Topical Blog Week #15 (due Thursday)

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What I would like you to do is to find a PERSON or TOPIC from the chapter you chose to read this week that you are interested in and search the internet for material on that PERSON or TOPIC. Please use 3 or more quality resources.If you did a Person: Once you have completed your search and explorations, a) I would like you to say WHO your PERSON is, b) how exactly HE OR SHE fits into the chapter, and c) why you are interested in THIS PERSON. Next, I would like you to take the information you read or viewed related to your PERSON, integrate/synthesize it, and then write about it. At the end of your post, please include working URLs for the three websites. Keep in mind that it will be easier if you keep it to one topic.

If you did a Topic: Once you have completed your search and explorations, a) I would like you to say WHAT your TOPIC is, b) how exactly the TOPIC fits into the chapter, and c) why you are interested in THIS TOPIC. Next, I would like you to take the information you read or viewed related to your TOPIC, integrate/synthesize it, and then write about it. At the end of your post, please include working URLs for the three websites. Keep in mind that it will be easier if you keep it to one topic.

Additional instructions: For each url.(internet resource) you have listed. Indicate why you chose it and the extent to which it contributed to your post.

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I chose to research Eleanor Gibson further. I am interested in her because she worked with a lot of the psychologists that we have studied throughout this semester, which puts her into "how does she fit into this chapter" question. She was born in Peoria, Illinois, which interested me because that is not far from here! She is a mid-western girl. She grew up with a father that worked a blue collar job and a stay at home mother. It interested me that she ended up being so interested in psychology and learning because in chapter 13 it talks a little bit about nature vs. nurture. And well, we don't know for sure what her parents acted like around her, but often we like to use the phrase, "the apple doesn't fall far from the tree". And well, in this case, I think this apple fell pretty darn far from the tree.
Gibson was a victim of early discrimination towards women. She suffered a slow academic start due to the lack of respect for women in the academic world. She She received her bachelor's degree from Smith in 1931 and her master's degree in 1933. She earned her doctorate in psychology at Yale in 1938. Although this all is very prestigious, she had a hard time looking for work. She met her husband while taking a course at Smith college. He oddly enough happened to be her professor. He was a psychology professor which made it impossible for her to get a job once they moved to New York with the silly antinepotism rules which said that husbands and wives could not work at the same place. So she worked (non-profit) as a research associate.
While she was at Yale she was very excited to do research. She wanted to work for Psychologist Robert Yerkes in his laboratory, but he strongly pushed her away saying, "I have no women in my laboratory". How rude!! She later got to work with Clark Hull.
During her years of research associate at Cornell she created what she is most known for, the "visual cliff". This is a study on depth perception. She studied all sorts of animals, and of course infants as well. She wanted to know what kind of depth perception infants had. Her experiment was set up with a glass floor. On one side there was a set of patterned paper right beneath the glass, and on the other side, the patterned paper was further away from the glass, creating an illusion that there was a cliff. She studied chicks, turtles, rats, lambs, kids, pigs, kittens and dogs. She found that most all of these except rats would chose to stand/walk on the side with the paper closer to the glass, thus indicating the dominance of our visual sensors. Rats, on the other hand use their sense of smell to travel. So they would travel on the "cliff" side with out any sense of nervous emotion.
--a good biography of her life.
--her obituary gives us all of her advances and accomplishments in her great life.
--a great article on her visual cliff studies.

The topic that I chose to research is artificial intelligence. This topic fits into this chapter because it is a subject that covers an idea about how machines could help humans in a collaborative thinking process. I am interested in this topic because I think it is fascinating to believe how machines can have a thought process. I am interested in the technological advances that we have made with artificial intelligence. I want to become more aware of where our researchers are heading as far as developments with artificial intelligence.
“First off artificial intelligence is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science to create it.” I learned that some books were written in order to discuss the use of artificial intelligence. AI would be created in order to help decision making that humans are conflicted with. I think that AI is a tool that can help us look at certain situations and figure out what the best probabilities there are to figure out the matter in question. AI would be there to help maximize our chances at success in many scenarios.
When I think of AI as a means to protect us I get a little worried. I am worried from all of the movies that have been made about machines coming with their own thoughts and rules and choosing to start a conflict with the human race. I feel that if we had total control over AI instruments and the power to shut them down whenever we felt it necessary than it would be something worth looking into.
What I think AI would really be useful for is doing jobs that are dangerous to humans. One example that comes to mind is road construction. I think that many workers out on interstates are put in harm’s way when there are cars that are going 50 plus mph right past them. Also I think that it would be worth the while to consider having machines with thoughtful capabilities be put in environments that require difficult mathematical solution. I think that a space age is beginning and we need to figure out what works best to get ourselves out into space and discover what is out there. AI would be a perfect tool for that job. A human would not be able to go on a space ship and travel for light years, however a machine could. While this is happening the machine could process and interpret all kinds of data.
I learned that we are already implementing artificial intelligence in our lives. So many smart phones and other pieces of technology have AI capabilities. People have the ability to have a conversation on their phone with not only another person but with their phone alone. Devices like this give detailed feedback when you ask it a question which is very interesting. It makes one wonder how far it will go. A video link that I put on gives more detail about where it has started and where it could possibly go.
This website gave some background about the subject
This video gave me more feedback and what to look for in the future with this subject. It helped me imagine where things might go.
This website provided a lot of questions about the subject

The person I chose to research more about was Gordon Allport.Gordon Allport relates to chapter 14 because he had some theories with personality psychology. I am interested in Gordon Allport because he seems interesting and I want to learn more about what he contributed to the field of personality psychology.

Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana in 1897. He was the youngest of four boys. At the age of 18, he graduated from high school and had scholarships to attend Harvard University. He did some military duty in WWI, and at age 22 he met with Sigmund Freud in Vienna, Austria. After the meeting with Freud he found that he is interested in dept psychology. Allport got his P.H.D in 1922 from Harvard.

Gordon Allport was known for him examining prejudice, looking at personal traits, and creating personality tests. Allport developed a theory for personality psychology. His theory has seven parts. 1. Sense of Body 2. Self-Identity 3. Self-Esteem 4. Self-Extension 5. Self-Image 6. Rational Coping 7. Propriate Striving. All of these parts are a part of development psychology when a human goes through years of life.

Another theory of Allports was personality traits for each human. He developed this theory by going through a dictionary to find terms that would represent personality traits. He found three traits that are important to the field of personality psychology, and they are Cardinal Traits, Central Traits, and Secondary Traits. A Cardinal trait is a trait that dominates an individual's personality. This trait is very rare. Central traits are common traits that make up our personalities. Secondary traits are traits that are only present after a circumstance.

I learned that Gordon Allport had a lot of contributions with personality psychology, and developing traits that I didn't know there are some traits that are more dominant than others. I now know more about what Gordon Allport contributed to the field of social and personality psychology. this site gave a lot of details about his theories. this site gave background information about Gordon Allport. this site gave more background information and more details about the personality traits.

I chose the topic of lobotomy, and it fits into the chapter because it was a type of surgery used by clinical psychologists in the attempt to help people with mental disorders. I found it interesting because I was not aware, before reading the chapter, that this procedure had actually been performed on humans. I was amazed that not only had it been performed, but also because of the large extent to which it had been performed. It seemed incredibly risky to me, and I was surprised at the surprisingly small number of casualties.

Not surprisingly most people missed the 75th anniversary of the first lobotomy performed in the United States this past November, but taking a look at the once-viewed, miracle cure to a variety of mental illnesses could be fun. A lobotomy is the common term today for psychosurgery, but there are actually three different types of lobotomies: prefrontal leucotomy, prefrontal lobotomy, and transorbital lobotomy. A leucotomy involves drilling holes into a person's skull in order to access the brain. When the surgeon could see the brain, he would sever the nerves using a pencil-sized tool called a leucotome. The leucotome contained a slide mechanism on the side that would utilize a wire loop from the tip. The idea was to be able to slide the leucotome into the drilled holes in the top of skull, then into the brain, then use the slide to make the loop come out. The surgeon would sever the nerves by removing “cores” of brain tissue, slide the loop back in, and the operation was complete. A lobotomy also utilized drilled holes, but in the upper forehead instead of the top of the skull. The surgeon also used a blade to cut the brain instead of a leucotome. The transorbital lobotomy was a lot more sketchy in that it was a “blind” operation. The surgeon did not know for certain if he had severed the nerves or not. An ice-pick type object would be inserted through the eye socket between the upper lid and eye. When the doctor thought he was at about the right spot, he would hit the end of the instrument with a hammer. Yeah, sounds pretty scary! Extensive evidence existed showing that psychosurgery was not therapeutic, but operations continued for decades.

