychological needs emerge as growth instead of solving some form of deficit. The need for water is a deficit, but wanting to climb the tallest tree is a psychological need. The two major theories are mechanistic theory and organismic theory. Mechanistic theory states that the environment influences the person and behavior comes from the person responding to the environment. An example would be the sun shining too hot on a person so the person walks over to the shade. Organismic theory states that the environment changes and causes the person to grow and interact within the environment. An example of this would be succeeding to climb a tree and then attempting to climb it after it rained. The difference in environment causes new challenges and the person must adapt to succeed. The need for competence is also involved in that example. Need for competence is repeating a behavior until it is mastered. By repeatedly climbing the tree, the person is learning and growing.

Autonomy is another aspect of organismic theory. Autonomy is the freedom to decide choices and stems from self-directed initiative. What determines the sense of autonomy is broken into three parts: internal locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice. Internal locus of causality is understanding where in the spectrum of internal-external is the source of the behavior. Volition is non-pressured willingness to engage in a certain behavior. This covers how free a person is to engage in the behavior as well as the degree of coercion to stop a behavior. Perceived choice is a sense of freedom during decision-making to choose. Providing a choice is different than initiating a choice. Most questions are on either-or basis and there is a pressure to choose one of them. Free choice is open-ended. Competence also plays a role as a psychological need to be effective in interactions and mastering challenges. Relatedness is our ability to develop relationships with other people, groups, and communities.

If I had to rate myself on the three major factors of psychological needs it would be: competence-high, autonomy-medium, relatedness-medium. I have a huge need to be good at what I do, whether at work or in my education. I was an ‘A’ student all through high school and still do reasonably well in college. This shows my need of competence. I put autonomy as medium because, although I am hard-headed and opinionated, I prefer to do activities with another person. Usually this ends up with my boyfriend or roommate accompanying me to places such as the store or restaurants. I can do things on my own, I just prefer not to. I rated relatedness also at a medium. I enjoy the people I am friends with and hang out with often; I find a sense of security and energy from them. Because of this, I do not go out of my way to find new relationships. Some develop naturally, such as work friendships, but in all I am content with the people I have in my life.

One psychological need I will examine in greater detail is competence. As already mentioned, I have a huge need for competence. This influences my behavior especially at work. I always want to know what is going on and the new developments. The need for competence means I am always asking questions about new strategies or paths of action. I learn something new every time I work and this fuels my need to know all I can.

The fish, I think, shows competence. The fish has sought out the challenge of jumping out of the bowl and has now accomplished it. Now, we know this is not a good goal, since the fish cannot breathe air, but it is admirable that the fish continued until it happened.

Terms: psychological needs, mechanistic theory, organismic theory, need for competence, autonomy, internal locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, competence, relatedness

Chapter six concerned psychological needs which was touched on in chapters four and five. In chapter six the focus on the organismic psychological theory which divides psychological need into three parts, autonomy or the idea that to some extent we are free to choose, competence which can be described as the desire to successfully challenge ourselves with the our environment, lastly relatedness which would be the need for social connection and a social derived direction and context.

The most surprising thing I learned from this chapter would center around the conundrum of choice. I’ve always believed that as a sentient being life is about choice, all the choices we make as individuals combined with everyone else’s choices and those choices made before us interact in an impossibly complex web that is our reality. Our choices shape our lives and everyones choices shape our world. After reading through the text it makes sense now that choice can only be true choice when a person actually has the autonomy to choose. That never occurred to me, I had always considered everything a choice, choices may not have been easy or even beneficial but they were there, ever present, as were consequences.

I would rate myself currently medium high in autonomy, I am still constrained by my environment, circumstances and choices but all in all I enjoy daily autonomy in my life. Within autonomy my perceived locus of causality is generally, after simplifying my life, pretty clear. I’m also pretty free to follow my own volition thanks to shaping my life to more freely give me more perceived choices.
Competence is a tough one for me, in my younger days I on hindsight recognize that my competence was low. By the textbooks definition I had little desire to seek out and master optimal challenge, for whatever reason I let my introverted tendencies keep me from opportunity. Now as an adult I am much better equipped and willing to actively seek out challenge to the point I regularly withdraw into myself as I engage activities and experience what the textbook describes as flow. Competence for me, now is the reason I started over and am back in school, one of the reasons anyway. I am actively looking for growth opportunities and experiences after so long avoiding them.
I would rate myself low in relatedness, scratch that, as an introvert I have a definite deficit in this area and I’m probably very very low in relatedness. Although I genuinely feel my psychological need of relatedness is normal my actual skills and ability to form and maintain social bonds is definitely stunted and underdeveloped. I recognize the need, and I also understand interaction with others, and am very perceptive of cues, body language and signals. I also get social bonds conceptually, but often times I find myself dissociated from them, apart, an observer in my own relationships and the emotions and relatedness they elicit. It’s difficult to describe and probably best left for some other paper, suffice it to say I am low in relatedness.

