Topical Blog Week #14 (Due Friday)


Token Economy -  For this post I would like you to develop a token economy to practice what you learned.

What is your setting?
What behavior class are you going to change?
What are the target behaviors you are going to change though reinforcement (Keep in mind the use of Differential Reinforcement and Premack Principle)?
What type of token are you going to use?
What are some considerations for the use of these tokens?
What are you going to use for the backup reinforcers?
What was your rationale for choosing these reinforcers?
What is the token value and how did you select that value?
What are you using for a bank and how did you arrive at that decision?
What are the hours of operation for your bank?
Who will you need to explain your program to?
How will you go about explaining your program (what will you actually say)?
What is your plan for reducing the need for tokens to maintain the target behavior?
Looking back at your token economy you have planned, what are some potential problems you should anticipate and plan for?

Let me know if you have any questions,

--Dr. M


Token Economy

My setting will be a classroom setting in an elementary school. The behavior class I want to increase is reading behaviors. I want the children to read more. Target behaviors I want to direct toward would be finishing reading assignments and turning them in on time, also reading in their free time more often. My token will be a punch card. Considerations I have to take into account are where the kids will keep these punch cards and who will punch the punch cards. The kids will keep the punch cards at school, and the teacher will provide a filing system to keep them in. The teacher will also be the one who punches the punch card, that way the kids won’t do extra punches on their card. Once the kids fill up their punch card, which contains 5 punches, the kids will be reinforced with a back up reinforcer. These would be more time at recess, front of the lunch line, seconds at lunch, or allowed to miss one homework assignment. The kids can choose which one of these they would like. I chose these reinforcers because I remember these being some of the most rewarding things when I was in elementary school. Kids love extra recess and lunch time is a big time for children. When the children go home and read a book, they have to write a little summary of the book and the parents need to sign on the paper with the summary to prove the kid read the book. Then the kid will turn in that summary to the teacher and the teacher will give them a punch on their punch card for every book summary their write. I selected this value because I want to improve kid’s reading behaviors. The hours of operation would be half the class one day and the other half another day. That way its splits the time to do punches in half and won’t take up too much time. This will occur right away in the morning before school work and activities begin for the day. I will need to explain my program to the children, parents, and most likely the school administration. I will inform them of the program and describe the system and how it purpose is to improve kids reading skills and getting reading assignments done on time. After some time, I will increase the amount of punches on the cards to keep the behavior occurring and more challenging. I will also probably change the backup reinforcers to improve the kids interest in the prizes. I should prepare that for some children, they could forge their parents signature just to say they read a book. I also need to be prepared for some parents to just sign away on some of their kid’s summaries, without them knowing for sure if they actually read the book or not.

What is your setting? My setting is the classroom of a Kindergarten class in Parkersburg, Iowa
What behavior class are you going to change? I’m going to increase their behavior of raising their hand when they want to speak.
What are the target behaviors you are going to change though reinforcement (Keep in mind the use of Differential Reinforcement and Premack Principle)? The target behavior that I want to have a direct effect on is to not blurt out answers nor interpurt.
What type of token are you going to use? I am going to use smiley faces (stickers)
What are some considerations for the use of these tokens? I have to take into consideration of where the stickers will be stored and what will the stickers be put on. The teacher is have a to make a grid with each child’s name on. There will not be a set date on the grid. It will just be if a child gets a sticker then put it next to their name.
What are you going to use for the backup reinforcers? The kids will be reinforced with a backup reinforce which is: more time a recess, more time a centers, a center of the kids choice, pick the movie to watch at the end of the day or first in the lunch line.
What was your rationale for choosing these reinforcers? I picked these because when I was little these were my favorite things to do, also these are the things that my little sister loved when she was in Kindergarten two years ago.
What is the token value and how did you select that value? If the child raises their hand to answer questions or does not interrupt they get a sticker. After 5 stickers they are allowed to pick their back up reinforcer. I selected this value because there are five days in a week and if a child truly wants the backup reinforcer they will emit pleasurable behaviors.
What are you using for a bank and how did you arrive at that decision? The bank will be in the classroom at the teachers desk. I arrived at this decision because it was the most convient.
What are the hours of operation for your bank? The hours of operation are during movie time which is at the end of school or in the morning after you have gotten the fifth star. So if you got a star Tuesday after School you will get your back up reinforcer Wednesday.
Who will you need to explain your program to? I will need to explain the program to the parents or guardians of the children. Also to any subs that come in place of the teacher for days that the teacher misses.
How will you go about explaining your program (what will you actually say)? A note sent home to the kids will say :Your child or children are going to be tested everyday on how well they can raise their hand and not interrupt . This will be happening in the classroom of (teacher’s name). Your child or children will receive a sticker a the end of every day depending if they did not interrupt or if they raised their hand instead of blurting things out. The morning of the next day after they have received 5 stars they will have a choice of more time a recess, more time a centers, a center of the kids choice, pick the movie to watch at the end of the day or first in the lunch line. After their fifth start and they have received their (prize) they will start back over at 0 and get back to five again. If there is any questions or concerns please feel free to contact me
(teacher’s name)
(Phone number)
What is your plan for reducing the need for tokens to maintain the target behavior? After so long they will be looked at as a group, the teacher will decide when this happens. Their expectations will be high after so long as well.
Looking back at your token economy you have planned, what are some potential problems you should anticipate and plan for? I can see kids bringing their own stickers to put on the board.

You said you have to take into consideration what the stickers will be put on and how they will be stored, but you didn't say exactly how you were going to address that. You also said that one of the reinforcers would be to pick a movie to watch at the end of the day, but is that in the normal cirriculum and will it take away from their learning time? If the student with enough stickers chooses a movie then how do you reinforce that student without reinforcing the others that have not tried as hard? If you show the movie after class, essentially only one child would have to be good and raise their hand, then every student would be reinforced at the end of the day. It is a good background for a program but some gaps still need to be filled.

The behavioral setting I am using is a prison for women. The behavior class I am trying to change is functional. The target behaviors that are to be changed are yelling and slapping from one woman to another. Their behaviors will be reinforced when they are out of their cells and they are cooperating as a group. If they get in an argument and keep their cool they will be reinforced. The types of tokens used here are points that the warden will keep their hands so the amount doesn’t get changed. However, each woman is in charge of keeping track of their points on a white board in the cell. Some considerations to think about are the miscalculation of points, even though they are on record somewhere else. By using these points, no one can take some that belong to another person. Some back up reinforcers are opportunities to do outside activities, free days of not cleaning, and hangout time with other individuals. There is a board that states the amount of points and the options of activities that the women can be a part of so there is no confusion on how many points each activity is worth. My rationale for choosing these reinforcers is because I imagine that the women who are incarcerated would want to have the opportunity to do these things. The token value is 10 points for outside activities, 15 points for hangout time with other people, and 20 points for free day with no cleaning. The bank is the warden and security keeping track of the points in order for the points not to be messed with or stolen. The points are added up and traded in each Friday at the end of the day. This program is to be explained to each individual as they are new to the facility. I will lay out the instructions and make sure they understand it as they are getting used to the program. The amount of points will start out lower to ensure participation and then gradually get to a higher level. A potential problem for this token economy is that not all women enter the facility at the same time so some may be entering during the highest point value and some may be entering during the lowest point value.