Egas Moniz invented the lobotomy in 1935. The first procedure was called “prefrontal leucotomy” and the instrument he used was named a leucotome. He attended a lecture by Drs. James Watts and Carlyle Jacobsen of Yale University, who described their experiments destroying the frontal lobes of two chimpanzees. They reported that the animal’s learning capacity was severely inhibited, but they also spoke of their emotional states being seriously altered. Moniz believed that patients with obsessive behaviour were suffering from fixed circuits in the brain. He soon began working on a human version of the surgery, and came up with the prefrontal leucotomy a few months later. It was interesting reading the version that I read about Moniz online and the description in the book. The version I read online about Moniz made him seem a lot like Walter Freeman, which I will get to shortly, in being overly aggressive trying to push the surgery and over exaggerating its benefits. Lobotomy became a mainstream part of psychiatry with more than 1,000 operations a year in the UK at its peak. Walter Freeman and Dr. James Watts brought the procedure to the US and began to experiment on humans, unfortunately leaving many disabled patients in their path. They encountered problems like the knife breaking off in people’s brains, unexplained seizures, and total disorientation. Eventually they created the “Freeman and Watts Standard Lobotomy” and began demonstrating it to the medical community. This operation did not satisfy Freeman, so he developed the transorbital lobotomy. Freeman was soon performing the brain operation for pretty much any complaint a person had and would even perform the surgery in his own office. Watts apparently told Freeman that he must “stop doing brain surgery as an office procedure” or Watts would sever their partnership, which he eventually did. Freeman did not stop and began to travel around the nation in his van, which he called his “lobotomobile." He would demonstrate the transorbital lobotomy in any hospital that would have him, and he even performed a few in hotel rooms, lobotomizing children as young as thirteen for “delinquent behavior” and housewives who had lost their zeal for domestic work. Freeman had his critics, but he would hear nothing of it claiming he was certain he had found the cure for most mental illness and chronic pain. He lost his medical license at the end of his career when he killed a patient who was seeing him for her third transorbital procedure. Freeman defended himself and his creation until the end of his life, when new pharmaceutical drugs for serious mental illnesses became available. The British equivalent to Freeman was the neurosurgeon Sir Wylie McKissock. Like Freeman, he travelled all over England demonstrating his procedure to anyone who was willing. For McKissock the procedure took only five minutes, and it was believed he performed around 3,000 surgeries. Psychiatrist Dr John Pippard followed up several hundred of McKissock's patients, and he found that around a third benefited, a third were unaffected, and a third were worse off afterwards. Henry Marsh, who is now one of Britain's top neurosurgeons, says the operation was bad science. "It reflected very bad medicine, bad science, because it was clear the patients who were subjected to this procedure were never followed up properly."

At least fifty thousand people were lobotomized by psychosurgeons. Transorbital patients were often the most functional since there was a reasonable possibility that the doctor had missed their nerves all together. The less fortunate victims were warehoused in institutions, or they returned to families who were often unable to cope with such severely disabled people. The reason for its popularity was simple - the alternative was worse. The chance of a cure through lobotomy was preferable to the life of incarceration in an institution for a person's entire life. - This site does a nice job of discussing the definition and procedures of the different types of psychosurgeries as well as giving a history of Moniz's and Freeman's careers. - This site does a nice job of showing the instances and prevalence of lobotomies performed in Britain. - This video shows actual footage of the procedure which is neat, and also shows how they would render patients unconscious.

I chose to write about Jean Piaget. Jean Will Fritz Piaget the Second was born August 9th, 1896 in Neuchatel in “Francophone” area of Switzerland. He spoke French, but is identified as Swiss. Piaget was not the only one in his family to be famous. Piaget’s father Arthur was a professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchatel. As a child Piaget was interested in biology and the outdoors. Piaget also attended the University of Neuchatel and also studied at the University of Zurich for a brief time. While at Zurich he had two philosophical papers published. These paper reflect the direction of Piaget’s thinking at the early stages of his upper level education. He would later dismiss these papers as a product of his “adolescent thought.” Piaget also earned his PhD from the University of Neuchatel.
Somewhere among his studies with Alfred Binet, and his refining of the intelligences tests Piaget married Valentine Chatenay in 1923. They had three children, Jacqueline, Lucienne, and Laurent. Piaget studied his children’s intellectual development from the time they were born until they began to talk.
Piaget also held many positions or chairs in his lifetime. He held chairs in psychology, sociology and history at Neuchatel from 1925 to 1929. History of scientific thinking in Geneva from 1929-1939. He chaired the International Bureau of Education from 1929 to 1967. Psychology and Sociology at Lausanne from 1938 to 1951, Sociology at Geneva from 1939-1952. He then chaired genetic and experimental psychology department from 1940 to 1971. In the mid 50’s he created and was the director of the International Center for Genetic Epistemology until he died in on September 17th, 1980.
Piaget fits in to Chapter 14 because; he is one the applied psychologists who made significant developments in the post war period which was the focus of the chapter. His developments were in the cognitive psychology field rather than behavioral.
I am interested in Piaget because of the work he did that was not specifically done for the field of education but his research emphasized hands on learning and interaction to help with the knowledge a person could gain, and when applied to the right places it revolutionized the field of education, that is why I am interested in Piaget.

Additional instructions: For each url.(internet resource) you have listed. Indicate why you chose it and the extent to which it contributed to your post. I chose this website, because Wikipedia always provides a generous background of biographical, career and various other aspects of a person’s life and also provides links to other sites that may provide more information. This website provided more detailed information about his interests as a child and detailed information about degrees he obtained. This website was another website that information and biographies on various people, and I chose it for information and details that were left out of other sites I browsed.

I choose to write about client centered therapy, this fits into the chapter because Carl Rogers talked about the three main ideas’ to maintain a positive client – therapist relationship. This is how client centered therapy is based off of as well. I am interested in this topic because it goes hand in hand with a class that I am taking for my social work major. Many social workers will at some point address therapy in a session some way, or somehow. I also found it interesting how psychology and social work inter weave their work together.
Carl Rogers is the most influential psychologist in the 20th century not only in the psychology field but also in the social work field. He was a believer that all people are fundamentally good and he was also considered to be a humanistic thinker on many different levels. Many times it was stated that Rogers believed that people desired to be the best they could become or be.
Rogers started by calling his therapy non- directive therapy, this was because his goal in the session was to be as non-directive as possible. However during sessions he realized that many times the clients look at the therapist for aid in helping them find a direction or guidance. This allowed his to them change his style of therapy to be called client- centered therapy. Thought-out the readings many people are also calling Rogers style of therapy the person- centered therapy. Either way the three terms are the same.
Client –Centered Therapy was established by Carl Rogers in 1940. Carl stated this approach should involve three main qualities. These qualities are as follows: empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard. These qualities have become the basis of the therapeutic approach today. Client Centered Therapy is centered on the expansion of self-awareness, enhancement of self-esteem, and greater self-reliance. Some of the outcomes that come from this type of therapy is a greater sense of freedom, spontaneity and openness. These outcomes have been reported from many different therapists that use the client centered approach.
There are many people who can benefit from this approach. People with depression, poor relationships, schizophrenia, anxiety, substance abuse, personality disorders, feelings of panic, stress, eating disorders, and phobias. These are many of the areas that this therapy can be applied to. It should be noted that it can allow be applied to groups as well.
There are many benefits of Client center therapy. Overall one may have a healthy sense of change and an increase in self-esteem. They may also have the greater ability to trust one-self and decrease their “disorder or fears”. A large scale of studies have shown that the three qualities that Roger emphasized are all understand, however if was found that these components alone are not necessary enough to promote lasting change.
General information about client centered therapy.
A therapy service that uses client centered therapy: and their views on who it helps.
Another therapy group that uses Rogers client centered therapy
This is a video where Carl explains his approach. You also get to see a little bit of a session.
I choose to pick this one because in my social work classes we watched the whole session!

I choose to research Edmund Jacobson. I am interested in him because of his work with relaxation techniques. Jacobson is mention in chapter 13 because of his clinical work with relaxation techniques. Jacobson’s work with relaxation focuses on relaxing muscle tension. Jacobson discovered that by first tensing a muscle and then relaxing it greater relaxation would occur. These exercises, over 200, would relieve anxiety of his patients.

Jacobson started using his relaxation techniques in 1915 with his patients. However, it wasn’t until 1924 that he wrote his book The Technique of Progressive Relaxation. Jacobson studied stressed induced disorders and found that by eliminating the stress or tension the disorders would decrease or be eliminated altogether; resulting in a connection between motor and mental functions. After developing this technique, Jacobson continued to study the motor-mental connection in schools, dentistry, and athletes.

This method is most effect with anxiety associated with muscle stiffness, for obvious reasons. This can be seen in people who appear to be uptight or tense. They often experience chronic tightness in the shoulders and neck. Along with a reduction in general anxiety symptoms, including panic attacks, tension headaches, backaches and insomnia have been reduced after using this form of relaxation. As with any relaxation technique deep breathing is important to feel the full effects.