The fish, it needs to grow beyond it’s limitations, the fish has decided that the water will be it’s prison no longer. The fishbowl is not enough, it needs new challenges and so made the choice to move beyond it’s world. Autonomy and competence.

Terms: Organismic Needs, Autonomy, Perceived locus of causality, volition, perceived choice, the conundrum of choice, competence, Relatedness, flow,

What brings a person joy and what is fun for that person is better known as psychological needs. There are three psychological needs are better known as organismic psychological needs. It depends on its environment, foods, water, social support, and intellectual stimulation.
I never realize that seeing my family, friends, and playing basketball are psychological needs. I did know that I was happier when I saw them or played, but I never truly knew why I was happier. I didn’t know the meaning to how I went from sad and depress to happy and joyful from time to time.
I would rate my psychological needs are pretty high. I hardly do anything unless it is fun for me or brings me some kind of joy. Without it being fun or some kind of enjoyment than I don’t see any reason to do anything. There are only a few things that are fun or that brings me joy in some way. Basketball is fun for me to play with or without friends. Basketball is my favorite sport so if I am doing anything basketball related than Ill pretty much always have fun or have some kind of joy. Hanging out with friends and family. It is always a joy to see old friends from high school and catching up with everyone and seeing how they are doing. Especially since everyone has left our small town and gone out and gotten engaged, married, and or have kids. Everyone’s life has change so it is good to find out how everyone is doing. Last but never least just being around family is always a fun, joy, and crazy moments no matter which side of my family I am with. Every time I am with family it is always a funny time. We are always laughing and enjoying everyone that is there with us. Not all of my family lives in the same town so whenever I see family from out of town it is always a great time.
Ever since I decided to come to the University of Northern Iowa I levels are never the same. Mostly all the time that I am up here my levels are low until the times that I get to go home for break, even though it is only for a week or two. My levels raise high when I go home, but when I have to come back that drop down low because I am away from my family and longtime friends. I knew what I was giving up when I decided to come up to the University of Northern Iowa, but I can’t help but miss my family more and more every time I don’t see them. They even drop when I feel depress but I try to bring them up by playing basketball.
Seeing my family is my biggest psychological need. My grandmother when she was alive always wanted me to get my college degree and make my life better than the one I grew up with. She always wanted me to be better and to never give up on anything I do. She is the reason why I am still up here and going to finish getting m degree. I made a promise to her when she was alive and when she died that I would get my degree no matter what happen. I am doing this for her. She is my motivation.
Terms: Psychological Needs

Summarize:
Chapter six is all about our psychological needs. These needs stem from an organismic theory which is based on how organisms interact in their environment. Psychological needs come from our interests and when these needs are met we have a feeling of happiness or joy. Psychological needs come from three different areas being autonomy, which is our need for choice and to make decisions, competence, which balances our skill and challenges, and relatedness, which is the establishment of close emotional bonds. These different types of needs provide us with our motivation to learn, grow, and develop.
What was the most surprising thing you learned?
I found the conundrum of choice to be very interesting to me. As I stated in the summary of the chapter autonomy is our need for choice and to make decisions, but what I find interesting about the conundrum of choice is that this is not such a simple need to fulfill. This need is only actually met when the individual has a true choice over their actions. This means that we need to feel like we are making a choice and not being pressured or forced into our actions. This need is met by intrinsic motivation which we talked about last chapter. We tend to feel like when we are given a choice between doing X or doing Y this is not a true choice. To our psychological need of autonomy this is not a decision, but rather we feel that this is pressured because we only have the option of two things and are not able to stray in our decision from the choices we were given. A true choice means that the individual is able to freely choose to do or not to do something and fulfill that need of autonomy.
If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be? How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life? Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
For me to rate myself on these psychological needs I think that I am medium on autonomy, high on competence, and high on relatedness. I feel that becoming an adult and making decisions that I’ve never had to before goes to show that my autonomy is lower than my other needs. It takes me forever to make a decision and when I do I feel like I am constantly making the wrong one. I think this is in part my parents and school system’s fault. Growing up I never had to make decisions or at least I was never given true choices. Most of what I did was pressured by my parents or decided by my parents all together. As far as school goes from K-12 I feel that so much of our information is spoon-fed. There is right and there is wrong and I am going to drill the correct answer and the way I want it answered into your head you never have to think on your own and I feel like this learning method is stunting our psychological need for autonomy. As far as relatedness I feel like I have no problem making personal bonds with people. I consider myself a people person meaning even though I don’t always like people I always seem to get along with anyone and everyone, and I can talk and relate to just about anyone. I think part of this is because I tend to talk so much I just always find someone who will listen to me and connections are made.
If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
I think that the fish jumping out of the bowl is symbolic for it wanting to make it’s own decisions and fulfill its need for autonomy. It is trapped in this bowl where it is supposed to be, but it is choosing to test these limits and jump out of the bowl because that is the free will of its own choice. In order to feel that joy and happiness it is choosing to fulfill its autonomic need.

Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, intrinsic motivation, psychological need, organismic theory, true choice, motivation

Chapter six of the text covered psychological needs. Three needs in particular; autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is expressing our free will, so that we can retain some control over our lives. We are more motivated to do something if it was our decision, not when external factors force us to do something. The next psychological need is competence. We are much more motivated to do something if we feel as though we can achieve it. Some ways that competence is shown in our lives is through successful relationships, or doing well in sports, academics, or professionally. We are not motivated to do something if we feel incompetent, mostly due to the feeling that failure is bound to happen. We as humans try to avoid failure at all costs. The more we try and fail, the less competent we see ourselves. The last psychological need of this chapter is relatedness. This need explains why we want to surround ourselves with other people, and make close connections with those people. It becomes an unconscious way for us to satisfy the need to belong. Without relatedness, we would have no way to feel accepted, loved, and understood by others. In relation to the people in our lives, if we aren’t receiving that closeness and acceptance from them, we tend to lean away from them and toward individuals or groups that can satisfy the need.

If I had to rate myself on each of these psychological needs, I would rate my need for autonomy as medium. I know that I am independent and crave the ability to make my own decisions and be responsible for myself. However, I know that there are plenty of things that are out of my control and understanding. In my life, this manifests itself through my relationship with my parents. From a pretty young age I felt the need to be able to do things on my own, and be autonomous. I would rate myself medium on the need for competence. I hate being thought of as ignorant, incompetent, or uneducated. I definitely am more motivated to do something if I believe that I can do it. This manifests itself in my life through school work or presentations, math work specifically. However, I do understand that there are simply going to be things in life that I’m not good at doing. That’s where my need for spontaneity takes over. Examples include singing, dancing, or doing a combination of these things in front of people. I often let down my need for competence when I decide that I’m going to do something whether I’ll fail or not, and decide not to care about what people think. The last need, relatedness, I would rate myself very high. I have always felt a strong need to be with people, and to fit in. Although I definitely have my moments, where I don’t care much for relating to people, still the need to belong, connect, and feel accepted is still one of my strongest psychological needs.

It’s interesting however, because I think of myself as an independent person, autonomous and free willed, unbiased by the decisions of others. Yet I know that I would score high on the need for relatedness. I believe however, that I’ve found a balance between being myself and fitting the mold that I need to, to be there for others and make connections.

If I had to make an assumption about the fish picture, I could guess that it is motivated to get out of the water for any of the three reasons we learned about in the chapter. Maybe the fish is seeking to get out to that he is different, making his own autonomous decisions. Maybe the fish is displaying competence, by demonstrating a skill he has learned. Or maybe the fish is simply trying to jump into a nearby bowl with another fish to satisfy the need for relatedness.

Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness

The other type of “need” that is part of motivation are psychological needs. When analyzing motivation of behavior it is important that we fully understand what psychological needs are, and what influences psychological needs. Psychological needs are inherently different to physiological needs because physiological needs emanate from biological deficits and thus making this kind of need-motivated behavior reactive (pg. 143, Reeve, 2009). Psychological needs on the other hand are the opposite in that it is a proactive need and motivate us to explore and interact with an environment that will nurture this psychological need, thus making it a growth need (pg. 143, Reeve, 2009). The chapter talks about three types of psychological needs also known as the organismic psychological needs which is the opposite of physiological needs which are also known as the mechanistic needs. The three psychological needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness.

Before talking about these needs, it is important to understand that the organismic theories do not subscribe to the notion of a unidirectional relationship and instead focuses on a person-environment dialectic (pg. 144, Reeve, 2009). This just means that there is a reciprocal relationship between the environment and the individual. The first organismic psychological is autonomy. Autonomy is the psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior (pg. 146, Reeve, 2009). This means that we have a psychological need or what I would say is satiation for choice. This experience of decision-making for ourselves is a freedom we desire and that is autonomy.

There are three subjective qualities that is used to explain the experience of autonomy and these are the perceived locus of causality (PLOC), volition, and perceived choice. The PLOC is an individual’s understanding of the causal source of his or her motivated actions, volition is our willingness to engage in an activity without any pressure, and perceived choice refers to the sense of choice we experience in environments that provides decision-making flexibility with opportunities from which to choose (pg. 146-147, Reeve, 2009).

Moving on, the next organismic psychological need is competence. Competence is the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment, and it reflects the desire to exercise one’s capacities and skills and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges (pg. 155, Reeve, 2009). This basically means that our need for competence is a need that arises to increase our effectiveness when dealing with our environment. This is something that everyone strives for, being competent.

The third organismic psychological need is relatedness. According to the textbook, relatedness is the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people, and it reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships (pg. 162, Reeve, 2009). We as human being have a need to belong and that is relatedness.

One of the most surprising things that I learned from this chapter was the part about vitality. This was the very last section of this chapter. The subjective experience of vitality is one of the way people experience a good day (pg. 168, Reeve, 2009). Basically a positive combination of all three organismic psychological needs leads to vitality. This means that high levels in autonomy, competence, and relatedness in an individual could mean a high level in happiness.