I liked your example of a token economy, it was really unique!

My setting will be an elementary school, particularly first through second graders. The behavioral class that I’m trying to change will be homework behaviors. The target behavior I will be reinforcing will be completing each of their assignments and handing them in on time. The token I will be using will be a sticker sheet that I will keep on the wall behind my desk (where the kids cannot manipulate it). Each time a student hands in their completed assignment and turns it in on time they will get a sticker placed next to their name. For backup reinforcers I will have a selection of prizes that the children can choose from at the end of each school quarter. These prizes will be things that I remember I valued in elementary school—extra recess time, front-of-the-line lunch passes, or “seconds” at lunch passes. Another reason I chose these backup reinforcers are because they are things that most children would like, and that their parents would also be okay with, instead of giving them candy or other excessive things like that where their parents might not be a big fan of it. Once again, each time the student completes their homework and turns it on time, they will get a sticker—so each assignment is worth one sticker & the “bank” will be behind my desk, unaccessable to the children. I will be explaining my program the rest of the staff (because front-of-the-line priveleges will effect the rest of the school, as well as seconds) The note will say “My classroom will be participating in a program to increase their homework behavior and the reinforcement for completing the program effectively will be a selection of priveleges that I have chosen and thought would be most effective. Because these priveleges extend to areas outside of the classroom, I must inform you so that you are aware of what’s going on and hope that you will be okay with them. Ten extra recess minutes, Front-of-the-line lunch pass, and seconds-pass are the three privileges that they will be choosing from. Please let me know if you have any questions or concerns.” Hopefully by encouraging the students with praise will also help keep the children interested and motivated to do their homework so I can at some time possibly stop using the program. The problems I may encounter could be, conflicts with the rest of the staff because the reinforcement extends outside the classroom, the children may also get bored or overwhelemed with the program, or stop after they miss an assignment because they feel they wouldn’t be able to catch up or win again.

Token Economy

My setting is going to be a high school classroom, and the behavior class I am going to change is doing their homework. Specifically, I will target completing the worksheet/paper/reading/etc and turning in said assignment, since sometimes one happens but not the other or neither happen.
My tokens will simply be points, because they are easy to keep track of, easily replenished, doling them out isn’t disruptive to the classroom setting, and they theoretically can’t get lost. High school aged kids won’t necessarily need a tangible token in order to feel like they have gained something, unlike younger children. Physical tokens could have very little value to them, and may even seem patronizing since using tokens can seem like something only used on little kids.
The backup reinforcers for the points are special privileges that the students can buy with their points. The privileges are getting out of a pop quiz, skipping a homework assignment (not a large project or paper, though), extra credit points on exams, and getting an extension on the deadline for a large project or paper. I chose these reinforcers because they are things that high school students want, I think. Even the students who are always on top of everything and get their homework done on time every time could use a break now and then. The students can gain points and boost their grade by simply giving an effort, even if their efforts aren’t A or B level work. The way the tokens are given out, they really don’t even need to give much of an effort to gain a few points. Attendance is not directly rewarded, but they have to be there to turn in the assignments.
When a student turns in an assignment, they have the possibility to gain two points completely unrelated to the quality of their work and their grade on the assignment. One point is gained from simply putting a name on their work and handing it in. While it’s sort of rewarding them for not doing anything, they will at least be emitting a turning-in behavior, which is a step in the right direction for some students. The point can only be gained when the assignment is turned in by the end of the class period on the day that it is due. The second point is gained from having the assignment completed. This could be every blank on the worksheet filled out, the page limit of the paper met, etc. Essentially, is the bare minimum requirement is met, they get the point. This point can be gained even if the assignment is late. If it’s completed, regardless of when, the point is given. This would encourage students to at least do the work, even if the deadline has already passed. Many teachers don’t give any points for late work, so students don’t even bother once it’s late, and thus they don’t gain the knowledge intended from the assignment. Hopefully this system will encourage completion no matter when the student gets around to it.
Assuming that the class meets 5 days a week with some sort of assignment 4 of those days, students can gain about 8 points a week. With 19 weeks in a high school semester, it’s probably be best to start really low and say that’d be able to collect enough points to buy 8 to 10 reinforcers. Hopefully every other week will be often enough for a student to still be invested in the system. That said, skipping a quiz or assignment and getting a deadline extension will all cost 15 points, or about 2 weeks of consistent work. If the class is particularly notorious for not getting their stuff done, perhaps I would start them at 10 points for a reinforcer. The extra credit points on exams would start at 2-for-1, 2 points for one extra credit point.
The students will be given some sort of table or grid to keep track of their own points by date, and the teacher would have a master backup table to keep track of all the students’ points. The students are plenty old enough to keep track of their own points and not need to ask the teacher constantly how many they are at. The system of giving out points is simple and objective enough for them to know how many points they would be getting since it’s not based on grade or work quality. The teacher would have an overall copy to check against theirs as well as provide their point total in the event that a student loses his or her record sheet or forgets to write down their points. This should be relatively easy for the teacher as well, since they already have to record the grade for each assignment.
To cash in points for a deadline extension, the student can use his or her points at any time up to the start of class when the project or paper is due. He or she simply needs to come up before class starts or after it lets out on any day after the assignment is given and ask for an extension. 15 points buys a week, and the student can buy up to two weeks extension. After the initial week is bought, the student can then go up at any point during that extra week to buy the second week, or both can be bought at the same time. For getting out of a pop quiz, the student simply needs to write his or her name on their paper along with some declaration that they are using their points to get out of it, be it writing “skip” on the paper, writing down the point deduction, whatever works for them. The same goes for getting out of an assignment. To get extra credit on an exam, the student just needs to write the number of points they wish to use on their test next to their name.
I will need to explain the program to the students and to any substitute teacher or student teacher that would be in the classroom. On the first day of class, the students would get an explanation of the program and can ask questions about it at any point if they have any. I would also write up a list of rules on how to gain points, what they can be used on, limitations (like which assignments are not allowed to be skipped, limit on deadline extensions, etc), and how to go about cashing in the points. This would be posted to remind the students and for the benefit of any other teachers that would be in the classroom and need to know the system. Essentially, I would write out paragraphs 4-7 of this blog in bullet style or something and put it on a poster. The students would also receive a typed copy of the rules and everything to keep in their folders/binders along with their record sheet.
I would increase the points required to buy reinforcers from 15 to 20 a third of the way through the semester, and then again to 25 after two thirds of the semester have passed. The extra credit points would also increase from 2 for 1 point to 3 for 1, and then 4 for 1. I don’t intend to get rid of the points, however, because I think it’s important for effort to be taken into account when grades are determined, and this is a less subjective method than “Did this student try? How would I grade their level of effort?” would be.
One of the big problems I would run across is the students who already don’t turn in assignments or come to class and simply don’t care about their grade. They would, I assume, not care if they have enough points to turn in a paper late, skip a quiz, etc, because they would probably do that anyway. If I could find a way to let them use points, perhaps, to do things outside of that specific class, like get out of a detention or something like that it could be a little reinforcing to them, but that would require getting the whole school on board with the program. If they don’t want to buy into the system, I can’t really force them to. Perhaps with the right reinforcer, I could at least get them to come to class and turn in a sheet of paper with their name on it. Even if they aren’t getting a good grade out of the class, they’d be there and hopefully absorb some of what’s being taught. I wouldn’t need to worry about a black market for tokens because they’re non-transferrable and aren’t something physical that can be stolen or replicated. Hoarding wouldn’t be an issue, either, because if they’re doing the work, they can hoard all they want and use up all their points on exam extra credit. Either way, they’re still getting the work done.