Today the 200 exercises have been condensed into 15-20 steps. The first stars with the hands. First the patient makes a fist for 10 seconds then relaxes for 15-20. This repeats itself with different muscle groups throughout the body. While tension one needs to think of all the stress in their lives and as they relax they let it flow out of their body; an action that allows the user to gain control over their body’s stress production. Jacobson focused on the mind-body connection. He was able to prove that a connection existed between the body (muscle tension) and the mind (anxiety).

When I was younger I had anxiety issues and was taught this method of relaxation which work well for me at that time. I still automatically use this technique in during times of high anxiety for me, but until now I have forgotten about using on a daily basis, which I will start doing again since it does help me.
This was a great site explaining the symptoms of anxiety associated with muscle stiffness and effects of progressive relaxation method.
This is a good site explain the background and early information about Jacobson.
This site was used for some basic background information about Jacobson.
This site showed ways the relaxation method is still used today and how each person can practice these techniques on their own.
This site stated the steps involved in the technique as well as the importance of deep breathing and some history of the technique.

I chose to research Gordon Allport, an American psychologist who was one of the first to approach studying the personality and its effect on the field. I have always found the study of personality and traits to be very interesting, and I don't think that Allport is cited often enough for his enormous impact on psychology. He fits into this chapter (chapter 14) because there was a large section on personality psychology and a brief biography on Allport. Allport rejected the psychoanalytic theory as well as the behavioral approach, and he believed there needed to be a happy medium between the two. Having had an unpleasant experience when first meeting Sigmund Freud (Freud apparently tried to turn a simple comment into an unconscious conflict from Allport's childhood), Allport decided that psychoanalysis was much too "deep" for him.

During Allport's first year teaching at Harvard, he was the instructor for what was probably the very first known personality psychology course. He had many students in his courses that would grow up to also be influential psychologists, including Stanley Milgram. During his time at Harvard, Allport would go on to publish several works on the psychology of personality, which would become pretty influential to the field. Allport is perhaps best known for his trait theory of personality. Searching through a dictionary and writing down every single word he found that could be considered a personality characteristic, he grouped all these words into three categories: cardinal (dominates entire personality), central (common traits that make up our personality), and secondary (traits that are only present under specific circumstances).

Allport never saw much use in studying a person's past to discover why they are the way they are. Instead, he focused solely on the present, using an eclectic approach to study genotypes/phenotypes and figure out the individual's personality and its traits. Allport was also one of the very first researchers to differentiate between motive and drive. Gordon Allport was without a doubt one of the founding fathers of personality psychology, and his vast work continues to influence the field of psychology today.
A biography of Allport, as well as brief descriptions of his career.
A great source on Allport's biography, past, and work.
This was a very brief video on Allport's trait theory.

For this assignment, I chose to read about Carl Rogers. His story seemed really interesting from the book, especially his difficult upbringing. I think his ideas on client-centered therapy are also interesting and successful. I would like to learn more about how he was able to overcome adversity and where he thought of his ideas from.

Carl Ransom Rogers was born on January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. Carl was the fourth of six children in his family. He was very isolated as a child, being raised in a strict, religious family. He was a very intelligent boy and craved knowledge of all kinds, especially science. He was able to attend the University of Wisconsin-Madison to pursue a career in agriculture, history, as well as religion.

On a trip to Peking, China, he began to doubt his religious beliefs and decided not to follow the religious path set for him. He moved on from Wisconsin to Columbia University, and received his MA and PhD there. While at Columbia, Rogers served as director of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in Rochester, New York. Based on his experiences of working with troubled children, he wrote The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child in 1939.

In 1940 Rogers became professor of clinical psychology at Ohio State University, where he wrote his second book, Counseling and Psychotherapy. In it, Rogers suggested that the client, by establishing a relationship with an understanding, accepting therapist, can resolve difficulties and gain the insight necessary to restructure their life. This is where he develops his client-centered therapy, where the therapy is designed around the patient. Rogers used the term “client” instead of “patient” because the individuals that he was counseling did need help but not within the same regard that a medically ill person does. The term “client” is still used today in most situations.

Many of his idea coincide with those of Maslow, on a continuous journey to get to self-actualization. Rodgers believed that for a person to grow and reach self-actualization, they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood). One of his techniques that provide this environment was reflection. During reflection, the therapist continually restates what the patient has said in an attempt to show complete acceptance and to allow the patient to recognize any negative feelings that they may be feeling.

Rogers also had theories about one’s self-concept, the perceptions and beliefs about oneself. He believed the self-concept had three parts: self-worth, self-image, and the ideal self. Someone’s self-worth is what we think about ourselves, or our self-esteem. Self-image is how we see ourselves. The ideal self is the person who we would like to be, including goals we have and ambitions. The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent we are and the higher our sense of self-worth.

Rogers became the President of the American Association for Applied Psychology in 1944, and moved on to teach at the University of Chicago from Ohio State, He then became the President of the American Psychological Association, President of the American Academy of Psychotherapists. He has also won many awards for his works, including the Nicholas Murray Butler Silver Medal, and the Distinguished Professional Psychologist Award.

Rogers' last years were devoted to applying his theories in situations of political oppression and national social conflict, traveling worldwide to do so. In Belfast, Northern Ireland, he brought together influential Protestants and Catholics; in South Africa, blacks and whites; in Brazil people emerging from dictatorship to democracy in the United States, consumers and providers in the health field. His last trip, at age 85, was to the Soviet Union, where he lectured and facilitated intensive experiential workshops fostering communication and creativity. He was astonished at the numbers of Russians who knew of his work.

Together with his daughter and other psychologists, Rogers developed a series of residential programs in the US, Europe, Brazil and Japan, which focused on cross-cultural communications, personal growth, self-empowerment, and learning for social change. Rogers was nominated for the Nobel Peace prize for his work, but the nomination arrived just days after his death of a heart attack in 1987.– This site gives a good biography of Rogers and discusses some of his works.– This resource has good information on his life and theories, and has a good timeline of events in his life.– This website discusses Rogers’ theories in an understandable way.

I wanted to look into more information about the work Sir. Fredric Bartlett did on memory. I think his research was so influential because it explains how our memories are not perfect like people in the past previously thought. It was thought that memories stored in our long term memories were placed perfectly there until we needed to recall them. Bartlett proved to the world that this is not the case by using out of the laboratory experiments. He was before the cognitive revolution really began, but he was a very influential part at its success.
During the time of the first world word Bartlett was working at Cambridge University and the simple game of “Russian scandal” or telephone gave him the idea for an experiment, which turned out to be revolutionary. He found that the process involves reconstruction of the memories, they’re changed by new information that we are receiving every day. Bartlett believed that we have schemata for everything we encounter in the world. Although research was being done on memory by Ebinghouse, he was conducting research on himself by learning nonsense lists of words. Bartlett had a very different approach; he used realistic things such as stories and drawings and we wanted to look at cultural differences. (
Bartlett’s notebook was later found. It was full different participants’ recreations of the War of Ghost story. He would find random students; have them read the War of the Ghosts (something that was very unfamiliar to them) then rewrite what they remember. He found them again at a later date he would ask them to write it down again. He found that “participants omitted information they regarded as irrelevant, changed the emphasis to points they considered to be significant, and rationalized the parts that did not make sense, to make the story more comprehensible to themselves. ( By borrowing a term from neurology, schema, he began to explain his findings. A schema was used to explain how humans know where things are on their body. For example you know where your hand is without looking at it, because you have a schema in our mind about where it should be located. (this can be further explained when looking into phantom limbs) Bartlett said that we have schemata for everything in our world, and when new things come up we can then understand it and store it in terms of what it old. (
Research focused around what Bartlett had discovered about memory is still the topic of experiments today. Claudia Hamilton on the BBC radio discusses how human memory decreases by observing the simple game of Chinese whispers, otherwise known as telephone. “The story changes partly because you can’t hear it clearly, but also because you make sense of it on what you have been told and pass it on” ( Hamilton wanted to recreate Bartlett’s study in the present day. She still used the War of the Ghost story and then analyzed their answers. “ What was first found was that people go through a summarized process, taking out all the information they see useless and get the core essentials” ( It was also found just like in Bartlett’s study that “they omit irrelevant, unfamiliar and inconsistent things…a person hearing the War of the Ghost story has a tendency to change the odd things to things that are more familiar in their own knowledge” ( It was found that people typically left out the word ‘ghost’ because they are not typically in the normal schema, especially during the time period of the study. (
In the research Hamilton did recently the same findings that Bartlett found over 70 years ago are still true today, the mind hasn’t changed. ( The way humans processed things in the 1930’s is still true today. I find this extraordinary! We are always evolving and learning new things, but the way in which we process the information we learn seems to stay the same. Further studying the process of memory is important to the future of psychology because if this is constant it can help us compare it to other things in the brain that are inconsistent. It was also discussed by a psychologist today that “people also make pragmatic inferences, which means they are not logically required” ( For example in the story it says that they went home, someone in their retelling of the story may say they got back into the boat and left. It never said they got into the boat, but it is a logical inference that to get home they had to take the boat. this was a very informational radio broadcast. Although it was hard to get direct quotes, because our memories aren’t perfect just as Bartlett had found, it was fairly easy to follow along and summarize the information. It discussed Bartlett’s finds, current findings and other psychologist thoughts about the subject. Many other professionals talked in the broadcast establishing the researches credibility. gave in-depth information about the experiment about the War of the Ghost story from Bartlett’s specific book "Remembering" Discussed Bartlett’s findings, how they are related today and it also had a list of resources used in the site to establish credibility.