Relating this back to my own personal life, in terms of the three psychological needs, I would rate autonomy as high, competence as medium, and relatedness as medium. This is reflected in my personal life through my everyday life. An example of a need manifesting in my daily life is the competence need. I am a highly social person and I can be very persuasive and this originated from me having a psychological need to be skillful in being able to influence the people around me without their knowledge. This basically motivates my behavior to learn more about the various topics in psychology and apply it to real life.

Last but not least, as for the picture of the goldfish jumping out of the bowl, I think it represents the saying “a fish out of water”. This means an individual that is clueless in an unfamiliar environment. Because of that, all three needs arise and satisfying these needs is essential to become more familiar with this new environment.


Terms: psychological needs, physiological needs, motivation, behavior, biological deficits, need-motivated behavior, reactive need, proactive need, growth need, organismic psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, person-environment dialectic, self-direction, reciprocal relationship, initiation, regulation, decision-making, perceived locus of control (PLOC), volition, perceived choice, motivated actions, emotional bonds, attachment, desire, vitality,

Summarize the chapter.
Chapter six began by discussing our psychological needs. People feel interested when an activity involves our psychological needs and then we will feel happiness or enjoyment. The three psychological needs are sometimes thought of as organismic psychological needs. Then it explains the relationship between person and environment. The person will act on the environment and the environment will act on the person. Both of these are constantly changing. It is also explained that organismic psychological needs provide motivation.
Autonomy is a psychological need. It is used to help with self-direction and the start and regulation of a person's behaviors, actions, or choices. The three qualities that work together are internal perceived locus of causality, volition, and perceived choice over one's actions.
What was the most surprising thing you learned?
I think that the most surprising think that I learned about in this chapter was about the conundrum of choice. I think that this was surprising for me because I never actually thought about it, but once I read it I did find it interesting. I thought it was interesting to learn about when you actually let someone make an unrestricted choice then they will be able to show their true values, goals, and interests.
If you had to rate yourself as high, medium, low, on the various psychological needs, what would those ratings be?
How do those various levels manifest themselves in your life?
I would rate myself high for autonomy because I tend to make my own decisions and I will avoid situations where I think that someone else will try to restrict my decision. I am going to school because it is something that I want to do, and it is important to me. Next, I would rate myself medium to high for competence. I do try my best at things, but I would not describe myself as a perfectionist.

Choose one psychological need and discuss how it motivates some of your specific behaviors.
I think that relatedness motivates me to go home and see my family and friends. I am very close to them and I think their support makes me feel like I need or want to be around them.

If you had to make a guess, what's the deal with the fish picture? How does it relate to this chapter?
I actually was unsure what the fish picture meant. After looking at some other opinions I agree that it might be the fish challenging itself to jump out of the water and making that choice for itself.
Terms: Psychological Need, Organismic Psychological Need, Motivation, Autonomy, Internal Perceived Locus of Causality, Volition, and Perceived Choice over One's Actions, Competence, Relatedness

Chapter 6 – Psychological Needs

This chapter discusses the topic of psychological needs which is a a proactive need to promote the willingness to seek and to involves oneself in an environment and in activities that we expect will nurture oneself in the three ways; autonomy, competence and relatedness. This relates to organismic approach mentioned in the book which focuses on person and environment interactions and how they are like a cycle (person affects the environment and the environment influences the person, also known as positive feedback). This is known as the natural motivation and inclination for self-development. Furthermore, this chapter elaborates on the three main topic in the organismic approach.

Autonomy is described as the psychological need to experience self-direction and to feel satisfaction in making our own choices. These feelings arise when realize that our motivation to do something like go jogging is from an internal perceived locus of causality (PLOC is a person’s understanding of the sources of their motivation). It also comes from violation where you feel free and unpressured to engage in an activity. Lastly, autonomy also emerges perceived choice where the choice we make comes from flexible decision making and no feeling of obligation.
Competence is the psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment. It is the need to seek out challenges and to be working member of society and the key conditions for this is positive feedback from the environment and having the perception of progress and gaining skills and experience out of your motivations. Relatedness the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people around you and have interpersonal relations with them. Even though the primary condition for this psychological need is the interaction itself, it is the creation of a social and interpersonal bond that satisfies this need, this is established through caring, liking, accepting and valuing the other person and getting the same back from them.

The most informative and surprising thing I found in the chapter was how widely misinterpreted the idea of choice it. When thinking about autonomy and its aspects, I always assumed that the more choices you have have, the more likely that you have self direction and the satisfaction of free will. However, I realized from reading about the conundrum of choices that this is not the case. In some cases, providing more choices may not be the optimal way to promote intrinsic motivations. Although it does do that in a general sense, the issue arises in the fact that not all choices are the same and hence not all of them promote autonomy. Providing more choices works but only in the sense of context.

When rating myself on the different scales of psychological needs, I would have a high score on autonomy, high score on competence and a medium score on relatedness. Autonomy has always been a big part of my life. I moved around so much when I was younger that I had to chose my own path and find myself at a very young age in order stay sane. I work better when I can decide my own path because for a long time because every time I changed school I got to be whoever I wanted and that meant a lot to choose from and be my own person. I would rate myself on high for competence for the same reason, I always had to find a way to stand out and take on optimal challenges so I wouldn’t just blend into the crowd and disappear. Because of my need to stand out though, I don’t think I would have a high score on relatedness because as much as I love being social and interacting with people, it is not my goal in life to be a nice person. My goal is to be the best version of me that I can be.