I like your example, i wish i had been a student in your high school class!!!

this is a great idea, in high school i feel kids need more motivation to do well and these point are great reinforcement to do well!

Setting is a resturant/work place. The behavioral class I will change will be increasing productivity in completing nightly cleaning/closing checklists. Since there are many different target behaviors on the check list that have to be completed I will seperate them into groups, ranked in worthiness of points due to their difficulty or hightened ability to be perceived negatively. An Item worth more tokens (4) would be filling condiments and wiping them clean. Clearing the floor of all debree and crumbs by moving all chairs and table to sweep/vacumn (depends on area of resturant) would be worth 3. Filling all spic and span bottles with spic and span and putting them away would be worth 2. And setting up the sections to match the floormaps would be worth 1. The type of tokens used with be color coded stars to equal the approval of a good completion of the section of the checklist. For instance, if they complete all task worthy of 4 tokens to par, they will recieve a 1 blue star that equals 4 points. If the task worth 3 tokens in done well they will recieve a 1 yellow star worth 3 points, etc. etc. Each shift they have the possiblity of earning 10 points in tokens. These do not have to be recieved but can be beneficial in gaining reinforcements that they may want. If any of the tasks in the 4point section of the checklist is not completed to standards they will not recieve that blue star. And so on for the other point sections.
All these tasks are mandatory for the job. Repeated failure to do so will result in being written up and if continuous will result in being fired. This token economy is way to create a habit in these employees so that the work is done how it is suppose to be done each time. Tokens are only giving for the first 6 months of employement to help render these actions, but after six months reinforcement for doing the job well will not be emitted, because it should be shaped into their closing behaviors. This will be communicated during training.
Now tokens are not actually given to the employee. They are placed in the employees envelope that is locked up in the manager office in a then locked cabinet, and recorded in a database for tracing purposes. These tokens may not be traded between employees and shall only be handled by the MOD. I've already discussed each tokens value. Now the reinforcers that can be purchased with the tokens are in steps. The starting reinforcer will be, once 40 points in tokens are recieved the employee my purchase the chance to pick their own section. This is worth something, I promise. Some sections make more money. Some sections customers don't like to sit in for once reason or another (e.g. by a door in the winter). Some sections are more of a hassle for an employee(outside). So four shifts of completing everything to specified standards would earn someone the ability to chose which section they would like. If they choose to save these tokens and not use them for picking their own secion, they can save up to 80 tokens, which would be worth the ability to pick their won schedule the next week. This would take 8 shifts, if the nightly check list was completed correctly to standards each shift worked. As another backup reinforcer in case the other two dont sound appealing would be that once 100 points were earned in tokens the employee could trade the tokens in for $10 on their employee card that everyone in our company is required to have. This can be used like a gift card at any resturant or bar within our company. Everyone would love a free dinner or couple drinks as reinforcement for doing a good job, now and then.
Employees each have a their own username and password to enter the company website. On here they can view their schedules, time off requests, etc. Since the MOD will be putting all points into a database that is linked to this system, employees can view their points online. This is where hours of operation take place. Pretty much they can submit their request to use the tokens at any time of the day that they wish. However, there will be some rules in place. To use 40 tokens to pick ones section can be done at the beginning of whatever shift they wish to utilize it. This is sorta like using a Trump card. This does not need to be done online. HOwever, in order to utilize tokens for picking one's own schedule they will need to submit the request online, to use these tokens, by monday at 4pm of the week before. Schedules are posted every thursday for the following week. They will be required to actually work when they pick their own schedule. Most people work specific days, but the time of day or what cut for the night they are changes. This is what they will be able to decide on. If a manager approves the requested schedule then the points will be deducted from their bank. When 100 points are gathered and the person wishes to recieve money, they will simply need to put in a request online for the transer for funds to be put on their card. Every morning when they manager checks these requests she will transfer the funds.
The manager and the trainer will both cover this process in orientation and in training. Explaining it exactly how it is explained here above would be the best way to cover all the questions and help them understand the process and expectations of their job now and in the future.
Some potential problems for this economy would be that sometimes when people want to pick their own schedule it may conflict with the scheduling of others. If someone wants to come in later than they usually do, we may not have someone to come in earlier like they usually do. If there are many requests off for a specific day this could also become difficult. With the transfer of money, it will be important that management checks for these requests every morning so no one is missing the money they have earned and purchased. COmputer problems are also a possiblity of creating a delay in the transfer of funds. People may not care about the token economy or reinforcements but what they are reinforcing has to be done anyway. It is just a way to insure that thing are done correctly the first time before a manager comes to check all the items out. THis saves time for both the employee (doesn't have to redo the tast or fix it) and the manager (doesn't have to recheck it), and saving time saves money.

When i worked at peppers i always hated doing side work at the end of the shift... it seemed pointless and time consuming, not something i wanted to do. Bottom line if I were reinforced for doing my sidework i would have enjoyed it much more! Nice example

side work sucks! this is a great idea!!

like every other person has said, this is a really great example!