I was interested in the Hawthorne effect from chapter 13 because, as I said in class, I felt like I had some firsthand experience with this theory from my first year. I was required to look at several pictures, words and the test would record how quickly I responded to what I saw, and the idea was that the two concepts the test was trying to compare were be paired together faster. I did not know exactly what the test was going to be covered but I was aware that I was being watched and this knowledge effected how I approached the test. I did not want to stray too far to one extreme or the other so I tried to keep my answers and responses as “normal” as I could. The first video I found proved this theory almost to a tee. In the video, the student films an intersection and notices that 80 people Jay Walked in a 5-minute period. I assumed that they were then going to place a cop or something around the intersection and see how many fewer people walked along the cross walk but they didn’t even go to that extreme he simply had a sign that said he was doing a project on Jay Walking. With the sign up only 24 people was seen jay walking. Now this could be because the next 24 people were just more concerned citizens, a better test would have had the same control group, but I think that it still paints a pretty realistic picture of how people behave when they think they are being watched or acting “normal” because they simply think that’s how they should behave. The second article I came across brought up a point I thought of before, that is that it is almost impossible to avoid a bias in these situations. The results could be seriously skewed because the subjects are completely aware that they are being tested, and may not answer as honestly as they normally would. I wondered exactly how legitimate these tests are but I suppose you could make this argument for most of the experiments and tests. this is the video were an Asian student conducts the experiment at a busy intersection and notices a considerable effect. This website brought up the whole concept of bias and ruining an experiment because the subjects are aware of the fact that they are tests subjects. This last website tries to show that there are some flaws in the theory and even references the same example in the book about the production and lighting in the factory setting.

The topic I chose to research more in depth was the application of business psychology. After reading about business psychology towards the end of the chapter and some of applications like the Hawthorne Effect this topic really interested me. I wanted to find the applications of business psychology in today’s society.
I was able to find some interesting information on the Hawthorne Effect. This phenomenon attempts to explain how the lighting experiment failed. The theory that was proposed is that the reason the findings didn’t really show anything conclusive is because the workers knew that they were involved in an experiment. This knowledge influenced all of the workers to work harder because they knew that they were apart from the group and doing something special. The effect of this theory is legitimate in a research context but may or may not be the reason for the inconclusive tests of the lighting experiment.
Through my research I found several very interesting marketing examples that incorporate psychology to increase the odds of the success of a product. One of the strategies that really caught my attention was one that implemented Herman Ebbinghaus’s primacy effect. This strategy suggests that you get your most important details about your product across to the consumer right away so they will be most likely to remember the most important details. Another strategy is the foot in the door phenomena in which you get the customer interested in something large by getting their attention with something small. An example would be of offering someone a trial period of your product in hopes that they will like it enough to buy it. Cognitive dissonance can be a real problem for a marketer. Therefore in order to start building a positive outlook on your product a marketer must introduce the customer to a small game or survey to build a positive reputation around the product. This positive correlation will help the customer to become more interested in the product. Also another effective selling strategy is perceived expertise. A seller doesn’t necessarily have to be an expert on the product but if the seller is confident when he speaks and talks about what he is selling with confidence, a sale is more likely to happen. Lastly the concept I found most interesting having to do with marketing deals with priming. This strategy relates a memory that already exists with a product that someone wants to sell. An example would be evoking the memory of a hot summer day if you were going to sell a product that cools and refreshes like a sports drink for instance.
These are just a few examples of the many different applications of business psychology as well as just a few marketing strategies used by companies today. After doing this research I now understand how marketers are so effective at getting their message across to the consumer! the first two sources I used for background information as well as some applications of business psychology.
I used the above source for examples of business psychology as they apply to marketing.
This source I used for the Hawthorne Effect.

I chose to do research on Carl Rogers. I found the section about him interesting and I wanted to see how and why he developed client-centered therapy. I also wanted to learn more about his early life. He fits into chapter 13 with his development of a new type of therapy used in clinical psychology.

Carl Rogers was born in January in Illinois. He was very intelligent as a child, and was able to read before kindergarten! He chose to explore a variety of careers including agriculture, religion, and history. He obtained a B.A. from the University of Wisconsin. Once changing his mind about the route of religion, he left the seminary to attend Columbia University. He obtained his M.A. and Ph.D. while he was there.

While completing his graduate work, he began working with trouble children. He served as a director of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in New York. He lectured at the University of Rochester and then became a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Ohio. During his time at Ohio, he wrote a book in which he stated that, “the client, by establishing a relationship with an understanding, accepting therapist, can resolve difficulties and gain the insight necessary to restructure their life.”

He then moved to the University of Chicago and served as a professor of psychology, and helped to develop a counseling center associated with the school. Once the center was created, he used it to test how effective his methods were. In 1951 he published Client-Centered Therapy.

In client-centered therapy, the client does a majority of the talking. The therapist does not concern himself with creating a diagnosis, or attempting to develop a method of treatment for the patient. The purpose of this therapy is to allow the client to feel as though what they are saying is being understood rather than judged. Rogers set forth some conditions that should be put on the therapist-client relationship in order for this therapy to work. These include being genuine, congruence between emotions and expression, transparency so that nothing is hidden from the client. This therapy allows for the client to explore feelings more deeply.

At the end of Roger’s life, he worked to have his theories applied to areas of national social conflict. He traveled to Ireland, South Africa, the Soviet Union, and also did work in the U.S. He received a variety of degrees and honorary awards for his work. Throughout his life, he wrote sixteen books and more than 200 professional articles. He was also nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize. I used this site for information about Roger’s early life. This site gave me information about his accomplishments and later life work. I used this for more information about Client-Centered Therapy. This video gave me a visual as well as include Roger’s explaining his own theory of client-centered therapy.

The topic I have chosen to do further research on is the Hawthorne Effect from chapter thirteen. This fits into the chapter because it was a huge discovery in the psychology of business and industry. The reason I am so interested in this topic is because I am most interested in Industrial Organizational psychology and this was an important finding in the research of efficiency.

The Hawthorne Effect is the tendency for individuals being watched/studied to increase productivity simply for the fact that they are being watched. This was initially discovered when research on lighting and its effect on productivity in the workplace was being done at the Hawthorne Works form 1924-1932. Elton Mayo, the researcher found that the lighting level made no difference on the productivity in the workplace, whether it was high or low, and productivity tended to increase regardless. He noticed this pattern whenever any variable had been altered; productivity had been increased simply because they were being watched.

Another study at Hawthorne works singled out two women who were allowed to choose four others, were required to assemble telephone relays in a separate room. They changed many different variables for these women, such as increasing break and shortening the work day, and each time a variable had been altered, even returning back to the original condition, productivity increased. Researchers at the time hypothesized that choosing one's own coworkers, working as a group, being treated as special (as evidenced by working in a separate room), and having a sympathetic supervisor were the real reasons for the productivity increase. Henry Landsberger evaluated this later, in 1950, and deducted that is was because of the Hawthorne Effect, the employees were being watched.

There is some question as to whether the data from the research done was actually true. Economists Steven Levitt and John List from the University of Chicago found that there was no evidence that levels of productivity in the factory rose whenever changes in lighting were implemented. Lighting changes were always made on Sunday and there was an increase in productivity on Monday in comparison to Saturday. When productivity over the last few weeks was evaluated, it was found that this was a common pattern, even before the research had begun. Data also showed that after the research had ended, productivity had decreased. Research had ended in the summer and looking back to previous summers, productivity had always decreased in the summer.

With both sides of the data presented, I choose to believe that the Hawthorne Effect actually does affect a person’s productivity. When using myself as an example, I feel as though I always perform better when the “big boss” is around. I always want to look good so I run movies more quickly, I’m nicer to customers, and I can move through a line much more quickly. I feel as though this is true for most people in the work place, or even when they are performing.
I used this site to learn more about where the hypothesis had come from.
I used this site to learn more in depth details about the research being done.
I used this site to look at the other side of the Hawthorne Effect, was it actually true?

The person I have decided to do further research on is Jean Piaget. Piaget was from Switzerland and was a developmental psychologist but also had an interest in sciences. As well as psychology, he also worked in physiology. Piaget really liked children and would enjoy studying them. His theory of cognitive development tied into his studies of children and this was known as genetic epistemology. Piaget once stated that,” only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent of gradual."