I think I have mostly been lead by competence in my life. I am a competitive person but more than that, I want to beat myself. I am motivated by my own internal need to get a better grade than I did in my last test or to do a better job at my workplace that I did yesterday. This is why I feel that competition is not always intrinsic, some people just want to beat their own records and that’s what satisfies their psychological needs.

I feel the fish jumping out of the bowl is symbolic to anyone trying to break out of their cage or shell. Firstly, it symbolizes autonomy in a way to make your own “self-directed” behavior and make your own decisions. The bowl is everything that is encaging the fish but the choice to jump out was its freedom of choice. The same also can be brought into context with competence as jumping out of the bowl shows overcoming optimal challenges. Lastly, it relates the idea of relatedness because the fish was alone in the bowl. The fish combined its psychological need of autonomy and competence to satisfy the need of social interactions.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, internal PLOC, self directed, optimal challenges, positive feedback, intrinsic motivation, flexible decision making,

Chapter 6 introduces three psychological needs consisting of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the organismic approach to motivation. These three constructs of psychological need are driven by the innate responsibility to satisfy growth and well-being of the individual. Autonomy is the focus of self-direction and initiation of one’s behavior. It is crucial for the individual to experience autonomy when engaging in the environment because perceived locus of causality reflects the perception of how much control the individual has of oneself. Competence is the second necessity for effective interaction with the environment. Competence is the individual’s ability to exercise their potential capacity and skills when deciding to seek and engage in optimal challenges. The ability to exercise competence allows for development in learning, motivation, performance, and overall well-being. The important factors for effective development and perceived competence is the appropriate balance of challenge difficulty and level of personal skill and competencies. The desired balance results in flow which is defined by the state of concentration incorporating full engagement and complete focus within the involvement of the activity. Ensuring that tasks are not too difficult or too easy dependent on the intellect and skills ability of the individual is crucial for psychological improvement and effective development of competence. Relatedness is the need of social constructs promoting emotional connectedness and interpersonal involvement. These relationships are communal relationships in that they satisfy the psychological need and supports a basis of internalization. When autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied within the individual, active engagement, positive reflection, and subjective experiences of vitality and well-being occur.
If I had to rate myself on level of satisfactory psychological needs, I would reflect upon a medium to high range. I would say that overall I have developed and am continuing to develop competence and relatedness at satisfying rates, however, I am still challenged with autonomy. Transitioning into adulthood but also having parental influence and control hinders my ability to fully process and exercise the amount of freedom I have on decision-making and engagement. Even though I am limited in fully developing my sense of autonomy now, I do have a vast variety of challenging situations in my life currently that have given opportunity for better development in competence and with a strong support system of communal relationships.
The message I received from the image of the fish jumping out of the water is that we are not bound by physiological need, but have other sources that can manipulate motives. The fish biologically needs water to survive, yet the fish is jumping out of the necessary situation. The motive behind this behavior is psychological need in that the fish challenges for competence.
Terms: autonomy, competence, relatedness, organismic approach, perceived locus of control, flow, relatedness, internalization, vitality

This chapter discussed the three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is one’s sense of control in the behaviors they perform or the choices that they make. Competence relates to how effectively one interacts with their environment and how well they can perform challenges and tasks. Finally, relatedness refers to our connections with others in meaningful and intimate relationships.
A part of the reading that I found to be most interesting was the four essential ways to create an autonomy-supportive environment. I found this information to be interesting because as the four ways were listed, I felt as though I was already using these methods to some degree in my work and in my life. I felt satisfied (perhaps competence need satisfaction) to know that I was already had a grasp on using the tools necessary to support autonomy in others when motivating them.
When rating my own needs, I based my ratings on how satisfied (generally speaking) my needs are currently. I felt my autonomy need was at medium satisfaction, while my competency need was at high satisfaction and my relatedness need was at low satisfaction. I thought a bit beyond this and tried to determine what allowed for my needs to be at the levels they are current at. With work and school, there is not as much autonomy in my life now as there was in the summer when I was not attending classes with tests and deadlines but instead had more time for pursuing my own interests such as long boarding and reading. Manifestations of this level of autonomy in my life can be observed mostly in how I spend my freetime, which is usually when I am not attending class or at work, and I often pick an activity that allows me to enjoy it how I want to and when I want, such as watching a tv show or movie. Sometimes this lower level of autonomy satisfaction leads to procrastination. There are times when maybe I need to do the dishes or laundry but if I have had high frequency of work and school, I may put off these tasks in order to do an activity that is not so productive.
I feel that my competency need is rated at high satisfaction and that is because I have great interest in learning new subjects or mastering new skills. I am constantly trying to learn something new from my environment and from others around me. I enjoy challenging myself because I like to prove to myself what I am capable of as well as discovering and acknowledging my deficits to later better myself. I feel that I am affected the most when my competency and relatedness needs are not at a high level of satisfaction. My relatedness need is at low satisfaction and I feel that part of this comes from a high interest in connecting with a lot of people. I put a lot of value in my communal relationships and when my emotional connections with others are not reciprocated, I tend to have more negative affect and low need satisfaction. When I feel that the emotional bonds I have made with others are strong, I am far more stress resilient and have a more positive mindset.
My relatedness need motivates me to perform many different behaviors. If I have success in my various relationships then I am more apt to continue interacting with those I have the relationships with and often I will reach out to those who I do not have as strong of a relationship with and I put in effort to try to strengthen it. When I have not had as much relatedness-supportive interaction, or just little interaction in general, in my communal relationships I tend to perform more antisocial behaviors. I gravitate to the relationships that are the most satisfying to my relatedness need and put forth the most effort in them, but it is difficult for me to break a bond once I have made one with another individual.
To me, the fish jumping out of its bowl was a representation of autonomy. The fish while in its bowl was in a controlling environment that allowed for few self-made choices. The fish could swim but it had to be within the walls of the bowl and it could it when it was fed. The fish jumping out of the bowl represents its search for autonomy and a perceived locus of causality. The fish simply wanted to make its own choices by means of true choice.

Terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, autonomy-supportive environment, need satisfaction, communal relationships, true choice, perceived locus of causality

Chapter six is over psychological needs, which include autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is choice and decision making flexibility. Humans want to be able to choose what they do, when they want to do it, how they want to do it, when they want to stop doing it, and whether or not they even want to do it. This is important because we do not want to be forced to do anything and we want the freedom to decide for ourselves how we want to spend our time. This allows us to decide what goals we want to accomplish and for us to decide what is important to us. Choice can be a way to increase a person’s autonomy, however this is usually only when a person has a true choice. A true choice is when a person is offered a choice that is meaningful to their life. This increase in autonomy can lead to enhanced intrinsic motivation, effort, creativity, preference for challenge, and performance.
Competence is another psychological need. Competence is the physiological need to be effective in interactions with the environment. This includes the desire that humans have to exercise their capabilities and skills. This also includes the need to seek out and master challenges. When we are able to engage in a task that is right for our skill level and is at the right level of difficulty for us we feel interest. These situations can satisfy the competence need or frustrate the need. These situations include optimal challenge, clear and helpful structure, and high failure tolerance from others.
Relatedness is a third psychological need. Relatedness is the need to belong. This involves going out of our way to form and maintain warm, close, affectionate relationships with others. We want others to value and accept us, and we want this relationship to be reciprocated. We want people to genuinely and honestly care about us. It is the need to establish close emotional bonds and sentiments with other people.
I would say that I have a medium level of need for autonomy, and a high need for competence, and relatedness. I would say a medium level of need for autonomy because I do not always like having full autonomy. Sometimes I like to have others make a decision for me. I feel less pressure this way. Especially in a work setting I like to have a clear idea of what someone wants from me. However, I also like to do the things I am interested in and hate it when I am forced into things. I would say I have a high need for competence because I hate feeling incompetent. I like to show that I can complete something effective and efficiently. This comes out in my schoolwork because I strive for A’s and feel upset when I do not get them. I also have a very high need for relatedness. I enjoy having close meaningful relationships with others and they are very important to me. One example of how relatedness motivates my specific behaviors is with homework. For example, one of my friend’s was going through a rough time with her so I chose to spend time with her instead of focusing on finishing this blog. I wanted to show her that I was responsive to her needs just as I would want her to be responsive to mine.
I think the fish in this picture wants to experience autonomy. It wants to make its own choice about where it wants to live and does not want to live in a glass bowl with nothing else the rest of its life. It also wants to experience relatedness because it is all alone and it wants to be with other fish.

Terms used: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness, true choice, interest, optimal challenge, clear and helpful structure, high failure tolerance from others