A token economy is a process of reinforcement using tokens which are given to an individual each time they emit the desired behavior. The tokens can then be turned in to receive a greater reinforcer/reward. The setting that I chose to use is my current employment setting which is at a residential care facility for individuals who have a mental illness. I currently use a token economy for all of my clients. An aversive characteristic that all of my clients had in common was poor hygiene. So, I began to reinforce target behaviors such as taking a shower daily, teeth brushing, wearing clean clothing, completing laundry once per week. The token I use is a small smiley face sticker because they are cheap and contain 1,000 stickers in one pack. I print off a graph with four horizontal boxes (each box represents a week), which serves as my way of keeping record of my clients’ progress. I keep the graph/record in my office for four weeks and at the end of the four weeks the record is given to each client. I tend to typically use differential reinforcement in the token economy I set up. In regards to increasing the appropriate behavior of improving personal hygiene, I use DRH by reinforcing the individual only after the appropriate behavior has occurred at a predetermined high rate. So, for example my clients get one sticker each week under the hygiene category on their graph if they perform all of the previously mentioned target behaviors for the seven days of that week. At the end of every four weeks, I give my clients the record containing all of the stickers they earned, which provided them access to the Reward Zone. The Reward Zone is a small grocery store that is at our facility, which contains donated food and hygiene supplies from local grocery stores. Each sticker that the individual received is worth seven points, which represents the seven days of the week. Only having to give each client potentially one sticker per week saves money because then I don’t have to purchase the stickers as often. So, an individual has a potential to use 28 points in the Reward Zone. Each food or hygiene item costs 1, 2, or 3 points depending on quantity or size of the item. For example, a large box of cereal costs 3 points and the smaller box costs 2 points. The individual has to use their points after their four weeks is up preventing clients from combining stickers which would empty the Reward Zone. The Reward Zone is always locked, so a client must have assistance from an employee when using the Reward Zone to prevent clients from stealing. The Reward Zone is available to clients from 8-5 when multiple staff are working. The nice thing about the Reward Zone is that all of the items are donated from local grocery stores so it doesn’t cost me or my employer any money to provide the clients with the reward items and it rewards the clients because then they don’t have to spend as much money on groceries. I wouldn’t have to explain my token economy to anyone because it was a system that was already set up when I was hired; however the behavior being reinforced is left up to each employee. As a way to reduce tokens, I could keep an online record or increase the amount of days that a client must have good hygiene for. The only potential problem I see occurring with the token economy is an individual who isn’t reinforced by food or hygiene products such as an individual who has an eating disorder. Another potential problem would be if the Reward Zone ran out of food, but each client doesn’t start on the same week so not everyone is using the Reward Zone on the same day or week.

The setting that I am going to use is an elementary school focusing on 3rd graders. I want to increase free reading behavior so they read more outside of class from a list provided by the teacher to benefit inside the classroom. I want to increase the enjoyment of reading so the students enjoy reading in the classroom and in the future. My tokens will be stickers. There will be individual ribbons hanging on a wall that has each student’s name on in the classroom and every time they finish a book, and able to briefly explain the book (slightly knew what was going on in the book) they are able to receive a sticker! Every time they read 10 books from the list they are able to be reinforced for their reading by choosing either to get 10 minutes of recess time, being the line leader (this was a big deal in 3rd grade in my school!) for the day, or picking some candy from the teacher, or going to lunch early. The ribbons aren’t that expensive to get and a teacher can usually buy them in bulk to get a cheaper price, and they are nice enough to give to the student once they fill up their ribbon and start a new one. The stickers are pretty cheap also and you get a lot in a pack so they aren’t hard to replace and you can find them anywhere. The stickers are just the round ones with funny pictures. Once the student finishes a book and is able to explain it they can personally pick out a sticker (this is how they know they did something good) and the teacher will put it up on the ribbon. The teacher will also have a sheet inside her desk that they will keep track of the stickers that each student have and is able to inform the student of when they can choose their reinforcement/reward.

I picked these reinforcers because they seemed like something that 3rd graders would want to be reinforced for. I tried to remember what I thought was important in 3rd grade and that was being a line leader, or having extra recess time or even getting candy. They seemed like fair and rather easy reinforcements to keep the children happy to continue reading to get the stickers and eventually get reinforced for it.
I mentioned it before each sticker is worth just one and after they get 10 stickers they are able to choose what they want from the list I mentioned before (line leader, extra recess etc.). I picked this value because some books that they might read (from the list provided) are pretty short and they are able to get through them pretty fast. I thought 10 wasn’t too much but at the same time wasn’t too little. If no one is getting to 10 after awhile I will readjust to 5 books before they get to choose and see how that goes, because I want them to enjoy reading and want to continue and not make it too hard for them to actually get reinforced for it. For my bank I will have the ribbons for the students and at the same time have a point system on paper to know exactly how much they have on their ribbon.
I figured at the end of each day, once they had time to get with the teacher to explain their book, which the teacher will have scheduled times for the students i.e. during homework time, and those who have enough stickers to turn in they can tell the teacher that they want to turn them in and they are able to redeem them for the next school day. The teacher will make an announcement for those who have enough stickers to redeem for the next day. So the teacher will put time near the end of the day so the students can line up and tell them what they want.

I think the teacher would need to explain to the parents of the students so they can encourage them to read to get benefits and reinforcements in the classroom. Also, the other teachers perhaps to help out if they aren’t busy 10 minutes before the teacher’s recess to watch the students that want to go 10 minutes early.
“To increase the students reading not only in the classroom but outside the classroom I want to start reinforcing the children for their outside reading. I have set up a program that for every 10 books the student reads and is briefly able to explain, they will receive a sticker for. Once they have reached the 10 stickers, which we will adjust if the amount is to high they are able to pick from several rewards, including 10 minutes extra recess time, being the line leader for the day, leave early for lunch or some candy. I believe that this will increase the students wanting to read more because they are getting something out of their time reading. I have provided a list of books, age appropriate, for them to pick from. This is a fun experience to increase your child’s reading! If it were to become too much for the child contact me anytime and we can adjust because each child is different!”
The reading may become too much, and some children might not be able to read that many and might feel they are getting reinforced as much because it is too hard. Finding teachers to cover the extra recess time, or having multiple children wanting to be line leader for the day and having to keep track of what students want. Them wanting more stickers! Losing track of points or mistallying the points on one student. These are just some of the problems that could occur.

We had something similar to this when I was in elementary school. I don't remember what they called it but every time we would read a book outside of class we would get to pick something out of a prize box. All we had to do was read a book and have our parents sign a sheet of paper saying that we read it with them and take it to the teacher the next day and we would get a prize. It really made me like reading!