In 1955 Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology. He did this until 1980. Piaget attended the University of Zeuchatel. Piaget was brilliant and published two philosophical papers but sadly they were dismissed because they were not taken serious enough. Piaget had been told that he had childish thoughts. While in college, Piaget also had an interest in psychoanalysis. Piaget worked under Alfred Binet and his intelligence test experiments. While watching children take tests Piaget noticed that they substantially made mistakes and got a lot of questions wrong. They usually got questions wrong that adults and older children would never have missed. This led Piaget to reason that young children's cognitive processes are different than adults.

Even though Piaget reasoned that children have different cognitive processes than adults, he also made clear that this did not make them less smart. In fact, they only think differently. Once Piaget was married, he had three children and observed them for his research. Piaget then started to take notice in cause and effect by repeating their own actions. Piaget called this "object permanence." Children learn by repeating their actions.

Piaget famously theorized that there are four developmental stages of a child once they are born. The first is sensorimotor defined by movement and senses, the second are the preoperational stage which is when the child starts to think for themselves. The third stage is the concrete operational stage, which is when children start to think logically. The fourth stage is the formal operational stage ranging from age 11 until death. This is when abstract reasoning develops.

In an experiment by Piaget, he took 15 boys ages 10 to 14 and asked them to describe the relationship between a bouquet of flowers that were mixed colors and a bouquet of flowers that were all the same color. This study was intended to see the thinking processes these boys used while trying to draw a conclusion about the flowers. This was one of many researches conducted by Piaget and he referred to this research style as psychometric technique.

Although Piaget was not well known in America, it is easy to say that his work is starting to make an impact on the way we view things today.
Information about Piaget and his research methods.
Background information on the life of Piaget as well as his family.

I explored the internet in reference to Eleanor Gibson receiving the National Medal of Science in 1992 highlighted in chapter 15 of our text book. I think her "Visual Cliff" is a very interesting thought. I would love to see some of these experiments. Babies are so fun and interesting. I really enjoy this experiment and its findings on perception. In my further study on the web, I learned that the National Medal of Science was established by law in 1959, and it wasn't until 1979 that social and behavioral were considered a "science" of which to honor. I thought this was very interesting are our textbook tells the story of the movements of ideas and revolutions of psychology and methodology and consistency and standards. This fits in the chapter because minorities and women are gaining due recognition in the field of psychology and in history as our textbook explains.

I am interested in this topic because I love medals and always cherish my awards, awards feel nice. I got second in the Geography Bee in 4th grade because I guessed the Rio Grande was in Canada instead of Mexico. I really wanted to win that award. I was really smart back then but I missed out on that opportunity. I could have missed a half day of school for districts...rats!

The "visual cliff" also reminds me of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade and the holy grail scene in which Indiana Jones encounters the "leap of faith". In his case, he is percieving as an adult in reference to the existance of eternal life instead of in the "visual cliff" where one is percieving as an infant in reference to the existance of life itself. Thanks for Yur interests!

wikipedia page for National Medal of Science

wikipedia page for Eleanor Gibson

YouTube Indiana Jones Leap of Faith Scene. Check it out!!

I decided to do my research on Carl Rogers. I found him to be very interesting in chapter thirteen and I wouldn’t mind learning more about him. This is what I found.

Carl Rogers, born January 8th, 1902 to Walter A. Rogers and Julia M. Cushing in Oak Park (Chicago) Illinois. He was the fourth born out of six. Before Rogers was in kindergarten he was reading. Once he was old enough to enter school we went a religious school called Jimpley. While there he was an altar boy. Being an altar boy put Rogers in an awkward state. He became isolated from others and was very independent. On the bright side Rogers had a special knowledge for scientific method. However, when Rogers was finally off to college at University of Wisconsin-Madison, he made the choice to study agriculture and minor in religion.

While he was in college Rogers took a trip to China. The reason Rogers went to China was for a Christian conference. The conference made Rogers think about his religion and he started to doubt his belief. Having different feelings about it, Rogers went a seminar that was called “Why am I entering the Ministry? After this he officially dropped the religion courses. Rogers earned his bachelor's here.

Two years later Rogers left UofW and went to Columbia University where he got his Master (1928) and Doctorate (1931). He became interested in children study. In 1930 he was the director for Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children which was located in Rochester New York. In 1935 Rogers transferred over to the University of Rochester were he would give lectures and he even wrote a book titled “The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child” which was published in 1939.

The following year Rogers moved to Ohio State University where he became a clinical psychology professor. While at Ohio State he wrote his second book titled “Counseling and Psychotherapy” which was published in 1942.

Rogers returned to his home town in 1945 and was now teaching at the University of Chicago. A student of his, Thomas Gordon, who was also interesting in children studies, founded P.E.T also known as Parent Effectiveness Training. It’s not stated if Rogers was a part of P.E.T or not.

Rogers was the first person to be the President of the American Academy of Psychotherapists in the year of 1956. Once again, Rogers moved to a new school to teach, this time it was at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He left from Madison just a year after becoming President. Just like before, Rogers wrote another book. This one called “On Becoming a Person”. This book was published in 1961. That same year Rogers became a ‘Fellow’ in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Rogers left the University in 1963 and headed to La Jolla where he became a part of the Center for Studies of the Person. He stayed in La Jolla for the remainder of his life. He dead from a pancreas failure after a surgery in 1987, however, a different site claims that Rogers died from a heart attach. Carl Rogers will always be remembered as founder and creator of non-directive therapy. --> This is where I would most of my information. It’s also the site the stated that Rogers died from pancreas failure. --> I didn’t get much from this site. It didn’t tell me anything different from the other two. --> This site told me Rogers died of a heart attack. Since it is from a more educated site I think this one might be right.

I decided to write a blog post about schemata (I learned while researching that the plural of schema is in fact schemata, rather than schemas), because I think they are both relevant and psychologically interesting.

A schema is essentially a collection of cognitions that surround a concept. If you see the word "home", you may think of a parent or remember a smell (my mom really like scented candles, so my house always smells like cinnamon or vanilla), you probably think of a particular house or apartment, or even an activity like watching football. Adjectives like warm, familiar, inviting, comfortable, or loving might surround that concept as well. The collection of related connotations to the concept of "home" constitute that schema.

This week I read the cognitive chapter, which briefly mentioned the development of the schema in psychology. I decided to write about this topic because I thought it was interesting, and I have been casually interested in the (practically identical) idea of framing since I was in high school.

The process of creating and using schemata seems to be something our brain does somewhat automatically. This process is often taken advantage of by engineers of social movements. Schemata can be used to create meaning for people, as we witness almost constantly on CNN, Fox News, or (my absolute favorite blue-blooded, bleeding-heart news source) MSNBC. Rachel Maddow, whose show I get via podcast daily, created a new connection in my brain between the concepts of "Herman Cain" and "art project" by constantly joking that Cain's campaign was actually a political art project about what someone can say or do and still be ahead in the polls. While I already thought Cain was a bit of a joke, and I don't seriously believe that his campaign was merely an art project, satire is now a part of my schema surrounding the concept of Herman Cain. It's not just the left, though, Republicans are actually really good at this: death panel, swift boat, Obamacare, socialism, family values, terrorism. (As a side note, I think it is seriously, incredibly cool that I can say or write something, and physically change the state of your brain, which is exactly how schemata work.)

All this is good and fine (and really, really cool), but there are some serious drawbacks to our brains' tendencies to rely on schemata. Stereotypes are a product of the same process. We also tend to accept information that fits our current framework of schemata, while rejecting information that does not. This surely had evolutionary advantages for our ancestors on the Serengeti (I just saw a lion go behind that shrub, so I'll be less likely to get eaten if I ignore all evidence suggesting that there is no lion behind the shrub), but it is not very useful now that we have things like mass media, Newt Gingrich's eat-the-poor rhetoric literally altering the brains of millions of Fox News viewers, and a high unemployment rate with lots of poor people as a result of the latest financial meltdown. Sorry to go all political on this post, but I think the political arena is a place where schema-creation is very, very relevant. (As another aside, Rachel Maddow is also responsible for the connection in my brain between Newt Gingrich and the phrase "eat-the-poor.")

To wrap up, schemata are really cool, and they are a necessary part of our higher cognitive functions with a long evolutionary history. Unfortunately, there are negative effects of relying so much on schemata, such as passive affirmation of stereotypes, and reluctance to accept information that contradicts current schemata (in other words, an aversion to being wrong, which should sound familiar to every breathing human being).
This is an article on framing processes from a sociology journal. I used this article to get information about framing and the creation of meaning in social movements.
The schema page at the psychology page of helped me describe schemata more generally (although the page uses "schemas" rather than schemata!), and gave me ideas about the negative effects of our brains' tendencies to rely on schemata.
This last source is actually a bullet-point list of important features of schemas (maybe that actually IS the correct plural, but Google Chrome wants me to use schemata, and I hate those red squiggly lines, so I stuck to schemata). Anyway, it's from an intro to psychology textbook.