Chapter six discusses three different types of psychological needs that are necessary for active engagement, having a “good day”, having good day to day experiences and one’s well-being. The first psychological need discussed in the chapter is autonomy. This term can be defined as an organisms need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of their behaviors. This reflects the organism desire to start and engage in the behavior and motivated they are to continue it. This term can be related to self-motivation. When one has an autonomy-supported motivation style they are driven to engage in behaviors that satisfy their own needs and values compared to engaging in activities that may be controlled on forced by others.
The second psychological need discussed in the chapter is competence which is the need to interact effectively with the environment. How competent someone feels depends on how capable they are of the skill and how they take on a certain challenge. The need to feel competent motivates one to develop, improve and refine personal skills or talents. When one is in a state where they have reached maximal enjoyment, intense concentration, and full absorption of the task it can be said they are experience a flow. This means that the individual is motived by the level of personal challenge and environmental skill that they are presented with.
The last psychological need mentioned in the chapter is relatedness. This term is defined by the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. This reflect ones desire to be emotionally connected to others in warm and caring relationships. One may interact with others but that does not mean that one relatedness is satisfied. One must engage or form a communal relationship which represents the type of relationship one needs to find to satisfy their level of relatedness. When one is able to connect and relate to others they are able to provide social context that supports internalization to their beliefs, values and behaviors.
I would rate myself on high for autonomy and relatedness and a medium for competence. When discussing autonomy I can say I’m very self-directed. I’m a first generation American and college student so if I did not have the motivation to be in college and continue my education then I feel like I would have given up on pursuing a college education. When discussing competence I say that I’m a medium level because I have had to deal with many skills throughout my life and I know I cannot master all of them. For example, I am bilingual so I have mastered both English and Spanish as languages but when it comes to other skills I am not as focused on them. I would also rate high on relatedness because I can say that my culture focuses more on group needs than individual needs. This means that if I were not able to get along and form relationships with others—especially those I can culturally identify with—then I would not feel satisfied in the social context.
Some of my specific behaviors can be associated to relatedness. For example, I work at the Boys and Girls club where I am surrounded by multiple kids of different age groups. For me, work is more enjoyable and I feel a personal satisfaction when I can form a relationship with the kids. Some behaviors I engage in at work is helping them with their homework, talking about their day, and playing in the gym with them. I have only been working there for a short time but since I have a high drive to satisfy this psychological need I am more engaged with the kids at work. I would say the fish in the picture is motivated by getting out of the bowl to move to another location. It can be said that the fish is self-determined to find themselves a better home. It can also be inferred that the fish is working on their competence. I would imagine that jumping out of a fishbowl would not be easy which means that the fish must have been working on its skills to jump out and be out of water.

terms: psychological needs, autonomy, competence, relatedness

Chapter 6 is about psychological needs. The three parts of psychological motivation are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is the desire to have self-direction and personal control of our on behavior. This comes about when our own interests and wants guide our behavior. Competence is wanting to optimize our environmental interactions. It requires the opportunity to be challenged and also involves feedback. When a challenge is optimized we get the best enjoyment from its completion. Relatedness is the desire to establish close bonds and feelings of emotional connection. Forming such a bond and supporting it is best when someone feels the other person cares about their true self.

Chapter 5 is all about organismic psychological needs. The 3 main psychological needs discussed in this chapter are Autonomy, relatedness and Competence. We are interested and intrinsically motivated in activities that satisfy our psychological needs. We tend to enjoy those activities more that meet our psychological needs. Psychological needs are a lot more proactive. They’re proactive in the sense that they motivate us to engage in certain environments that will promote the satisfaction and nurturance of our psychological needs. Psychological needs are very essential for personal growth, healthy development and actualizing the hidden potential to succeed that every human has.

Autonomy is when you have the free will to make decisions and choices. We prioritize and make goals on the basis of how autonomous we really feel. Autonomy helps initiate and regulate behaviors. There are 3 subjective qualities within the experience of autonomy i.e Internal perceived locus of causality, volition (experience of feeling free) and Perceived choice over one’s actions (External Perceived locus of causality). People seek autonomy supportive environments and relationships and avoid controlling settings and people. I would rate myself as being high on this need. For example I made an autonomous decision to never smoke in my life since I think it could put me at risk for getting cancer, I freely avoid smoking.

Competence is need to develop essential skills, improve our inherent capacity and actualize our true potential and talents. We consciously make an effort to fulfil certain challenges to satisfy our need to feel competent. The whole concept of Optimal flow and challenge in explaining and understanding enjoyment seems very interesting to me. Flow states how engrossed you’re in an activity and how much you’re actively concentrating towards it. This makes you want to repeat that activity over many times perhaps even in a row. This results when person uses skills to overcome challenges that are posed to him/her. Challenge has to match the level or skills in order for the task to be enjoyed be concentrated towards, otherwise if skills are low that could cause neurotic emotions and feelings of anxiety. When both level of challenges and skills are low; the measure of motivation, emotion and cognition are at their lowest. I’m fairly high on level of competence. I run on the treadmill everyday and everyday for me is a new challenge. I challenge myself to either run an extra mile each day or run at a certain speed for a certain amount of time. Overtime I’ve seen myself as being highly competent in overcoming my daily challenges and that’s how my need to feel competent is satisfied. Another example of this would be my reading goals each day. So every week I focus my attention to a novel that I may want to read, I try to cover a certain number of pages each day.

Relatedness is the need to feel accepted or form warm emotional bonds with friends and or family. I am especially very high on this need. We are very responsive to people who care for our well being. An example of this would be being a part of my sorority and bonding with sisters.

I think even the picture of the fish relates a lot to the psychological need of competence. It relates to autonomy and relatedness as well but I think it relates more so to the need to overcome challenge and feel competent.

Chapter 5 is all about organismic psychological needs. The 3 main psychological needs discussed in this chapter are Autonomy, relatedness and Competence. We are interested and intrinsically motivated in activities that satisfy our psychological needs. We tend to enjoy those activities more that meet our psychological needs. Psychological needs are a lot more proactive. They’re proactive in the sense that they motivate us to engage in certain environments that will promote the satisfaction and nurturance of our psychological needs. Psychological needs are very essential for personal growth, healthy development and actualizing the hidden potential to succeed that every human has.