My setting is a whole high school (freshman through juniors). The behavior I want to increase is taking the ITBS seriously. My high school had a problem with this when I was a senior. Students would just go to the testing area and see who could get the fastest time and it was not reflecting well on our school and the state. The token I am going to use is a reward ranking system. If each grade group (fresh-junior) falls within a certain percentage average on each section of the test they will get a certain privilege. The grade group that does the best on the ITBS overall will get a free day. What this free day is is that as a class they will decided what they would like to do for the day instead of attending class. Options for this would be go to a movie, go bowling, mini golfing etc. The sub rewards for each class is off campus lunch, a skip pass for a class they do not want to attend (instead they would get a commons session where they sit in the commons and watch TV and/or study), or a dress down day (I went to a Catholic school and we had uniforms).
My thought process in giving these rewards are that these were all thing that I enjoyed as a high school student and it pertains to this age group's interest and may serve as a factor of determination to actually try on the ITBS. The questions pertaining to the bank is that each student would be given a piece of paper for the sub rewards with boxes with options if they were to win the reward. They would only be allowed to choose one and those would be stored in the principals office. For the main reward for the overall best class, the issue would be voted on and tallied.
The program would need to be explain in three separate assemblies. One assembly would consist of teaching staff. The principal would present the information according to the bad testing on ITBS and then follow that up with the system that will be set up. A second assembly will consist of the whole student body. The principal will focus more on the reward system and program itself rather than the information about poor performance on the ITBS. A third assembly would be for the parents of the high school student body. The principal and counselor would be talking at this one. The information about poor performance on ITBS would be presented in detail along with the new program that would be reinforced for the high school students. Following the program, the principal would draft a letter to every parent of every high school student to be mailed to the student's home as a reminder of what was discussed during the assembly. Attached to the letter would be a general permission slip giving the student the ability to 1)participate in the program, and 2) giving the school the permission to let the student go on the class wide free day and giving the student the freedom for an off campus lunch if he or she were to win either reward.
Potential problems with this idea are the liability of the school if the student were to get hurt on the off campus lunch or the class wide trip, permission slips not being signed or turned in, parents/students/teachers not attending their designated information assembly and therefore not knowing or understanding the new system.

You mentioned that the grades that showed an increase would get a certain privilege, but what is it exactly? You also have to consider that some students have test anxiety and don't do well on tests, or have not been properly taught to study for such a test. This also may be why students don't take it seriously, it doesn't effect the outcome of their schooling either. ITBS tests don't determine if you get into college or if you even pass a grade, they are essentially a test to show where you are on a grading level and where you stand in school. Whether you are in 8th grade but are testing at a junior level or vise versa. Also, you have to think about some of the students that still don't take it seriously, draw bubbles on their answer sheet and still score higher than those that studied. If you want studetns to take this test more seriously, I think you would have to go much higher and try to get the ITBS to mean more to a student's future in their education.

I completely agree with this! It was a problem at my high school as well. Students actually had to keep retaking them until the teachers were certain they weren't just filling in bubbles!

The behavioral setting I am choosing to do is the family household. What behaviors I want to happen are kids (age 7-12) doing their chores on time and not sloppy. All of these behaviors will be occurring in the household. The target behaviors that I have developed would be completely all the chores on the list that is presented to the kids and make sure that each chore is done right the first time so they don’t have to be redone. I will keep a checklist of each chore I want done each day and then I will make sure that they are done when I would arrive home and done with care. If both requirements are met then they will get two checks on the check list saying that they have completed the chores. Each check is worth 1 dollar so they have the potential to make ten dollars a week, or they can save their checks until they have enough to go on a shopping trip, amusement park, etc.
The reason I have decided to keep a checklist of chores is because this age group would have a hard time keep track of their tokens and most likely would lose them which would cause extinction of the target behavior. So if I keep track I know that my token economy will go by without those problems and I will always have a clear knowledge of how far along each kid is.
My back up reinforcers will vary depending on what the child wants. If the kid wants to have money every week than he or she will receive 1 dollar every week for each check mark they receive (max of 10 a week). The child can also save their tokens for bigger reinforcers such as 40 tokens to go to an amusement park, 60 tokens to go on a shopping trip, and other reinforcers depending on the children’s interests. They also have the potential to lose tokens as well. If they refuse to do their chores they will lose a token and if they don’t do their chores to satisfactory levels they won’t receive a token for that chore. These reinforcers are suited for younger kids so that’s why they are easy to control and give out compared to someone in the high school range.
The bankers would be the parents as they will hand out the tokens and decide if the kids get checks for their work or not. Kids will be able to visit the bankers every Friday to cash in or use tokens for bigger activities.
The token economy would be explained to everyone who is in the family because that’s all it pertains to. Everyone has to understand the rules and there will be a sheet that states them all if anyone is to forget.
I hope that since they will be doing chores already, if they see other chores that aren’t on the list that need to be done that they will volunteer to do those chores as well. I want the behavior of doing things around the house to be learned so they don’t even need to be reinforced to do them.
Some potential problems that might occur are the kids refusing to do any chores at all. I don’t think this will be a major issue because if they don’t do the chores then they will have no money or opportunities to do anything fun.

My setting is going to be my sister's household. I know I am making this personal, but I am hoping in return I can help my sister get through her daughter's naughty stage. My neice is 5 years old and doesn't listen to anything my sister tells her. She will listen to others when Candace is not around but she will not listen to Candace. The target behvior is to get her to listen and follow her mom's requests. Because i know my neice personally, the tokens used are going to be all kinds of stickers that she gets to choose from. She is only 5 so I know she won't keep track of these stickers, so in order to keep track of her rewards, we will put the stickers on a poster that we decorate together so she feels like it is her own and possibly motivates her to fill the poster with stickers. Once she has earned a sticker she will be able to play a game, color with her mom or have a snack of her choice if Candace permits it. Everytime she gets a sticker she can choose from the three rewards. I chose these rewards because those are the 3 things she mentions most. The bank is open all hours of the day considering they live together and I will have to explain this program to Karlee (my neice) Candace (her mother) and Dennis (her father) so she has support.

I would wait for Karlee to misbehave and then bring it up. Let her know that when she doesn't do what her mom asks, she will not be able to have play time or eat any junk food. BUT... if she wants to design a poster with her mom and get a sticker to put on the poster everytime she listens she will also be able to choose what reinforcer she wants.

Once the poster is full of stickers, she has essentially completed our goal, and hopefully will no longer need the stickers to listen.

I think that the only potential problem is an extinction burst. If she wants to continue to do the stickers and poster after the initial poster is already full. In this case I think that we can explain to her that she will still be able to play games and color if she listens, but we don't need the stickers anymore.

my question is.. is playing a game or coloring not a common thing that is happening between the two. Also I feel that you need to have a list of snacks that she can pick from instead of saying that she can have a snack of her choice if the mother permits it. So how is it a snack of her choice when she has to get approved by the mother first.