The person I chose to do is Jean Piaget. As I stated in my Tuesday post, I always enjoy learning new things about Piaget and Developmental psychology and cognitive development, mostly I think because I can always compare so much to my daughter and other children and teens I know. He theorized that as children interact with their physical and social environments, they organize information into groups of interrelated ideas called "schemes"
Piaget also believed that intellectual development occurs in four distinct stages. The sensorimotor stage begins at birth, and lasts until the child is approximately two years old. At this stage, the child cannot form mental representations of objects that are outside his immediate view, so his intelligence develops through his motor interactions with his environment. I can remember so many different times this happening when Ayla (my daughter) was a baby. She would touch everything, grab for everything, and try to put everything no matter what it was or where she got it in her mouth. If I went to kiss her, she opened her mouth wide. If she wanted up to see something high, she pulled the object down or tried climbing up.
The preoperational stage typically lasts until the child is 6 or 7. According to Piaget, this is the stage where true "thought" emerges. Preoperational children are able to make mental representations of unseen objects, but they cannot use deductive reasoning. This is the stage my daughter is in now, and I think this would be a good example of Santa Clause. She is not questioning a thing about how he gets to every child in the world in one night, but although has never seen him, is 100% into him. She writes him letters and I can use “him” as a reason to change any behavior.
The concrete operations stage follows, and lasts until the child is 11 or 12. Concrete operational children are able to use deductive reasoning, demonstrate conservation of number, and can differentiate their perspective from that of other people. I think this would be when children in school start to have their own opinion about things and want to explain why they have that opinion. In Kindergarten, everyone is friends with everyone, but by 3rd and 4th grade, there are different groups.
Formal operations is the final stage. Its biggest feature is the ability to think abstractly. This would happen more with older children and adults (well, some adults )
He learned and studied a lot from his own children and looked quite a bit at their behavior of imitation and play. He noticed that between the age of six to ten months, they did not possess the notion of constancy and permanency of an object disappearing from view. I also remember going through this stage with my daughter, not only in just me leaving and her crying because she didn’t think I was coming back, but even in just playing peek a boo. If I would hide behind my hands, she would laugh everytime I appeared, like I was really gone.
Piagets key ideas and a good chart of the stages of cognitive development Ideas

I decided to research more on client centered therapy because I find it really interesting how it changed from talking to the patient about their past and about their unconsicousness. Client centered therapy fits into this chapter because it is a type of clinical therapy and Carl Rogers created it to help patients get better by talking it out themselves.

Client centered therapy was developed between the 1940s and 1950s by Carl Rogers, who was a major humanistic figure. The humanistic view was that all humans had the oppurtunity to search for their meaning in one's life and to grow towards self-actualization. The therapies that were popular in the early 1900s focused on human behavior responding to biological instincts and that past histories affected the future of the client. Client centered therapy was very different than Freuds Psychoanyltic therapy or hypnosis or biological. Client centered therapy had a different focus.

Rogers's first goal was to not guide the patient in any direction. He had this idea of "talk therapy." Letting the patient talk about what they wanted to talk about and not having the psychiatrists get in the way by asking about the past. He did learn that there needs to be some guidence because most people come to therapy to have some type of guidence, but he kept it very minimal. He also emphasised the name client centered, not patient centered, because patient reminded him of someone ill and client reminded him of someone who just was seeking treatment. Rogers thought process was that the indirect approach would make clients more aware of parts of themselves they may have been hiding or denying. He doesn't want the clients to feel they are being forced to say something about their feelings. Rogers felt that the client needed unconditional positive regard and show total acceptance of their client.

Rogers had certain conditions that he felt needed to be followed to allow the patient to speak freely. He had six specific guidelines, but they are summed up in three. The counselor needs to be genuine and honest with the client, needs to have empathy and propose reality to the person, and thirdly the counselor needs to create a warm atmosphere where the client feels comfortable. Rogers says if these are met than the client will open up about their attitudes, have a clearer recognition and acceptance of their attitudes, will start to innovate own ideas on how to fix the issue on his/her own and than the client will change their behavior accordingly.

Some who were used to the old types of therapy were skeptical of letting the client run the apointment, but client centered therapy became very popular in the 1960s and is still used today. However there are critiques that client centered therapy is too vague and won't work with everyone, such as those with mental disorders or those who don't talk about themselves much.
This website had Roger's desription about client centered therapy and how it works. This is where I got the conditions and the possible results.
This website had the critiques about client centered therapy
This website had a lot of information about how Rogers started to develop client centered therapy and what it used to be called and his origianl ideas.

While reading chapter 14, I was immediately intrigued by Leon Festinger. I was familar with this name, since some of my other classes have referred to him, but didn't really know what he stood for. I also did not know that he attended the University of Iowa. In chapter 14, I learned that Festinger developed the theory of cognitive dissonance. This theory says that people are naturally motivated to be consistent to their thoughts, feelings and emotions. Its because of this fact that when individuals having conflicting emotions choose to reduce it as soon as possible. I liked the example of smoking from the book. It says that when an intelligent person smokes, they probably feel a sense of cognitive dissonance. Because they know it has been proven that smoking has a direct effect on your health, yet keep doing it, conflicted feelings are present. I decided to take that example one step further and say that if humans naturally want to reduce the unpleasant feeling of cognitive dissonance, they would push that negative thought to the back of their mind and finish their cigarette. This is because if the individual decided to stop smoking at that moment, they would not return to a feeling of internal consistency for quite some time. The individual may wrestle with the physical need for nicotine while the brain says no. While researching Festinger online, I learned that he also developed social comparison theory, which is the process through which people come to know themselves. This is by evaluating their own attitudes, abilities and beliefs and comparing them to others. I learned that upward social comparison is when individuals compare themselves to those that they feel are better than themselves. Downward social comparison is just the opposite, comparing ourselves to those who we feel are not as good as us. Although Festinger's theory has been modified several times since he first introduced it 1n 1954, it set a basic framework for a complex idea.
Overall, I liked this chapter. Although the book is called A History of Modern Psychology, some of the material in the beginning felt a little hard to connect to, in my opinion. Now that we are getting to the later chapters, I am realizing that some of the material we are studying happened in my lifetime. I feel like I have more of a connection with that than I do with information regarding Descartes who did his work in the 1600's. Happy blogging!
This website was a very thorough video on the entirety of Jody Miller’s story and the importance of brain resilience, describing the brain and its plasticity.
This URL had a brief view on the amazing miracle of Jody Miller.
This was a site that focused on John Hopkin’s Hospital and Jody’s parent’s story.
A) Jody Miller and her hemispherectomy
B) This chapter talked about lobotomies and a hemispherectomy is a type of lobotomy surgery
C) Hearing incredible success stories like Jody Miller’s is fascinating and I can’t imagine who wouldn’t be interested in hearing about it

As I’ve said before in my blogs, I used to be a biology major. Therefore I am very interested in biopsychology. Lobotomies are a big portion of neuropsychology and were one of the topics in this weeks reading. Reading about this reminded me of a video we watched in my developmental psychology class on not only a lobotomy, but a hemispherectomy.

Jody Miller was a normal child all until age three. Shortly after her third birthday she started experiencing severe seizures all on her left side. She could barely function on her left side at all. Medications were unsuccessful. Her parents took her to researcher’s where they discovered that Jody had Rasmussen Syndrome. Rasmussen Syndrome is progressively neurological deterioration. It’s symptoms are seizures in children. Jody’s seizures became almost constant, occurring almost every three minutes. This is when they started to look into hemispherectomy. Though the surgery seems impossible, Jody’s mother described the surgery as obvious – her daughter living the way she was wasn’t really living.

The surgery was a very major procedure and was extremely crucial to be exact and precise. The surgery went amazingly well, described as flawlessly in the video. They took almost her entire right hemisphere out. Brain plasticity was shown amazingly after the surgery. Ten days after the surgery she could walk. Jody has a slight paralysis on her left side, but other than that, she is a normal, healthy girl. She goes to physical therapy to help her with her paralysis.

This is just another example of how truly amazing our brain is! It’s extremely fascinating and inspiring story. I hope you think so as well.

I decided to look into Walter Freeman further. I was interested in the section in Chapter 13 on lobotomies and I wanted to know more about the procedure he performed and the patients involved.

Walter Freeman kept record of all the lobotomies that he perform estimating to around 3,439 in total. He developed a transorbital lobotomy. This procedure started with electric shock therapy where the patient was made unconscious. Then tools were inserted into the eye area which went towards the brain and disconnect some areas. Many people who watched this being done often were disgusted. However, beside the side affects there was many willing patients. A new drug called Thorazine was then produced which reduced the need for lobotomies. He then moved to the west coast and tried to bring the lobotomies to new people and new varieties of conditions. He applied it to many people including children and for reason as simple as being over active or unruly. One of his youngest patients was just four years old. Freeman eventually lost his license after attempting to take a photograph of a patient during the procedure and causing a tool to slip and the patients death.