Autonomy is when you have the free will to make decisions and choices. We prioritize and make goals on the basis of how autonomous we really feel. Autonomy helps initiate and regulate behaviors. There are 3 subjective qualities within the experience of autonomy i.e Internal perceived locus of causality, volition (experience of feeling free) and Perceived choice over one’s actions (External Perceived locus of causality). People seek autonomy supportive environments and relationships and avoid controlling settings and people. I would rate myself as being high on this need. For example I made an autonomous decision to never smoke in my life since I think it could put me at risk for getting cancer, I freely avoid smoking.

Competence is need to develop essential skills, improve our inherent capacity and actualize our true potential and talents. It literally means gaining mastery over a certain task. We consciously make an effort to fulfil certain challenges to satisfy our need to feel competent. The whole concept of Optimal flow and challenge in explaining and understanding enjoyment seems very interesting to me. Flow states how engrossed you’re in an activity and how much you’re actively concentrating towards it. This makes you want to repeat that activity over many times perhaps even in a row. This results when person uses skills to overcome challenges that are posed to him/her. Challenge has to match the level or skills in order for the task to be enjoyed be concentrated towards, otherwise if skills are low that could cause neurotic emotions and feelings of anxiety. When both level of challenges and skills are low; the measure of motivation, emotion and cognition are at their lowest. I’m fairly high on level of competence. Positive feedback supports this need to feel competent. My chosen need is this need to feel competent. I run on the treadmill everyday and everyday for me is a new challenge. I challenge myself to either run an extra mile each day or run at a certain speed for a certain amount of time. Overtime I’ve seen myself as being highly competent in overcoming my daily challenges and that’s how my need to feel competent is satisfied. Another example of this would be my reading goals each day. So every week I focus my attention to a novel that I may want to read, I try to cover a certain number of pages each day and I don’t budge until I read those many pages if not more. My high level of competence is related to my place of work. At work we are supposed to have a very high level of productivity. So I often meet my productivity target and outshine others.

Relatedness is the need to feel accepted or form warm emotional bonds with friends and or family. I am especially very high on this need. We are very responsive to people who care for our well-being. An example of this would be me being a part of my sorority and bonding with my sorority sisters. Having a strong emotional support system is very helpful in alleviating stress. I know girls from my sorority would always be there to help and care for and they’re people that I trust.

I think even the picture of the fish relates a lot to the psychological need of competence. It relates to autonomy as well since it’s kind of breaking away and moving out of it’s bowl as well but I think it relates more so to the need to overcome challenge and feel competent.

Terms: Psychological needs, Autonomy, competence, relatedness, Perceived locus of causality, volition, optimal challenge, flow, emotion cognition, positive feedback, self-actualization, proactive

Chapter six was all about our bodies psychological needs. The most surprising thing that I learned about in this chapter was getting to know about autonomy more in depth. The reason this was so surprising was because I never fully understood why I always wanted to be my own boss and why I do not take being told what to do greatly. I have always been a very stubborn person when it comes to being bossed around and getting told what to do because I consider it as disrespectful when a person tries to control my actions instead of allowing me to control my own self. It was until the text stated “we want the freedom to construct our own goals, we want the freedom to decide what is important and what is and is not worth our time”. That quote was like reading my own thoughts on a piece of paper. Thoughts that I could never fully grasp on why I tend to have such a great passion for our individual freedom and why I have quit many jobs that required too much requirements instead of requiring self discipline of my own decisions. I guess you can say that if I had to choose one psychological need that motivates my behaviors then I would pick my Autonomy need. This need motivates me to open up my own daycare and create a business and be my own boss. I understand that there are plenty of daycares looking for help, but I don't want to be told on how to take care of a child when I have one myself. I want to be able to create my own hours, my own schedule, my own pay and to take a day off without being criticized or even told no. This need motivates me everyday to accomplish my goals of opening my own daycare because of my need to “experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one's behavior”. When it comes to charting my level of psychological needs I would chart it at a medium. For example, when it comes to wanting to open my own daycare, I have the professional needs to be able to do that but the challenge would be opening this daycare. Even though I have that challenge, it does not outweigh my goal as a whole and I know that it is possible to complete. If I had to make a guess about the fish in the picture, I would say that fish is trying to make its own rules. The fish has his own wants, hopes and dreams and will do anything to get it. Even though a fish cannot survive out of the water, he is still willing to risk that in order to satisfy his personal needs. He is willing to take the risk of failure and disappointment only to satisfy his emotion of self need. Even though my guess would be completely wrong, I see myself as that fish because I don't want to be an ordinary fish in the sea because there is plenty of them. I want to be the odd fish in the sea that no other fish is thinking to become. I want to be the first to jump out of that fish bowl and see what life has to offer me even if it doesn't last me long because life's too short not to at least try.
Terms:autonomy,motives, psychological needs

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