Token economy...
What is your setting- I chose my setting to be kindergarten students.
What behavioral class are you going to change- the behaviors I want to change are sharing with the other children and picking up after themselves.
What are the target behaviors you are going to change through reinforcement- the target behaviors in my token economy are sharing toys with the other children after playing with them for ten minutes. Another target behavior is going to be picking up their toys at the end of playtime and also throwing away their plates from lunch and snack time.
What type of token are you going to use- I decided to use stickers, because they seem to work very well with this age group.
What are some considerations for the use of these tokens- some of the considerations are where the stickers will be placed. There will be a stickerboard behind the teacher's desk and at a height that the students cannot reach. Only the teacher will have access to the stickers and the teacher will also be the only who will put the stickers up on the board.
What are you going to use for backup reinforcers- After the sticker board is full of stickers, the children will be allowed an extra five minutes of play time.
What was your rational for choosing these backup reinforcers- my thinking behind the extra play time was that children usually never want to stop playing, so by making an extra five minutes available to those who emit the target behavior enough times will get rewarded.
What is the token value and how did you set that value- the token value is 1 sticker for each of the positive behaviors that the child emitted. They can potentially earn two stickers a day: one for sharing their toys after playing with them for their allotted ten minutes, and also one when they pick up their toys and throwing away their plates after snack time.
What are you using for a bank and how did you come to that decision- The bank is going to be the sticker chart or sticker board. As already mentioned, only the teacher has access to the stickers. The chart is high enough on the wall that all of the children can see it, but they cannot reach it.
What are the hours of operation for your bank- The sticker will be placed on the wall directly after the target behavior is emitted. That way, the child can see that they did what they were supposed to do and will get reinforced for it.
Who will you need to explain your program to- The program will need to be explained to the parents of the kindergarten students and also to the school board.
How will you go about explaining your program- Before the school year would start, the parents would have a meeting with the teacher and also the school board. They would be presented then with all of the information and would also receive a pamphlet highlighting the main points. Also, at 5 different times during the school year, there would be a meeting where again the parents and the school board would meet and go over the information and any alterations to the program. If students joined during the middle of the year, then those parents would receive a pamphlet and would have private one-on-one meetings with the teacher at regular intervals for the duration of the school year.
What is your plan for reducing the need for tokens to maintain the target behavior- Whenever the child emits the target behavior, not only will they receive a sticker, they will also receive praise from the teacher. The plan would be that after awhile, the child would receive just the praise and no longer need to the stickers to feel reinforced.
There are some potential problems with this token economy. Being that I chose such a young age, it would be difficult to stop using the tokens. Also, problems could be caused because all of the children will be able to see the stickers. They may get upset if they do not have as many stickers as another student does.

Token Economy:
The setting that I choose a college classroom (just one class, not applicable for all college students).
The behaviors I want to implement is going to class more often, and participating effectively.
The target behaviors are the same as above, going to class more often and participating while in class (in an effective manner).
Tokens: The tokens I want to use would be stickers. The stickers would be in the hands of the students, given that they are all adults and should be able to keep track of their tokens. Much like Dr. MacLin, I would give the students an attendance/ participation sheet so the students could put the stickers on them. A sticker would be given to the students once class started to credit them for their attendance. Throughout the class, whenever participation is needed (i.e. answering a question, giving reasonable feedback, and attributing to the overall class) if a student participates effectively, he/she will be given a sticker. Every sticker is worth one point. *Note* class attendance is not mandatory and participation is not included in the overall grading system. At the end of the semester, the professor will ask for the sheets handed out and will then add up all the stickers. For each sticker given, an extra credit point will be handed out. Given that a student may participate numerous times, the students have several opportunities for extra credit. Requirements for effective participation include answering questions correctly and detailed pertaining to the topic and relating it to the assigned readings. Students would not receive extra credit for telling personal stories, or giving an answer that does not seem educational. The criteria for effective participation would be told to the students on the first class, and would be in the syllabus so they could look back on it. The rationality for the use of my target behaviors was that if a student effectively participates, they could then be positively reinforcers by emitting a specific target behavior. Extinction would not be an issue because the behaviors would constantly be reinforced. Also worth mentioning, the stickers would be given by the teachers and the sticker would signed by the teacher to limit students going out and buying multiple stickers.
The hours of operation would just be at the end of the semester the students could turn in their sheet and receive the points then. This is also nice because the students will know where they sit extra credit wise throughout the semester.
I would need to explain my program to the students, TA's, and the dean so that it could get approved. However, the dean may think this system allows for too many extra credit points (even though to receive a point is not particularly easy because the student must know much of the material).
I would explain my program by: telling the students the criteria for participating on the first day of class, explaining how in depth they would need to be in participation to receive a sticker, and basically restating all of what I said above.
My plan for reducing needs for tokens would be that hopefully after they left this class, they would then be used to participation and attending regularly that it would become habit for them in future classes.
Obviously, there are flaws in this system. The use of constant tokens is one, whereas the other is how many point each student would receive. Some students are intelligent, but don't like to talk in class so that is a possible limitation as well. Another limitation is that if a student is sick or ill they would not receive participation points.

My token economy.

I decided to use a token economy that was relevant to me. I work at UPS, loading semi trailors everynight for 4 hours. The only reinforcement we currently recieve for the work we do is a paycheck at the end of every week (a pretty small paycheck for that matter). There are many different jobs that different people do throughout the sort, some are easier than others but most are extremely physically strenuous. The jobs are based on senority, the longer youre with the company the easier your job is each night.

The behavior class we are attempting to change is to increase effeciency, motivation, and to improve the "numbers" at the end of the night and the total production for the week. The problem we have encountered on our specific sort is a lack of motivation amongst the employees... The supervisors are currently faced with the problem of needing to increase the motivation and efficiency of there workers. As the weeks go on and motivation has failed to improve the punishment from upper management is to yell at the supervisors who then yell at us, a pretty unproductive strategy. The only solution for this problem is to reinforce the crew for what they do well and their overall success.
The production numbers at the end of the night will serve as the token, if can hit over 197 pieces per hour at least 3-5 nights for a week we will recieve pizza during break every Friday. If we fail to meet our numbers more than 3 times we will not be reinforced. This would serve as a reinforcer for all whole crew. We will keep it to on pizza party per week to ensure that the crew doesn't become satiated with the pizza. We will also have tokens for individual workers on the sort. The main problem we are faced with is inefficient unloading of cars and trailors and slow/ sloppy loaders. Every night the unloader can finish unloading the cars before 8pm, there reinforcment will be that the next night they will be able to perform an easier job such as package puller or small package sorter. This will also be the same for the loaders, each night they successfully load the trailors and a timely and neat manner (lets say 600 or more packages per trailor) neatly built walls and no belt offs, and no misloads, they will be allowed to perform an easier job the next night. If you fail to complete the job successfully... you will stay at your position until your work improves. Back up reinforcers will also be inplace. Top performers of the week will recieve a pay bonus of 50 dollars at the end of the week. There will also be opportunities to recieve merchandise such as UPS gear (shirts, jackets, hoodies, water bottles, lunch boxes) for individuals who make the most improvements week to week.