Walter Freeman also photographed his patients. He would take a photo before and then afterward. He would show the result and if the after photo looked more pleasant or happy the lobotomy was often considered a success for the individual.

General information and bio of how Walter Freeman developed the lobotomy.

Shows the lobotomy procedure and explains the process Freeman did

Shows photographs of individuals that Walter Freeman did lobotomies on and how he used this photos as evidence to support what he was doing.

I read chapter 13 and found Client centered therapy and Carl Rogers.This therapy has been discussed in the chapter and is a humanistic therapy hence making it relavant to the chapter.I am interested in the client centered therapy as it was one of the modern therapies that changed the area of consideration while providing therapy.
Client centered therapy was a new kind of therapy provided by Carl Rogers almost sixty years ago.This therapy was based on a novel principle and was very different from the dominant theories and therapies at the time.It was different because of the fact that it did not focus on the past or the external factors as the potential problematic factors.Instead it focused on internal locus of control principle ie a person had the potential to change the problems they are going through the therapists role was more directive.Therapists, according to the Rogers are supposed to listen to their clients problem without any jusdgement,provide possible ways they can change the problematic situations and making the clients feel in control of their life.
This therapy is still very popular and according to me is very practical.

Information about how the actual therapists use this technique

A brief history of the Client centered therapy

The article in which Carl Rogers introduced the therapy and the important elements.

The topic that I chose for this was the Hawthorne Effect. This fit into this chapter because it was an important finding for industrial, social, and research psychology. I think that this topic is interesting because I have seen examples of this happening in my life, and it was helpful to society to show that this does actually exist. I know personally when I know I am being watched I can alter my behavior. For example, if I am running outside and I see someone out in their yard, or driving towards me, I start going faster than when I didn’t know that I was being watched. This is a study that lead to many further studies that have been conducted.

This is a famous study, that did not become famous for what it was intending to find. This study was hoping to find what light bulbs would increase productivity at an AT&T plant in Hawthorne Illinois (where the study derived its name). The employees knew that they were participating in this study, so they felt as though they were “valued”, which caused their productivity to stay constant. The researcher, Elton Mayo, discovered that the reason for the lack of results was due to “human factors” and had nothing to do with the lighting.

One of the studies that were performed involved selecting two women who were asked to select four other workers to participate with them. They were observed in a special room over a five year time span. The researcher changed different variables such as giving them two 5 minute breaks, reducing the work day by 30 minutes, along with many other things. Each change increased productivity. However, a change from a 10 minute break back to the original 5 minute break would also increase productivity. Ultimately, the variable didn’t matter, the increase was due to the fact a change of some sort was occurring and they knew their productivity was being observed.

This study is still being applied to current research that is going on today. When Into. To Psych students perform an experiment at UNI, they typically go to Psych 1 and are observed in a lab setting. They clearly know that they are being observed and tested in some way. It is likely that some students are trying to perform well to make themselves look good, or trying to figure out what answer the researcher wants, instead of just being natural. This is something that is difficult to quantify, because it is not always certain if the Hawthorne Effect is confounding the researchers results. discussed how the Hawthorne Effect, effects research today. a good overview of the Hawthorne Effect A good background and history

I chose Festinger as my person of interest because of his contributions to the study of social influences. As a political major, social theories have particular interest for me.

Leon Festinger is considered one of the most important modern-day social psychologists. Born in New York in 1919, Festinger eventually received his PhD in psychology from the University of Iowa. He theorized that a state of cognitive dissonance (imbalance or inconsistency) will cause people to try to find balance to avoid that uncomfortable tension.

For example, if a person was to buy a car, they would avoid continuing to pay attention to car prices for the fear that they missed out on a better deal. Another example might be a person who engages in behavior that doesn’t fit in with their normal behavior pattern, so they justify it in some way or change their future behavior to make a NEW normal pattern in which the behavior would fit.

I stumbled upon a brilliant video showing Leon Festinger himself and a study he did on cognitive dissonance.! He had students do a very tedious task, then the examiner convinced the participant that their assistance was needed. The participant was asked to tell the NEXT participants about the task but that they were part of a group that was to be told the (tedious) task was FUN. These “helpers” were offered either $1 or $20 for their assistance.

The ones who were paid more did the task with the justification that they were getting paid enough to lie comfortably. The ones who were paid $1 convinced themselves that they actually DID enjoy the task. This is opposite from what seems intuitive (that the ones paid more would have incentive to believe more deeply in the information they were trying to “sell” to the incoming participants).

While Festinger was most well-known for his theory of cognitive dissonance, he was responsible for several other theories that are important to the world of social psychology. One of which is the theory of propinquity. This is the idea that people who have more interaction with each other are more likely to have friendships or romantic relationships. This seems obvious, but it includes things like people who live near a stairway of an apartment building are likely to have more friends because they are exposed to others more often and have increased likeability. I thought that was really interesting.

Another idea he championed was social comparison theory. He theorized that humans are driven to compare their opinions and behaviors against others in society, but that the more their ideas diverge from others, the less importance they place on these comparisons. This is similar to the exceptions he found with cognitive dissonance, where he had five circumstances when a person might not change their beliefs (like having extremely strong conviction in a belief, having overwhelming evidence of that belief, etc…).

Festinger’s theories were important because, in a day of behaviorism, he avoided breaking down human impulses into response and stimulus of behaviorism but instead examined the cognitive processes. He fits into what we’re discussing because he contributed to how psychologists viewed social behaviors in a time when people were still coping with the post-war realization of humans justifying things like genocide and torture committed by seemingly “normal” citizens. Contextually, social theories were probably the only way a non-behaviorist could be taken seriously. - gave a great background for Festinger’s theories

The video (linked above) was an excellent illustration of cognitive dissonance. - this link gave a lot of great information on cognitive dissonance, but also has a really cute comic, as well!

For this week, I chose to write about client-centered therapy. As I mentioned before, I was interested in reading this chapter because I am in Clinical Psychology now. When we discussed Carl Rogers’ client-centered therapy we were not given many details concerning this type of therapy so I thought that this would be the perfect chance to learn more.

Client-centered therapy is also known as person-centered therapy. This therapy is a “non-directive form of talk therapy that was developed by humanist psychologist Carl Rogers during the 1940s and 1950s.” This is the most widely used approaches in psychotherapy. Carl Rogers was a humanist thinker. He believed that people were basically good and that people have a desire to fulfill their potential and become the best people they can be. At first, Rogers’ wanted to be as non-directive as possible, but then realized that therapists do guide clients even in refined ways. That is why Rogers first referred to his therapy as non-directive therapy. However, upon realizing that clients did look to the therapists for some type of guidance or direction, that is when the therapy changed to client-centered therapy. Rogers emphasized the “client” rather than referring to people as “patients.” I really liked the reasoning behind this: “he believed that the term patient implied that the individual was sick and seeking a cure from a therapist—by using the term client, Rogers emphasized the importance of the individual in seeking assistance, controlling their destiny and overcoming their difficulties.” I never really thought of the terms that way and I believe that it has changed the way I think about individuals seeking help. I often hear both terms being used, but like Rogers, I use the term “client” more so than “patient.”

Much like Sigmund Freud, Rogers believed that the relationship between the client and their therapist could lead to insights and lasting changes in a client. However, Rogers took a different approach to his clients and reinforced therapists to stay non-directive. This simply means for the therapist not to lead the client, should not pass judgments on the client’s feelings, and should not offer suggestions or solutions. The client is the one in control. The two key components in client-centered therapy are that it is non-directive and emphasizes unconditional positive regard, both have been listed above. However, Rogers believed that client-centered therapists also needed three certain qualities. These included genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic understanding. By genuineness, Rogers means that the therapist needs to share his or her feelings honestly which in turn this behavior will encourage the client to do the same thing. In unconditional positive regard, Rogers’ means that the therapist needs to accept their client for who they and display support and care no matter the circumstances. Lastly, empathetic understanding, Rogers believes that the therapist should be reflective, acting as a mirror of the client’s feelings, thoughts. The ultimate goal here was for the client to gain a clearer understanding of their own inner thoughts, perceptions and emotions.

Client-centered therapy helps clients find their own solutions to their own problems just by being able to talk. By being able to talk in an environment where they are not being judged and are not expected to act a certain way, it makes finding the answers much easier. So what types of conditions is this therapy beneficial? There are actually quite a few. Client-centered therapy is helpful in conditions such as depression, poor relationships, schizophrenia, anxiety, substance abuse, personality disorders, feelings of panic, stress, eating disorders, and phobias just to name a few. The benefits include greater ability to trust oneself, decrease in anxiety and feelings of panic, healthier relationships, open to new ideas and experiences, depression recovery, increased self-esteem, ability to express personal feelings and opinions, lessened guilt over past mistakes, decreased feelings of stress, and overall healthy sense of change. I found it amazing on how many different conditions that client-centered therapy helps treat as well as the many benefits one can get from receiving this type of therapy. This definitely helped me understand why this is such a popular approach in therapy.