During regular work hours the upper management will be responsible for keeping track of the numbers and overall improvements of the crew. Supervisors will keep track of individual performance and reinforce individuals as they earn it. A chart will be made and presented by the clock in/out box to show the rest of the crew how much improvements have been made and who the top performers are. Eventually, motivation and efficiency will increase because the crew is seeing tangible reinforcement for the hard work they are performing. The hope is that the hard work will become habitual and we can then lessen the amounts of reinforcement that is handed out.

There are some potential problems however. the elimination of the system of senority will cause some hardship at first, the veterans won't want to perform the hard jobs. This could also work to our advantage, the veterans would then exert more effort in order to go back to their easier jobs. If they don't put forth any effort they will be stuck performing the hard jobs. Top performers will recieve a pay bonus and this may not fly with the upper management, as they wish to spend the least money as possible. Satiation may also become a problem with the pizza parties on Fridays... so maybe we could change it up and get another type of food every other week. The potential benefits of implementing this program will definitly outweigh the potential problems and therefore I think that it is worth a try. Motivation, efficiency, and a overall happier and productive work environment will result!

I chose a college classroom as a setting for my token economy, and the behavior I want to reinforce is doing outside readings about the subject matter.

I will use a points system rather than physical tokens to avoid token laundering or other forms of cheating. The downside of this is that a physical token is probably more reinforcing than an intangible "point", and so it will be harder to get students to buy into the system. I think I can make up for this by allowing frequent exchanges of the points for backup reinforcers, and by setting low prices for the backup reinforcers.

The backup reinforcers can either be negative (excused absences from class, opting for a take-home version of the exam) or positive (extra credit in the class). The rationale for choosing these reinforcers is that if students read journal articles outside of class, then they are learning the material, which is the goal of a class in the first place. If they don't want to come to class, and they're willing to do the work outside of class in order to save up a couple of free days, that's fine by me. The same is true for the take-home exam. Taking away the aversive scenario of exam stress can be good for the student without sacrificing the integrity of the exam, because as I mentioned previously, if the students are doing extra work outside of class, then they are learning the material (and the purpose of an exam is to make sure they're learning the material). This would be a more expensive reinforcer than missing class. The last reinforcer seems to be the most common-sense, at least to me. Extra work should be transferable into extra credit.

The points awarded will be determined by their score on an online quiz I'll develop using Google Forms. The questions will all be short answer, and there will be ten of them. A score below 5 yields no points, a score of 5-10 yields an equivalent amount of points (8/10 is 8 points, 5/10 is 5 points, etc.). 10 points can be redeemed for an excused absence from class, 15 points can be redeemed for 5% extra credit on the next exam, and 30 points can be redeemed for a take-home version of the next exam. There will be a quiz available every week, which means that to earn a take-home exam, students either have to ace three of them or take nearly every one in order to earn the take-home exam. The points will reset after every exam, so students can't horde the points over the course of the semester to earn a take-home final exam with 25% extra credit.

I chose these prices because I want them to be fairly low (the cheapest one can be bought by emitting the target behavior once) so the students will buy into the system. At the same time, I want them to be high enough that the system can't be abused, especially the take-home exam. For the take-home exam to work, the student has to actually be learning the material. I'd have to make sure not to offer enough of these extra reading opportunities that students can take them all, guess at the answers, and end up with enough points to earn a take-home exam (although I'm not too worried about this, since the quizzes are all short answer).

Since my setting is a college classroom, I'm not very worried about keeping bank hours. I would probably either use my office hours as bank hours or give students online banking capabilities (via email). I'll keep track of their points through a Google Doc that is shared with the class (but that only I can edit), using ID numbers instead of names to ensure anonymity.

I'll have to explain my system to the students, and I would explain it by saying that this token economy system is designed to reward them for learning about the subject matter outside of class. Students can exchange doing a little bit of extra reading for obtaining an excused absence, adding extra credit to their exam, or even getting to take the exam home. I'm a firm believer in establishing interest in class material outside of the actual class (especially if this class is in their major field), and this is my way of letting students get credit for showing interest in the subject matter.

Since my setting is a college class, I don't think I'll phase out the tokens. A semester is only about fifteen weeks, which is 15 opportunities for points. The problem with this is that students will undergo extinction after the class is over (they won't keep reading for other classes without reinforcement), but I don't think a semester is enough time to effectively lean out the reinforcement to the point where it's no longer necessary.

The main problem I think I'll have is making sure the students who claim to have done the outside readings really have done them. I could arrange for a time outside of class to discuss the reading with them, or let them complete online questionnaires about the readings using Google Forms. I don't mind if they have access to the form while they're supposed to be doing the readings, looking for the answers in the text is still learning the material. Another cheating possibility is that the students will take the quizzes in groups, so that some of them could be freeloading. Using Google Forms would actually prevent this abuse, since there is a timestamp feature. If three or four students submit a form within thirty seconds (especially if they have a week or two do to the assignment), I'll know to be suspicious.

What is your setting? A household with small children, ages 4 to 9 (based on myself and my two brothers at that age years ago)
What behavior class are you going to change? I am going to try to decrease fighting and arguing between the children
What are the target behaviors you are going to change though reinforcement (Keep in mind the use of Differential Reinforcement and Premack Principle)? The target behavior I want to decrease is the hitting, yelling, and fights between the kids
What type of token are you going to use? I am going to use the colorful, shiny star stickers that will be put on a chart where the children can see it, they will be able to put their stickers in their name area and be able to know where they stand within the other kids
What are some considerations for the use of these tokens? I will have to consider where I put the stickers, like I said they will be on a chart that will be placed on a high area of the fridge out of their reach, I will also have to think about how to handle a situation where a child can visibly see they have less star stickers then their sibling, they will receive a gold star when they have a good day at home with less fighting (baseline will be set by mom) or when they get along very well with one another
What are you going to use for the backup reinforcers? I will reinforce their good behavior later bed time, pick the movie or game for the family, choose desert, have a friend stay over, or their choice of a small snack from the store
What was your rationale for choosing these reinforcers? We had a chart like this for chores when I was younger and I always liked the gold stars, plus little kids LOVE them!
What is the token value and how did you select that value? 1 star is one point, because it will be simple for them to understand and count
What are you using for a bank and how did you arrive at that decision? A colorful poster with their name where they can see it
What are the hours of operation for your bank? Every night before bed time and weekend mornings, at first 5 stickers will be going rate of receiving a their reinforcements for good behavior, then it will go up by 5 every 2 weeks, or they can save them up for a big prize after a month or so, like a pizza party or a small sleep over
Who will you need to explain your program to? To the kids and any other family members in the home, or babysitter
How will you go about explaining your program (what will you actually say)? Explain to them that there needs to be less fighting at home, more of them getting along, and they would be rewarded each day for good behaviors, but if they are bad they will not receive any stickers, they will be allowed to place their stickers on the chart themselves, they will be told about the reward system will work
What is your plan for reducing the need for tokens to maintain the target behavior? They will be proud of their behaviors and learn it is nice for them to behave well and get along with their siblings and mommy and daddy won’t have to punish them for bad behaviors
Looking back at your token economy you have planned, what are some potential problems you should anticipate and plan for? The kids getting upset about having less stars than another sibling, kids getting bored of prizes or greedy, being able to eliminate the chart and have them behave well without having to reinforce their behaviors