After doing some research, I now have a better understanding of client-centered therapy. I feel like I was able to learn about a lot of the little facts that amounted to the creation of client-centered therapy, which I find very helpful. I almost look at it like a math problem; you can’t just write down the solution, there are certain steps one must take in order to find the answer. By making this reference, I believe that I will be able to remember this type of therapy in any given situation because I have applied it to a course that each of us has been taught since the first day of kindergarten. Client-centered therapy is the most widely used therapy and as we have seen, there are many benefits in taking this approach; it could be life changing. : This was my favorite link because it was simple and straight forward. I found this link easy to understand because it didn’t have dramatically long explanations and didn’t use a bunch of scientific terms. I was able to gain a better understanding of client-centered therapy and was able to get an idea as to why it was brought about. Overall, it was a very helpful link. : I thought that this website was okay. I was able to find some information here and there that hadn’t been mentioned before, but for the most part I did not gain much more information by reading through this site. : I really enjoyed this website because it talked about the different conditions that client-centered therapy would be a beneficial approach. This website also included the benefits that client-centered therapy would have on a client. I also liked that this site alone is working to help individuals and even provides a confidential helpline, which I think is amazing. This shows individuals that they are open in helping whoever, whenever; and as we’ve learned, that’s the whole idea of client-centered therapy. I really like what they are doing and hope that it is a successful approach in getting people the help that they truly need. : I always enjoy watching videos that go along with what I have been reading about. This helps me take what I’ve learned on paper and then apply it to real life situations. I feel like I get a better understanding this way and am able to store the information in different parts of my memory. This video was a demonstration of what client-centered therapy looks like and also the process. I noticed that the therapist nodded and made sure that the client knew that they were paying attention by, in some way, repeating what the client is saying. By making the client feel comfortable in uncomfortable life circumstances is helpful for them to search for the answers they are looking for. The therapist simply listens to the clients’ solutions rather than telling them what to do.

The individual that I chose to do further research on is Carl Rogers, otherwise known as the father of client-centered therapy. Rogers thrived in the area of humanistic psychology. Rogers was born in 1902 in Oak Park Illinois. Although psychology was not his first choice for a career path, the work that he did left a significant impact on the field.
What was extremely unique about Rogers was that he went against the practices of the other psychotherapist of his time. Based on his belief that the other therapist had too strong of a role with their patients he set out to decrease his power and try to be supportive. This is where client-centered therapy was born. Letting people trying in figure out their problems on took skills from a therapist, but it also helped the patients to grow. Roger’s also placed a lot of emphasis on personality development.
The stand that Rogers took on personality was that there is good inside of everyone. He stated that the way and individuals were raised or the overall environment that they were in plays a big part in this. Those in environments with unconditional positive regard are more likely to fell good about themselves opposed to others. An individual is said to have a good life when there is a continually aim at reaching ones full potential.
In an interview I saw of Rogers it was pretty easy to see why he was successful. He appeared to be a really likeable and approachable guy. With a therapy where the focus should be on the patient and not the therapist, I would guess that people felt at ease telling him everything. One of the concepts that Rogers stressed for his therapy to be successful was to use self as an instrument of change. Doing this meant that you should present yourself as an encouraging, supportive individual.
Carl Rogers was a pioneer in my eyes. He saw a problem with the way things were being done and he took steps to try to change it. He treated his patients more like friend rather than just people he gave advice to in order to make a paycheck. I really believe that his work had a huge impact on the lives of many people. - history of Rogers and his beliefs – Helped to see the type of individual that Roger’s was and how approachable he seemed. - History of Rogers and his life also discussed the personality theory

I decided to find out more about Carl Rogers (one of the Big Names in humanistic psychology and so-called Father of Client-Centered Therapy [CCT]), simply because (as I mentioned in a previous post) many people seem to endorse his approach to counseling and I want to be able to make an informed choice about this myself. I also think it is awesome that his middle name was Ransom. Seriously, who would name a kid that?

Goodwin (p451) and Wikipedia both discuss how Rogers was raised in a conservative Protestant family and was originally interested in becoming a minister. Wikipedia adds an ironic note to the story by relating how Rogers changed his mind regarding his career choice following a seminar titled “Why am I entering the Ministry?” To me, this seems to underscore how environment can affect an individual’s outlook and choices (but that is more of a behavioralistic view).

Rogers went on to study at Teachers College, Columbia University, where he earned his Ph.D. in 1931 (Wikipedia). Rogers was “strongly influenced in constructing his client-centered approach by the post-Freudian psychotherapeutic practice of Otto Rank,” who was considered Freud’s right-hand man for 20 years (Wikipedia). In his second book, Counseling and Psychotherapy (1942), Rogers “suggested that the client, by establishing a relationship with an understanding, accepting therapist, can resolve difficulties and gain the insight necessary to restructure their life” (Wikipedia). This is the basis for client-centered therapy, and Rogers himself acknowledged his indebtedness to Freud and Rank (1946).

Rogers described the three distinctive characteristics of client-centered therapy as: 1) the predictable pattern of the process; 2) the client’s self-discovery of the client’s own capacity (i.e., constructive forces and strengths); and 3) the relationship between therapist and client (1946). He also felt that the approach could be applied effectively to other disciplines (e.g., medicine, education, public opinion surveys) (1946).

In client-centered therapy, therapists use a non-directive approach to “create a comfortable, non-judgmental environment by demonstrating congruence (genuineness), empathy, and unconditional positive regard,” which is supposed to provide patients with “an opportunity to develop a sense of self wherein they can realize how their attitudes, feelings and behavior are being negatively affected and make an effort to find their true positive potential” (Wikipedia). Well in keeping with the psychodynamic tradition, client-centered therapy depends upon the client overcoming psychological barriers and discovering the cure within themselves. It seems like a very ‘touchy-feely’ approach to me.

Critics, however, note “the vagueness of [client-centered therapy’s] principles, its antipathy to diagnosis, and its emphasis on the client's self-evaluation as the way to judge the outcome of therapy,” and say that it “may work less well with people who find it difficult to talk about themselves or have a mental illness that distorts their perceptions of reality” (Harvard Mental Health Letter, 2005, as cited in Medical News Today). This seems to reflect the discussion in Goodwin (p451).

I can understand how Rogers’ approach can be a useful tool (say, in building trust with a client, or working through cognitive issues); given the nature of the criticism, however, I don’t see how Rogers could think that it was applicable and effective in all situations. There are some disorders (e.g., schizophrenia*, antisocial personality disorder) that seem especially incongruent with this approach.

*Though some do claim that helping patients with schizophrenia accept and adjust to their condition is an effective treatment.

Wikipedia: Carl Rogers
Biographical info on Rogers.

Wikipedia: Person-centered therapy
Info on CCT.

Wikipedia: Otto Rank
I actually found that Rank was much more interesting than Rogers. I will be interested in reading more about him.

Rogers, C. (1946). Significant Aspects of Client-Centered Therapy. American Psychologist, 1, 415-422. Retrieved from
Rogers’ own description of CCT.

The Harvard Mental Health Letter. (2005). Client-Centered Therapy Under The Microscope. Medical News Today. (Author). Retrieved from
Criticism of CCT.

The person I wanted to research some more was Frederick C. Bartlett. The chapter talked about his constructing memory and what he referred to as schemata, where the memorizer organizes the material into “wholes.” Reading the section on constructing memory in this chapter got me interested in Bartlett.
He was born in 1886 in Gloucestershire, England. Growing up he had a private education, then went on to study logic and philosophy at St. John’s College in Cambridge. When he tutored at the University of Cambridge he started to get interested in anthropology and in psychology.
During the 1920’s and 1930’s he had publishing on cognition and memory. One of his “most famous studies” would have been the social process of remembering. In the year his publishing on Remembering was published, he was made fellow of the Royal Society in 1932. After this he became devoted to applied psychology. He became the director of the Applied Psychology Department at Cambridge from 1944-1953. Bartlett was also appointed to the order of commanders of the British Empire in 1941 and was knighted in 1948.
His interests were also in perception. Bartlett thought that our memories are not stored in one specific part of the brain, but are spread out. This is where Frederick Bartlett’s schemata came into place.
Bartlett did research on many topics one being on faint sounds who he worked with a woman named Emily Mary Smith, whom he later married in 1920. He also studied the way different people interpret and describe pictures. During Frederick’s time teaching in the experimental laboratory, more students graduate in experimental psychology. -royal society. British Empire knighted. Remembering publishing. -Birth. Famous study. -Interests. Schooling. Work

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