I'll do the home setting; most behaviors happen at the home. The behavioral class would the chores that a few older children have to do through the week/weekend. The change would be that they would do their chores more often and more diligently; no one likes their chores really. With some reinforcement of time and allowance chores may be more well done. The tokens would be money for their chores, and if they get them done before the weekend, they have the ability to go out with friends rather then stay home and finish them. Considerations when dealing with this that the children are given the same amount for their chores, make the chores even in difficulty/simplicity so it's fair. Some backup for these reinforcers may be to that if the children want something expensive they have to earn the money to get it. The rationale behind this is that children want more things as they get holder and their friends are important by hindering both possibilities behavior may be improved. The token itself has value, as it is a common way to modify behavior; most parents pay their kids to do work around the house after all. Parent's paycheck is the bank unfortunately, but potently teaching the children possible life lessons. This system will be needed to be explained to the children since they are the ones that are being hindered by chores and being given an reinforcement for doing them. With time and repeated behavior, the children will do the chores as well as they can without complaint and do them out of habit. Reinforcement may no longer be necessary as they grow old and get jobs but still do their chores.

Problems would be first the cooperation of the children. Staying firm with the plan if it works is key, if it doesn't work right off the bat, modifying the economy might be best. And punishment via not giving the allowance and time with friends.
anticipate and plan for.

What is your setting? A house hold with kids between the ages for 4-8
What behavior class are you going to change? Increase cleaning/putting away things behaviors
What are the target behaviors you are going to change though reinforcement (Keep in mind the use of Differential Reinforcement and Premack Principle)? The target behavior I have in mind is putting away something right after you use it
What type of token are you going to use? Gold stars on a sheet and when they get so many gold stars they get some kind of treat (candy, ice cream, etc)
What are some considerations for the use of these tokens? Where the sheet should be placed. I think I would have it place in the parents room, so the kids could only see it when the parents wanted them to.
What are you going to use for the backup reinforcers? Backup reinforcers would be something such as a treat.
What was your rationale for choosing these reinforcers? Kids love gold stars. I remember thinking how cool I was in kindergarten/1st grade for my gold stars I had.
What is the token value and how did you select that value? 1 star. Each time the child remembered to clean up without being reminded or having someone else clean up after them they would get a gold star
What are you using for a bank and how did you arrive at that decision? I guess the bank would be the sheet with the stars
What are the hours of operation for your bank? Once a week the kids would see all the stars they had accumulated over the week.
Who will you need to explain your program to? The parents and/or the nanny
How will you go about explaining your program (what will you actually say)? It would be explained that they need to just pick up things after they use them and put them in their place and sing that clean up song I remember from elementary
What is your plan for reducing the need for tokens to maintain the target behavior? The clean behaviors will become natural for them and they will eventually be phased out of gold stars.
Looking back at your token economy you have planned, what are some potential problems you should anticipate and plan for? Kids not caring. Causing sibling rivalry. I never experienced this because I am an only child. Assuming that someone will be there to see the kids pick up after themselves all the time, which is not possible.

What is your setting? Hoover Elementary School
What behavior class are you going to change? Getting kids to do more outside reading.
What are the target behaviors you are going to change though reinforcement (Keep in mind the use of Differential Reinforcement and Premack Principle)? Having kids read books outside of what is assigned in the classroom and writing a short paragraph about what they like/didn't like about it
What type of token are you going to use? I would use a chart with all of the kids' names on it and every time they turn in a paragraph, they get a smiley face written in the little box.
What are some considerations for the use of these tokens? I will make sure that the teacher is the only one who may access the chart, but be sure that it is still in view for the children.
What are you going to use for the backup reinforcers? At the end of each week, we will see what kid has the most smiley faces and that kid will get to be in the front of the line for activities for that entire next week, seconds in lunch-time, or be the teacher's helper (help pass things out to students etc) The child would get to choose what reinforcer he/she prefers
What was your rationale for choosing these reinforcers?
What is the token value and how did you select that value? For each book read, they get one smiley. I chose this because it was easy and not costly. The only thing that would need to be put together is the chart and that would only need to be done once per year.
What are you using for a bank and how did you arrive at that decision?
What are the hours of operation for your bank? All the time out of school. The reading will be done at home with their parents.
Who will you need to explain your program to? The children will be told about the program at the beginning of the year.
How will you go about explaining your program (what will you actually say)? "We will be having a contest, class. I want you all to do as MUCH reading as you can so you can get really smart and have a really smart brain! Every time that you read a book at home, I want you to write to me and tell me what you liked/didn't like about it. And guess what? Every time you do this, you get a smiley face by your name on this really cool chart! Then, at the end of the week, the student who has done the most reading get a really cool prize! You guys are gonna be sooooooo smart!"
What is your plan for reducing the need for tokens to maintain the target behavior? Eventually, if the kids are reading a lot, they would get a smiley for every two/three books they complete.
Looking back at your token economy you have planned, what are some potential problems you should anticipate and plan for? What if there is a tie at the end of the week?

For my token economy my setting is a daycare class of 3 and 4 year olds. The behavior I am going to change is cleaning up after themselves, the target behaviors include putting the toys they played with back in the same place they got them when center time is over and throwing their garbage away and taking their dishes to the counter when they are finished with snack and lunch. The type of token I will use is a sticker for each time they complete these tasks without being reminded. Considerations included the children who aren’t there as much or aren’t there for snack time, how they will earn stickers. These stickers will be on a sticker chart that is on the wall. The backup reinforcers will be once their sticker chart is full, 20 stickers, they get to pick a prize from the prize box. My rationale for these reinforcers is that they are toys that the children enjoy, yet they are affordable that I can have a box full all the time. the stickers will be given at the moment the target behavior is emitted, and the backup reinforcers will be given right after lunch every day when their sticker charts are “filled up” I will explain the bank to the teacher’s helpers, parents, and every time a new child starts at the daycare. I will explain what the tokens are, where they are, what they look like, how long it will take to fill up on average, and what types of prizes (backup reinforcers) they will receive. I will keep this up all the time and there will not be a need for reducing the tokens. The problems will be some children are there all day everyday and can earn a prize every 2 weeks, and others are only there a few days a week and will take closer to a month to earn a prize.

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